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1.  The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima 
Chipman, Ariel D. | Ferrier, David E. K. | Brena, Carlo | Qu, Jiaxin | Hughes, Daniel S. T. | Schröder, Reinhard | Torres-Oliva, Montserrat | Znassi, Nadia | Jiang, Huaiyang | Almeida, Francisca C. | Alonso, Claudio R. | Apostolou, Zivkos | Aqrawi, Peshtewani | Arthur, Wallace | Barna, Jennifer C. J. | Blankenburg, Kerstin P. | Brites, Daniela | Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador | Coyle, Marcus | Dearden, Peter K. | Du Pasquier, Louis | Duncan, Elizabeth J. | Ebert, Dieter | Eibner, Cornelius | Erikson, Galina | Evans, Peter D. | Extavour, Cassandra G. | Francisco, Liezl | Gabaldón, Toni | Gillis, William J. | Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A. | Green, Jack E. | Griffiths-Jones, Sam | Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P. | Gubbala, Sai | Guigó, Roderic | Han, Yi | Hauser, Frank | Havlak, Paul | Hayden, Luke | Helbing, Sophie | Holder, Michael | Hui, Jerome H. L. | Hunn, Julia P. | Hunnekuhl, Vera S. | Jackson, LaRonda | Javaid, Mehwish | Jhangiani, Shalini N. | Jiggins, Francis M. | Jones, Tamsin E. | Kaiser, Tobias S. | Kalra, Divya | Kenny, Nathan J. | Korchina, Viktoriya | Kovar, Christie L. | Kraus, F. Bernhard | Lapraz, François | Lee, Sandra L. | Lv, Jie | Mandapat, Christigale | Manning, Gerard | Mariotti, Marco | Mata, Robert | Mathew, Tittu | Neumann, Tobias | Newsham, Irene | Ngo, Dinh N. | Ninova, Maria | Okwuonu, Geoffrey | Ongeri, Fiona | Palmer, William J. | Patil, Shobha | Patraquim, Pedro | Pham, Christopher | Pu, Ling-Ling | Putman, Nicholas H. | Rabouille, Catherine | Ramos, Olivia Mendivil | Rhodes, Adelaide C. | Robertson, Helen E. | Robertson, Hugh M. | Ronshaugen, Matthew | Rozas, Julio | Saada, Nehad | Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro | Scherer, Steven E. | Schurko, Andrew M. | Siggens, Kenneth W. | Simmons, DeNard | Stief, Anna | Stolle, Eckart | Telford, Maximilian J. | Tessmar-Raible, Kristin | Thornton, Rebecca | van der Zee, Maurijn | von Haeseler, Arndt | Williams, James M. | Willis, Judith H. | Wu, Yuanqing | Zou, Xiaoyan | Lawson, Daniel | Muzny, Donna M. | Worley, Kim C. | Gibbs, Richard A. | Akam, Michael | Richards, Stephen
PLoS Biology  2014;12(11):e1002005.
Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.
Author Summary
Arthropods are the most abundant animals on earth. Among them, insects clearly dominate on land, whereas crustaceans hold the title for the most diverse invertebrates in the oceans. Much is known about the biology of these groups, not least because of genomic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila, the water flea Daphnia, and other species used in research. Here we report the first genome sequence from a species belonging to a lineage that has previously received very little attention—the myriapods. Myriapods were among the first arthropods to invade the land over 400 million years ago, and survive today as the herbivorous millipedes and venomous centipedes, one of which—Strigamia maritima—we have sequenced here. We find that the genome of this centipede retains more characteristics of the presumed arthropod ancestor than other sequenced insect genomes. The genome provides access to many aspects of myriapod biology that have not been studied before, suggesting, for example, that they have diversified receptors for smell that are quite different from those used by insects. In addition, it shows specific consequences of the largely subterranean life of this particular species, which seems to have lost the genes for all known light-sensing molecules, even though it still avoids light.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002005
PMCID: PMC4244043  PMID: 25423365
2.  A stress assembly that confers cell viability by preserving ERES components during amino-acid starvation 
eLife  null;3:e04132.
