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1.  Blockade of IL-1R signaling diminishes Paneth cell depletion and Toxoplasma gondii induced ileitis in mice 
Interleukin 1 is a critical inflammatory mediator and involved in host defense to several pathogens. Oral T. gondii infection causes lethal ileitis in C57BL/6 (BL6) mice and serves to investigate the mechanisms of acute intestinal inflammation. Here we show that IL-1 is expressed upon oral T. gondii (76K strain) infection in the small intestine and mediates ileitis as IL-1R1 deficient mice have reduced neutrophil recruitment in the lamina propria, parasite invasion, inflammatory lesions and enhanced survival as compared to BL6 infected control mice. Protection in the absence of IL-1R1 signaling was associated with reduced IFN-γ expression and preserved Paneth cells, while these cells were eliminated in infected BL6 mice. Furthermore, blockade of IL-1 by IL-1β antibody attenuated inflammation in BL6 mice. In conclusion, IL-1 signaling contributes to the inflammatory response with increase IFN-γ expression and Paneth cell depletion upon oral T. gondii infection.
PMCID: PMC3714202  PMID: 23885328
Toxoplasma gondii; IL-1R1 receptor signaling; Paneth neutralizing antibody; inflammation; innate immunity
2.  IL-1 and IL-23 Mediate Early IL-17A Production in Pulmonary Inflammation Leading to Late Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23185.
Background
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice.
Methods
The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice.
Results
We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023185
PMCID: PMC3156735  PMID: 21858022
3.  IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2007;117(12):3786-3799.
The molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury resulting in inflammation and fibrosis are not well established. Here we investigate the roles of the IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) and the common adaptor for Toll/IL-1R signal transduction, MyD88, in this process using a murine model of acute pulmonary injury. Bleomycin insult results in expression of neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotactic factors, chronic inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. We demonstrate that these end points were attenuated in the lungs of IL-1R1– and MyD88-deficient mice. Further, in bone marrow chimera experiments, bleomycin-induced inflammation required primarily MyD88 signaling from radioresistant resident cells. Exogenous rIL-1β recapitulated a high degree of bleomycin-induced lung pathology, and specific blockade of IL-1R1 by IL-1 receptor antagonist dramatically reduced bleomycin-induced inflammation. Finally, we found that lung IL-1β production and inflammation in response to bleomycin required ASC, an inflammasome adaptor molecule. In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis.
doi:10.1172/JCI32285
PMCID: PMC2066195  PMID: 17992263
4.  Interleukin-17 is a negative regulator of established allergic asthma 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(12):2715-2725.
T helper (Th)17 cells producing interleukin (IL)-17 play a role in autoimmune and allergic inflammation. Here, we show that IL-23 induces IL-17 in the lung and IL-17 is required during antigen sensitization to develop allergic asthma, as shown in IL-17R–deficient mice. Since IL-17 expression increased further upon antigen challenge, we addressed its function in the effector phase. Most strikingly, neutralization of IL-17 augmented the allergic response in sensitized mice. Conversely, exogenous IL-17 reduced pulmonary eosinophil recruitment and bronchial hyperreactivity, demonstrating a novel regulatory role of IL-17. Mechanistically, IL-17 down modulated eosinophil-chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) in lungs in vivo and ex vivo upon antigen restimulation. In vitro, IL-17 reduced TARC production in dendritic cells (DCs)—the major source of TARC—and antigen uptake by DCs and IL-5 and IL-13 production in regional lymph nodes. Furthermore, IL-17 is regulated in an IL-4–dependent manner since mice deficient for IL-4Rα signaling showed a marked increase in IL-17 concentration with inhibited eosinophil recruitment. Therefore, endogenous IL-17 is controlled by IL-4 and has a dual role. Although it is essential during antigen sensitization to establish allergic asthma, in sensitized mice IL-17 attenuates the allergic response by inhibiting DCs and chemokine synthesis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20061401
PMCID: PMC2118159  PMID: 17101734
5.  Neutralisation of the interleukin-33/ST2 pathway ameliorates experimental colitis through enhancement of mucosal healing in mice 
Gut  2012;62(12):1714-1723.
Objective
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been intrinsically linked to a deregulated cytokine network, but novel therapeutic principles are urgently needed. Here we identify the interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 as key negative regulators of wound healing and permeability in the colon of mice.
Design
Expression of IL-33 and ST2 was determined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western-blot analysis. Wild-type and St2−/− mice were used in wound healing experiments and in two experimental models of IBD triggered by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid or dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). Neutralisation of ST2 was performed by using a specific blocking antibody.
Results
Nuclear localisation and enhanced expression of IL-33 in myofibroblasts and enterocytes was linked to disease involvement independently of inflammation, while the expression of ST2 was primarily restricted to the colonic epithelia. In two experimental models of IBD, genetic ablation of ST2 significantly improved signs of colitis, while a sustained epithelial expression of the cyto-protective factor connexin-43 was observed in DSS-treated St2-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, absence of ST2 in non-hematopoietic cells was sufficient to protect against colitis. Consistently, specific inhibition of endogenous ST2-mediated signalling by treatment with neutralising antibody improved DSS-induced colitis. In addition, IL-33 treatment impaired epithelial barrier permeability in vitro and in vivo, whereas absence of ST2 enhanced wound healing response upon acute mechanical injury in the colon.
Conclusions
Our study unveiled a novel non-hematopoietic function of IL-33 in epithelial barrier function and wound healing. Therefore, blocking the IL-33/ST2 axis may represent an efficient therapy in IBD.
doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301785
PMCID: PMC3841767  PMID: 23172891
Experimental Colitis; Epithelial Barrier; Cytokines; Antibody Targeted Therapy; Epithelial Permeability

Results 1-5 (5)