To assess if the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality patient safety indictors (PSIs) could be used for case findings in the International Classification of Disease 10th revision (ICD-10) hospital discharge abstract data.
We identified and randomly selected 490 patients with a foreign body left during a procedure (PSI 5—foreign body), selected infections (IV site) due to medical care (PSI 7—infection), postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT; PSI 12—PE/DVT), postoperative sepsis (PSI 13—sepsis)and accidental puncture or laceration (PSI 15—laceration) among patients discharged from three adult acute care hospitals in Calgary, Canada in 2007 and 2008. Their charts were reviewed for determining the presence of PSIs and used as the reference standard, positive predictive value (PPV) statistics were calculated to determine the proportion of positives in the administrative data representing ‘true positives’.
The PPV for PSI 5—foreign body was 62.5% (95% CI 35.4% to 84.8%), PSI 7—infection was 79.1% (67.4% to 88.1%), PSI 12—PE/DVT was 89.5% (66.9% to 98.7%), PSI 13—sepsis was 12.5% (1.6% to 38.4%) and PSI 15—laceration was 86.4% (75.0% to 94.0%) after excluding those who presented to the hospital with the condition.
Several PSIs had high PPV in the ICD administrative data and are thus powerful tools for true positive case finding. The tools could be used to identify potential cases from the large volume of admissions for verification through chart reviews. In contrast, their sensitivity has not been well characterised and users of PSIs should be cautious if using them for ‘quality of care reporting’ presenting the rate of PSIs because under-coded data would generate falsely low PSI rates.
Re-hospitalization is common among patients with diabetes, and may be related to aspects of health care use. We sought to determine the association between patterns of health care engagement and risk of subsequent hospitalization within one year of discharge for patients with diabetes.
We identified adults with incident diabetes in Alberta, Canada, who had at least one hospitalization following their diabetes diagnosis between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2011. We used Cox regression to estimate the association between factors related to health care engagement (prior emergency department use, primary care visits, and discharge disposition (i.e. whether the patient left against medical advice)) and the risk of subsequent all-cause hospitalization within one year.
Of the 33811 adults with diabetes and at least one hospitalization, 11095 (32.8%) experienced a subsequent all-cause hospitalization within a mean (standard deviation) follow-up time of 0.68 (0.3) years. Compared to patients with no emergency department visits, there was a 4 percent increased risk of a subsequent hospitalization for every emergency department visit occurring prior to the index hospitalization (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03–1.05). Limited and increased use of primary care was also associated with increased risk of a subsequent hospitalization. Compared to patients with 1–4 visits, patients with no visits to a primary care physician (adjusted HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.99–1.25) and those with 5–9 visits (adjusted HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00–1.12) were more likely to experience a subsequent hospitalization. Finally, compared to patients discharged home, those leaving against medical advice were more likely to have a subsequent hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.50–2.02) and almost 3 times more likely to have a diabetes-specific subsequent event (adjusted HR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.82–4.49).
Patterns of health care use and the circumstances surrounding hospital discharge are associated with an increased risk of subsequent hospitalization among patients with diabetes. Whether these patterns are related to the health care systems ability to manage complex patients within a primary care setting, or to access to primary care services, remains to be determined.
Diabetes; Administrative data; Hospitalization
A population-based database of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is invaluable to explore and monitor the epidemiology and outcome of the disease. In this context, an accurate and validated population-based case definition for IBD becomes critical for researchers and health care providers.
IBD and non-IBD individuals were identified through an endoscopy database in a western Canadian health region (Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta). Subsequently, using a novel algorithm, a series of case definitions were developed to capture IBD cases in the administrative databases. In the second stage of the study, the criteria were validated in the Capital Health Region (Edmonton, Alberta).