Nutritional restriction leads to protein translation attenuation that results in the storage and degradation of free mRNAs in cytoplasmic assemblies. In this study, we show in Drosophila S2 cells that amino-acid starvation also leads to the inhibition of another major anabolic pathway, the protein transport through the secretory pathway, and to the formation of a novel reversible non-membrane bound stress assembly, the Sec body that incorporates components of the ER exit sites. Sec body formation does not depend on membrane traffic in the early secretory pathway, yet requires both Sec23 and Sec24AB. Sec bodies have liquid droplet-like properties, and they act as a protective reservoir for ERES components to rebuild a functional secretory pathway after re-addition of amino-acids acting as a part of a survival mechanism. Taken together, we propose that the formation of these structures is a novel stress response mechanism to provide cell viability during and after nutrient stress.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04132.001
eLife digest
Proteins are needed by living cells to perform vital tasks and are made from building blocks called amino-acids. However, if a cell is starved of amino-acids, protein assembly comes to a halt, and if cells are deprived of amino acids for a long time, the cell may die.
To survive short periods of amino-acid starvation, the cell has developed many protective mechanisms. For example, it can start to break down existing proteins, allowing the cell to scavenge and reuse the amino-acids to make other proteins that are more important for short-term survival. The cell may also temporarily halt certain processes: for example, newly constructed proteins may no longer be transported from the cell structure where they are made—called the endoplasmic reticulum—to their final destinations in the cell. However, the protein transport apparatus is also made of proteins and needs to be protected from being broken down so that once starvation ends, the cell can more quickly return to normal working order.
Zacharogianni et al. identify a strategy cells use to store and protect part of their protein transport apparatus during times of stress. Starving fruit fly cells of amino-acids causes the cells to form protective stress assemblies incorporating the proteins associated with the ‘exit sites’ that release proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. These assemblies are called Sec bodies, and when amino-acid starvation ends, these bodies release the exit site components unharmed. This allows the cell to quickly resume protein transport and so speeds the cell's recovery. If the Sec bodies do not form, the cells are more likely to die during amino-acid starvation.
The Sec bodies are distinct from previously identified stress assemblies that form in the cell during stress, but they share features with them, such as being liquid droplets. Some of these assemblies have been linked to degenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Further research will be necessary to determine if there are any similar harmful side effects associated with the formation of Sec bodies.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04132.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.04132
PMCID: PMC4270098  PMID: 25386913
protein transport through the secretory pathway; amino-acid starvation; ER exit sites; COPII; liquid droplets; stress granules; D. melanogaster
3.  Drosophila patterning is established by differential association of mRNAs with P bodies 
Nature cell biology  2012;14(12):1305-1313.
The primary embryonic axes in flies, frogs and fish are formed through translational regulation of localized transcripts before fertilization1. In Drosophila, the axes are established through the transport and translational regulation of gurken (grk) and bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the oocyte and embryo1. bcd and grk mRNA are both translationally silent while being localized within the oocyte along microtubules by cytoplasmic Dynein1-4. Once localized, grk is translated at the dorsoanterior of the oocyte to send a TGF-alpha signal to the overlying somatic cells5. In contrast, bcd is translationally repressed in the oocyte until its activation in early embryos to form an anteroposterior morphogenetic gradient6. How this differential translational regulation is achieved is not fully understood. Here, we address this question using ultrastructural analysis, super-resolution microscopy and live cell imaging. We show that grk and bcd ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes associate with electron dense bodies that lack ribosomes and contain translational repressors, characteristic of Processing bodies (P bodies), which are regions of cytoplasm where translational decisions are made. Endogenous grk mRNA forms dynamic RNP particles that become docked and translated at the periphery of P bodies, where we show that the translational activator Orb/CEPB and the anchoring factor Squid (Sqd) are also enriched. In contrast, an excess of grk mRNA becomes localized inside the P bodies, where endogenous bcd mRNA is localized and translationally repressed. Interestingly, bcd mRNA dissociates from P bodies in embryos following egg activation, when it is known to become translationally active. We propose a general principle of translational regulation during axis specification involving remodeling of transport RNPs and dynamic partitioning of different transcripts between the translationally active edge of P bodies and their silent core.
doi:10.1038/ncb2627
PMCID: PMC4066581  PMID: 23178881
4.  GRASP65 controls the cis Golgi integrity in vivo 
Biology Open  2014;3(6):431-443.
ABSTRACT
GRASP65 and GRASP55 are peripheral Golgi proteins localized to cis and medial/trans cisternae, respectively. They are implicated in diverse aspects of protein transport and structure related to the Golgi complex, including the stacking of the Golgi stack and/or the linking of mammalian Golgi stacks into the Golgi ribbon. Using a mouse model, we interfered with GRASP65 by homologous recombination and confirmed its absence of expression. Surprisingly, the mice were healthy and fertile with no apparent defects in tissue, cellular or subcellular organization. Immortalized MEFs derived from the mice did not show any growth or morphological defects. However, despite the normal appearance of the Golgi ribbon, a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay revealed functional discontinuities specific to the cis cisternal membrane network. This leads to a strong change in the plasma membrane GSII lectin staining that was also observed in certain mutant tissues. These findings substantiate the role of GRASP65 in continuity of the cis Golgi network required for proper glycosylation, while showing that neither this continuity nor GRASP65 itself are essential for the viability of a complex organism.
doi:10.1242/bio.20147757
PMCID: PMC4058077  PMID: 24795147
Knock-in mouse; GRASP65; GORASP; GRASP55; FRAP; Golgi; Glycosylation; Expression pattern; Golgi ribbon linking
5.  The Drosophila RNA-binding protein HOW controls the stability of dgrasp mRNA in the follicular epithelium 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(3):1970-1986.
Post-transcriptional regulation of RNA stability and localization underlies a wide array of developmental processes, such as axon guidance and epithelial morphogenesis. In Drosophila, ectopic expression of the classically Golgi peripheral protein dGRASP at the plasma membrane is achieved through its mRNA targeting at key developmental time-points, in a process critical to follicular epithelium integrity. However, the trans-acting factors that tightly regulate the spatio-temporal dynamics of dgrasp are unknown. Using an in silico approach, we identified two putative HOW Response Elements (HRE1 and HRE2) within the dgrasp open reading frame for binding to Held Out Wings (HOW), a member of the Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA family of RNA-binding proteins. Using RNA immunoprecipitations, we confirmed this by showing that the short cytoplasmic isoform of HOW binds directly to dgrasp HRE1. Furthermore, HOW loss of function in vivo leads to a significant decrease in dgrasp mRNA levels. We demonstrate that HRE1 protects dgrasp mRNA from cytoplasmic degradation, but does not mediate its targeting. We propose that this binding event promotes the formation of ribonucleoprotein particles that ensure dgrasp stability during transport to the basal plasma membrane, thus enabling the local translation of dgrasp for its roles at non-Golgi locations.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1118
PMCID: PMC3919595  PMID: 24217913
6.  Innexin 3, a New Gene Required for Dorsal Closure in Drosophila Embryo 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69212.
Background
Dorsal closure is a morphogenetic event that occurs during mid-embryogenesis in many insects including Drosophila, during which the ectoderm migrates on the extraembryonic amnioserosa to seal the embryo dorsally. The contribution of the ectoderm in this event has been known for a long time. However, amnioserosa tension and contractibility have recently been shown also to be instrumental to the closure. A critical pre-requisite for dorsal closure is integrity of these tissues that in part is mediated by cell-cell junctions and cell adhesion. In this regard, mutations impairing junction formation and/or adhesion lead to dorsal closure. However, no role for the gap junction proteins Innexins has so far been described.