A total of 150 IBD case definitions were developed using 1399 IBD patients and 15,439 controls in the development phase. In the validation phase, 318,382 endoscopic procedures were searched and 5201 IBD patients were identified. After consideration of sensitivity, specificity and temporal stability of each validated case definition, a diagnosis of IBD was assigned to individuals who experienced at least two hospitalizations or had four physician claims, or two medical contacts in the Ambulatory Care Classification System database with an IBD diagnostic code within a two-year period (specificity 99.8%; sensitivity 83.4%; positive predictive value 97.4%; negative predictive value 98.5%). An alternative case definition was developed for regions without access to the Ambulatory Care Classification System database. A novel scoring system was developed that detected Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis patients with a specificity of >99% and a sensitivity of 99.1% and 86.3%, respectively.
Through a robust methodology, a reproducible set of criteria to capture IBD patients through administrative databases was developed. The methodology may be used to develop similar administrative definitions for chronic diseases.
Administrative database; Crohn disease; Epidemiology; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Population-based data; Ulcerative colitis
Administrative health data are frequently used for large population-based studies. However, the validity of these data for identifying neurologic conditions is uncertain.
This article systematically reviews the literature to assess the validity of administrative data for identifying patients with neurologic conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed for eligibility all abstracts and full-text articles identified through a systematic search of Medline and Embase. Study data were abstracted on a standardized abstraction form to identify ICD code–based case definitions and corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs).
Thirty full-text articles met the eligibility criteria. These included 8 studies for Alzheimer disease/dementia (sensitivity: 8–86.5, specificity: 56.3–100, PPV: 60–97.9, NPV: 68.0–98.9), 2 for brain tumor (sensitivity: 54.0–100, specificity: 97.0–99.0, PPV: 91.0–98.0), 4 for epilepsy (sensitivity: 98.8, specificity: 69.6, PPV: 62.0–100, NPV: 89.5–99.1), 4 for motor neuron disease (sensitivity: 78.9–93.0, specificity: 99.0–99.9, PPV: 38.0–90.0, NPV: 99), 2 for multiple sclerosis (sensitivity: 85–92.4, specificity: 55.9–92.6, PPV: 74.5–92.7, NPV: 70.8–91.9), 4 for Parkinson disease/parkinsonism (sensitivity: 18.7–100, specificity: 0–99.9, PPV: 38.6–81.0, NPV: 46.0), 3 for spinal cord injury (sensitivity: 0.9–90.6, specificity: 31.9–100, PPV: 27.3–100), and 3 for traumatic brain injury (sensitivity: 45.9–78.0 specificity: 97.8, PPV: 23.7–98.0, NPV: 99.2). No studies met eligibility criteria for cerebral palsy, dystonia, Huntington disease, hydrocephalus, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, or Tourette syndrome.
To ensure the accurate interpretation of population-based studies with use of administrative health data, the accuracy of case definitions for neurologic conditions needs to be taken into consideration.
Stroke has emerged as a significant and escalating health problem for Asian populations. We compared risk factors, quality of care and risk of death or recurrent stroke in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to 12 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada (July 2003-March 2008) and included in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network database. The database was linked to population-based administrative databases to determine one-year risk of death or recurrent stroke.
The study included 253 South Asian, 513 East Asian and 8231 White patients. East Asian patients were more likely to present with intracerebral hemorrhage (30%) compared to South Asian (17%) or White patients (15%) (p<0.001). Time from stroke to hospital arrival was similarly poor with delays >2 hours for more than two thirds of patients in all ethnic groups. Processes of stroke care, including thrombolysis, diagnostic imaging, antithrombotic medications, and rehabilitation services were similar among ethnic groups. Risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after ischemic stroke was similar for patients who were White (27.6%), East Asian (24.7%, aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.78-1.21 vs. White), or South Asian (21.9%, aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.24 vs. White). Although risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after intracerebral hemorrhage was higher in East Asian (35.5%) and White patients (47.9%) compared to South Asian patients (30.2%) (p=0.002), these differences disappeared after adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity and comorbid conditions (aHR 0.89 [0.67-1.19] for East Asian vs White and 0.99 [0.54-1.81] for South Asian vs. White).
After stratification by stroke type, stroke care and outcomes are similar across ethnic groups in Ontario. Enhanced health promotion is needed to reduce delays to hospital for all ethnic groups.