Results and Discussion
Here, we show that Innexin 1, 2 and 3, are present in the ectoderm but also in the amnioserosa in plaques consistent with gap junctions. However, only the loss of Inx3 leads to dorsal closure defects that are completely rescued by overexpression of inx3::GFP in the whole embryo. Loss of Inx3 leads to the destabilisation of Inx1, Inx2 and DE-cadherin at the plasma membrane, suggesting that these four proteins form a complex. Accordingly, in addition to the known interaction of Inx2 with DE-cadherin, we show that Inx3 can bind to DE-cadherin. Furthermore, Inx3-GFP overexpression recruits DE-cadherin from its wildtype plasma membrane domain to typical Innexin plaques, strengthening the notion that they form a complex. Finally, we show that Inx3 stability is directly dependent on tissue tension. Taken together, we propose that Inx3 is a critical factor for dorsal closure and that it mediates the stability of Inx1, 2 and DE-cadherin by forming a complex.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069212
PMCID: PMC3722180  PMID: 23894431
7.  Golgi Bypass: Skirting Around the Heart of Classical Secretion 
Classical secretion consists of the delivery of transmembrane and soluble proteins to the plasma membrane and the extracellular medium, respectively, and is mediated by the organelles of the secretory pathway, the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), the ER exit sites, and the Golgi, as described by the Nobel Prize winner George Palade ( Palade 1975). At the center of this transport route, the Golgi stack has a major role in modifying, processing, sorting, and dispatching newly synthesized proteins to their final destinations. More recently, however, it has become clear that an increasing number of transmembrane proteins reach the plasma membrane unconventionally, either by exiting the ER in non-COPII vesicles or by bypassing the Golgi. Here, we discuss the evidence for Golgi bypass and the possible physiological benefits of it. Intriguingly, at least during Drosophila development, Golgi bypass seems to be mediated by a Golgi protein, dGRASP, which is found ectopically localized to the plasma membrane.
Certain transmembrane proteins travel from the ER to the plasma membrane by “unconventional routes” that may bypass the Golgi. Yet, the Golgi protein dGRASP seems to play an intriguing role.
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005298
PMCID: PMC3062214  PMID: 21441587
8.  Identification of ER Proteins Involved in the Functional Organisation of the Early Secretory Pathway in Drosophila Cells by a Targeted RNAi Screen 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17173.
Background
In Drosophila, the early secretory apparatus comprises discrete paired Golgi stacks in close proximity to exit sites from the endoplasmic reticulum (tER sites), thus forming tER-Golgi units. Although many components involved in secretion have been identified, the structural components sustaining its organisation are less known. Here we set out to identify novel ER resident proteins involved in the of tER-Golgi unit organisation.
Results
To do so, we designed a novel screening strategy combining a bioinformatics pre-selection with an RNAi screen. We first selected 156 proteins exhibiting known or related ER retention/retrieval signals from a list of proteins predicted to have a signal sequence. We then performed a microscopy-based primary and confirmation RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells directly scoring the organisation of the tER-Golgi units. We identified 49 hits, most of which leading to an increased number of smaller tER-Golgi units (MG for “more and smaller Golgi”) upon depletion. 16 of them were validated and characterised, showing that this phenotype was not due to an inhibition in secretion, a block in G2, or ER stress. Interestingly, the MG phenotype was often accompanied by an increase in the cell volume. Out of 6 proteins, 4 were localised to the ER.
Conclusions
This work has identified novel proteins involved in the organisation of the Drosophila early secretory pathway. It contributes to the effort of assigning protein functions to gene annotation in the secretory pathway, and analysis of the MG hits revealed an enrichment of ER proteins. These results suggest a link between ER localisation, aspects of cell metabolism and tER-Golgi structural organisation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017173
PMCID: PMC3044168  PMID: 21383842
9.  Journeys through the Golgi—taking stock in a new era 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;187(4):449-453.
The Golgi apparatus is essential for protein sorting and transport. Many researchers have long been fascinated with the form and function of this organelle. Yet, despite decades of scrutiny, the mechanisms by which proteins are transported across the Golgi remain controversial. At a recent meeting, many prominent Golgi researchers assembled to critically evaluate the core issues in the field. This report presents the outcome of their discussions and highlights the key open questions that will help guide the field into a new era.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200909011
PMCID: PMC2779233  PMID: 19948493
10.  Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein SMSr controls ceramide homeostasis in the ER 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;185(6):1013-1027.
Ceramides are central intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism with critical functions in cell organization and survival. They are synthesized on the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported by ceramide transfer protein to the Golgi for conversion to sphingomyelin (SM) by SM synthase SMS1. In this study, we report the identification of an SMS1-related (SMSr) enzyme, which catalyses the synthesis of the SM analogue ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in the ER lumen. Strikingly, SMSr produces only trace amounts of CPE, i.e., 300-fold less than SMS1-derived SM. Nevertheless, blocking its catalytic activity causes a substantial rise in ER ceramide levels and a structural collapse of the early secretory pathway. We find that the latter phenotype is not caused by depletion of CPE but rather a consequence of ceramide accumulation in the ER. Our results establish SMSr as a key regulator of ceramide homeostasis that seems to operate as a sensor rather than a converter of ceramides in the ER.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200903152
PMCID: PMC2711605  PMID: 19506037
11.  Centrosome proteins form an insoluble perinuclear matrix during muscle cell differentiation 
BMC Cell Biology  2009;10:28.
Background
Muscle fibres are formed by elongation and fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. During this differentiation process, the cytoskeleton is reorganized, and proteins of the centrosome re-localize to the surface of the nucleus. The exact timing of this event, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.
Results
We performed studies on mouse myoblast cell lines that were induced to differentiate in culture, to characterize the early events of centrosome protein re-localization. We demonstrate that this re-localization occurs already at the single cell stage, prior to fusion into myotubes. Centrosome proteins that accumulate at the nuclear surface form an insoluble matrix that can be reversibly disassembled if isolated nuclei are exposed to mitotic cytoplasm from Xenopus egg extract. Our microscopy data suggest that this perinuclear matrix of centrosome proteins consists of a system of interconnected fibrils.
Conclusion
Our data provide new insights into the reorganization of centrosome proteins during muscular differentiation, at the structural and biochemical level. Because we observe that centrosome protein re-localization occurs early during differentiation, we believe that it is of functional importance for the reorganization of the cytoskeleton in the differentiation process.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-28
PMCID: PMC2676252  PMID: 19383121
12.  Drosophila Sec16 Mediates the Biogenesis of tER Sites Upstream of Sar1 through an Arginine-Rich Motif 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(10):4352-4365.
tER sites are specialized cup-shaped ER subdomains characterized by the focused budding of COPII vesicles. Sec16 has been proposed to be involved in the biogenesis of tER sites by binding to COPII coat components and clustering nascent-coated vesicles. Here, we show that Drosophila Sec16 (dSec16) acts instead as a tER scaffold upstream of the COPII machinery, including Sar1. We show that dSec16 is required for Sar1-GTP concentration to the tER sites where it recruits in turn the components of the COPII machinery to initiate coat assembly. Last, we show that the dSec16 domain required for its localization maps to an arginine-rich motif located in a nonconserved region. We propose a model in which dSec16 binds ER cups via its arginine-rich domain, interacts with Sar1-GTP that is generated on ER membrane by Sec12 and concentrates it in the ER cups where it initiates the formation of COPII vesicles, thus acting as a tER scaffold.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-03-0246
PMCID: PMC2555954  PMID: 18614796
13.  TANGOing along the protein secretion pathway 
Genome Biology  2006;7(4):213.
An RNAi screen in Drosophila cells has identified about 100 TANGO proteins, which may regulate protein exocytosis or secretion.
Although the organization and functions of the constitutive secretory pathway have been intensively studied for decades, a recent genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila cells has identified about 100 genes encoding novel so-called TANGO proteins (for transport and Golgi organization) that may be direct regulators of various aspects of protein exocytosis or secretion.
doi:10.1186/gb-2006-7-4-213
PMCID: PMC1557995  PMID: 16677429
14.  The exocyst component Sec5 is present on endocytic vesicles in the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;169(6):953-963.