We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.
hypertension; knowledge; rural Chinese adult; hypertension education program
Adults with chronic medical conditions are more likely to report unmet health care needs. Whether unmet health care needs are associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes is unclear.
Adults with at least one self-reported chronic condition (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, mood disorder, stroke) from the 2001 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to national hospitalization data. Participants were followed from the date of their survey until March 31, 2005, for the primary outcomes of all-cause and cause-specific admission to hospital. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission to hospital, and in-hospital death. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between unmet health care needs, admission to hospital, and length of stay, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, and health status. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between unmet needs, readmission, and in-hospital death. Further analyses were conducted by type of unmet need.
Of the 51 932 adults with self-reported chronic disease, 15.5% reported an unmet health care need. Participants with unmet health care needs had a risk of all-cause admission to hospital similar to that of patients with no unmet needs (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–1.15). When stratified by type of need, participants who reported issues of limited resource availability had a slightly higher risk of hospital admission (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1.28). There was no association between unmet needs and length of stay, readmission, or in-hospital death.
Overall, unmet health care needs were not associated with an increased risk of admission to hospital among those with chronic conditions. However, certain types of unmet needs may be associated with higher or lower risk. Whether unmet needs are associated with other measures of resource use remains to be determined.
To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada.
Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs.
In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers.
Main outcome measures
Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers.
After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec.
Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs.
The electronic medical record (EMR)/electronic health record (EHR) is becoming an integral component of many primary-care outpatient practices. Before implementing an EMR/EHR system, primary-care practices should have an understanding of the potential benefits and limitations.
The objective of this study was to systematically review the recent literature around the impact of the EMR/EHR within primary-care outpatient practices.
Materials and methods
Searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ABI Inform, and Cochrane Library were conducted to identify articles published between January 1998 and January 2010. The gray literature and reference lists of included articles were also searched. 30 studies met inclusion criteria.
Results and discussion
The EMR/EHR appears to have structural and process benefits, but the impact on clinical outcomes is less clear. Using Donabedian's framework, five articles focused on the impact on healthcare structure, 21 explored healthcare process issues, and four focused on health-related outcomes.
Clinical informatics; quality of healthcare; systematic review; machine learning; health data standards; vocabulary; ontology; scientific information and health data policy; consumer health/patient education information; information retrieval; NLP; public health informatics; clinical trials; electronic medical records; primary care; systematic review
French speakers residing in predominantly English-speaking communities have been linked to difficulties accessing health care. This study examined health care access experiences of immigrants and non-immigrants who self-identify as Francophone or French speakers in a mainly English speaking province of Canada. We used semi-structured interviews to gather opinions of recent users of physician and hospital services (N = 26). Language barriers and difficulties finding family doctors were experienced by both French speaking immigrants and non-immigrants alike. This was exacerbated by a general preference for health services in French and less interest in using language interpreters during a medical consultation. Some participants experienced emotional distress, were discontent with care received, often delayed seeking care due to language barriers. Recent immigrants identified lack of insurance coverage for drugs, transportation difficulties and limited knowledge of the healthcare system as major detractors to achieving health. This study provided the groundwork for future research on health issues of official language minorities in Canada.
immigrants; French language; health care access; family doctor; qualitative descriptive; official language minorities
To determine the generalizability of the predictions for 90-day mortality generated by Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the serum sodium augmented MELD (MELDNa) to Atlantic Canadian adults with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT).
The predictive accuracy of the MELD and the MELDNa was evaluated by measurement of the discrimination and calibration of the respective models’ estimates for the occurrence of 90-day mortality in a consecutive cohort of LT candidates accrued over a five-year period. Accuracy of discrimination was measured by the area under the ROC curves. Calibration accuracy was evaluated by comparing the observed and model-estimated incidences of 90-day wait-list failure for the total cohort and within quantiles of risk.
The area under the ROC curve for the MELD was 0.887 (95% CI 0.705 to 0.978) – consistent with very good accuracy of discrimination. The area under the ROC curve for the MELDNa was 0.848 (95% CI 0.681 to 0.965). The observed incidence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the validation cohort was 7.9%, which was not significantly different from the MELD estimate of 6.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 8.4%; P=0.177) or the MELDNa estimate of 5.8% (95% CI 3.5% to 8.0%; P=0.065). Global goodness-of-fit testing found no evidence of significant lack of fit for either model (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 [df=3] for MELD 2.941, P=0.401; for MELDNa 2.895, P=0.414).