The exocyst is an octameric complex required for polarized secretion. Some components of the exocyst are found on the plasma membrane, whereas others are recruited to Golgi membranes, suggesting that exocyst assembly tethers vesicles to their site of fusion. We have found that in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes the majority of the exocyst component Sec5 is unexpectedly present in clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. In oocytes, the major substrate for clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless. A truncation mutant of Sec5 (sec5E13) allows the formation of normally sized oocytes but with greatly reduced yolk uptake. We find that in sec5E13 oocytes Yolkless accumulates aberrantly in late endocytic compartments, indicating a defect in the endocytic cycling of the receptor. An analogous truncation of the yeast SEC5 gene results in normal secretion but a temperature-sensitive defect in endocytic recycling. Thus, the exocyst may act in both Golgi to plasma membrane traffic and endocytic cycling, and hence in oocytes is recruited to clathrin-coated pits to facilitate the rapid recycling of Yolkless.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200411053
PMCID: PMC2171629  PMID: 15955846
15.  dGRASP Localization and Function in the Early Exocytic Pathway in Drosophila S2 CellsD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(9):4061-4072.
The de novo model for Golgi stack biogenesis predicts that membrane exiting the ER at transitional ER (tER) sites contains and recruits all the necessary molecules to form a Golgi stack, including the Golgi matrix proteins, p115, GM130, and GRASP65/55. These proteins leave the tER sites faster than Golgi transmembrane resident enzymes, suggesting that they act as a template nucleating the formation of the Golgi apparatus. However, the localization of the Golgi matrix proteins at tER sites is only shown under conditions where exit from the ER is blocked. Here, we show in Drosophila S2 cells, that dGRASP, the single Drosophila homologue of GRASP65/55, localizes both to the Golgi membranes and the tER sites at steady state and that the myristoylation of glycine 2 is essential for the localization to both compartments. Its depletion for 96 h by RNAi gave an effect on the architecture of the Golgi stacks in 30% of the cells, but a double depletion of dGRASP and dGM130 led to the quantitative conversion of Golgi stacks into clusters of vesicles and tubules, often featuring single cisternae. This disruption of Golgi architecture was not accompanied by the disorganization of tER sites or the inhibition of anterograde transport. This shows that, at least in Drosophila, the structural integrity of the Golgi stacks is not required for efficient transport. Overall, dGRASP exhibits a dynamic association to the membrane of the early exocytic pathway and is involved in Golgi stack architecture.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-10-0938
PMCID: PMC1196319  PMID: 15975913
16.  Lowe Syndrome Protein OCRL1 Interacts with Clathrin and Regulates Protein Trafficking between Endosomes and the Trans-Golgi NetworkD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(8):3467-3479.
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is caused by mutation of OCRL1, a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase localized at the Golgi apparatus. The cellular role of OCRL1 is unknown, and consequently the mechanism by which loss of OCRL1 function leads to disease is ill defined. Here, we show that OCRL1 is associated with clathrin-coated transport intermediates operating between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. OCRL1 interacts directly with clathrin heavy chain and promotes clathrin assembly in vitro. Interaction with clathrin is not, however, required for membrane association of OCRL1. Overexpression of OCRL1 results in redistribution of clathrin and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) to enlarged endosomal structures that are defective in retrograde trafficking to the TGN. Depletion of cellular OCRL1 also causes partial redistribution of a CI-MPR reporter to early endosomes. These findings suggest a role for OCRL1 in clathrin-mediated trafficking of proteins from endosomes to the TGN and that defects in this pathway might contribute to the Lowe syndrome phenotype.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-02-0120
PMCID: PMC1182289  PMID: 15917292
17.  mRNA Localization and ER-based Protein Sorting Mechanisms Dictate the Use of Transitional Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Units Involved in Gurken Transport in Drosophila Oocytes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(12):5306-5317.
The anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the future embryo are specified within Drosophila oocytes by localizing gurken mRNA, which targets the secreted Gurken transforming growth factor-α synthesis and transport to the same site. A key question is whether gurken mRNA is targeted to a specialized exocytic pathway to achieve the polar deposition of the protein. Here, we show, by (immuno)electron microscopy that the exocytic pathway in stage 9–10 Drosophila oocytes comprises a thousand evenly distributed transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER)-Golgi units. Using Drosophila mutants, we show that it is the localization of gurken mRNA coupled to efficient sorting of Gurken out of the ER that determines which of the numerous equivalent tER-Golgi units are used for the protein transport and processing. The choice of tER-Golgi units by mRNA localization makes them independent of each other and represents a nonconventional way, by which the oocyte implements polarized deposition of transmembrane/secreted proteins. We propose that this pretranslational mechanism could be a general way for targeted secretion in polarized cells, such as neurons.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-05-0398
PMCID: PMC532012  PMID: 15385627
18.  A novel role for dp115 in the organization of tER sites in Drosophila 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2003;162(2):185-198.
Here, we describe that depletion of the Drosophila homologue of p115 (dp115) by RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells led to important morphological changes in the Golgi stack morphology and the transitional ER (tER) organization. Using conventional and immunoelectron microscopy and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that Golgi stacks were converted into clusters of vesicles and tubules, and that the tERs (marked by Sec23p) lost their focused organization and were now dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. However, we found that this morphologically altered exocytic pathway was nevertheless largely competent in anterograde protein transport using two different assays. The effects were specific for dp115. Depletion of the Drosophila homologues of GM130 and syntaxin 5 (dSed5p) did not lead to an effect on the tER organization, though the Golgi stacks were greatly vesiculated in the cells depleted of dSed5p. Taken together, these studies suggest that dp115 could be implicated in the architecture of both the Golgi stacks and the tER sites.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200301136
PMCID: PMC2172793  PMID: 12876273
Drosophila S2 cells; Golgi apparatus; tER sites; RNAi; p115
19.  VCIP135, a novel essential factor for p97/p47-mediated membrane fusion, is required for Golgi and ER assembly in vivo 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2002;159(5):855-866.
NSF and p97 are ATPases required for the heterotypic fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes and the homotypic fusion of organelles. NSF uses ATP hydrolysis to dissociate NSF/SNAPs/SNAREs complexes, separating the v- and t-SNAREs, which are then primed for subsequent rounds of fusion. In contrast, p97 does not dissociate the p97/p47/SNARE complex even in the presence of ATP. Now we have identified a novel essential factor for p97/p47-mediated membrane fusion, named VCIP135 (valosin-containing protein [VCP][p97]/p47 complex-interacting protein, p135), and show that it binds to the p97/p47/syntaxin5 complex and dissociates it via p97 catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. In living cells, VCIP135 and p47 are shown to function in Golgi and ER assembly.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200208112
PMCID: PMC2173386  PMID: 12473691
membrane fusion; p97; VCIP135; Golgi; ER
20.  Biogenesis of Golgi Stacks in Imaginal Discs of Drosophila melanogaster 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2001;12(8):2308-2327.
We provide a detailed description of Golgi stack biogenesis that takes place in vivo during one of the morphogenetic events in the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. In early third-instar larvae, small clusters consisting mostly of vesicles and tubules were present in epithelial imaginal disk cells. As larvae progressed through mid- and late-third instar, these larval clusters became larger but also increasingly formed cisternae, some of which were stacked. In white pupae, the typical Golgi stack was observed. We show that larval clusters are Golgi stack precursors by 1) localizing various Golgi-specific markers to the larval clusters by electron and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, 2) driving this conversion in wild-type larvae incubated at 37°C for 2 h, and 3) showing that this conversion does not take place in an NSF1 mutant (comt 17). The biological significance of this conversion became clear when we found that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) is critically involved in this conversion. In its absence, Golgi stack biogenesis did not occur and the larval clusters remained unaltered. We showed that dGM130 and sec23p expression increases approximately three- and fivefold, respectively, when discs are exposed to ecdysone in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that we have developed an in vivo system to study the ecdysone-triggered Golgi stack biogenesis.
PMCID: PMC58596  PMID: 11514618

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