Both the MELD and the MELDNa accurately predicted the occurrence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the study cohort and, therefore, are generalizable to Atlantic Canadians with end-stage liver disease awaiting LT.
End-stage liver disease; Liver transplantation; Mortality; Statistical models; Validation study; Wait list
The purpose of this study was to assess whether or not the change in coding classification had an impact on diagnosis and comorbidity coding in hospital discharge data across Canadian provinces.
This study examined eight years (fiscal years 1998 to 2005) of hospital records from the Hospital Person-Oriented Information database (HPOI) derived from the Canadian national Discharge Abstract Database. The average number of coded diagnoses per hospital visit was examined from 1998 to 2005 for provinces that switched from International Classifications of Disease 9th version (ICD-9-CM) to ICD-10-CA during this period. The average numbers of type 2 and 3 diagnoses were also described. The prevalence of the Charlson comorbidities and distribution of the Charlson score one year before and one year after ICD-10 implementation for each of the 9 provinces was examined. The prevalence of at least one of the seventeen Charlson comorbidities one year before and one year after ICD-10 implementation were described by hospital characteristics (teaching/non-teaching, urban/rural, volume of patients).
Nine Canadian provinces switched from ICD-9-CM to ICD-I0-CA over a 6 year period starting in 2001. The average number of diagnoses coded per hospital visit for all code types over the study period was 2.58. After implementation of ICD-10-CA a decrease in the number of diagnoses coded was found in four provinces whereas the number of diagnoses coded in the other five provinces remained similar. The prevalence of at least one of the seventeen Charlson conditions remained relatively stable after ICD-10 was implemented, as did the distribution of the Charlson score. When stratified by hospital characteristics, the prevalence of at least one Charlson condition decreased after ICD-10-CA implementation, particularly for low volume hospitals.
In conclusion, implementation of ICD-10-CA in Canadian provinces did not substantially change coding practices, but there was some coding variation in the average number of diagnoses per hospital visit across provinces.
International classification of disease version 10; Administrative data; Hospital records; Canada; Coding; Hospital discharge data
The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women.
This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies.
The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention effectiveness appears to vary with ethnic population, methods of program delivery, and study setting.
Despite some limitations, our review has demonstrated that the effectiveness of existing interventions to promote breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Asian women may hinge on a variety of factors, such as type of intervention and study population characteristics. While some studies demonstrated the effectiveness of certain intervention programs, the cost effectiveness and long-term sustainability of these programs remain questionable. When adopting an intervention program, it is important to consider the impacts of social-and cultural factors specific to the Asian population on cancer screening uptake. Future research is needed to develop new interventions and tools, and adopt vigorous study design and evaluation methodologies to increase cancer screening among Asian women to promote population health and health equity.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients failing medical management require colectomy. This study compares risk estimates for predictors of postoperative complication derived from administrative data against that of chart review and evaluates the accuracy of administrative coding for this population.
Hospital administrative databases were used to identify adults with UC undergoing colectomy from 1996–2007. Medical charts were reviewed and regression analyses comparing chart versus administrative data were performed to assess the effect of age, emergent operation, and Charlson comorbidities on the occurrence of postoperative complications. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values of administrative coding for identifying the study population, Charlson comorbidities, and postoperative complications were assessed.
Compared to chart review, administrative data estimated a higher magnitude of effect for emergent admission (OR 2.52 [95% CI: 1.80–3.52] versus 1.49 [1.06–2.09]) and Charlson comorbidities (OR 2.91 [1.86–4.56] versus 1.50 [1.05–2.15]) as predictors of postoperative complications. Administrative data correctly identified UC and colectomy in 85.9% of cases. The administrative database was 37% sensitive in identifying patients with ≥ 1Charlson comorbidity. Restricting analysis to active comorbidities increased the sensitivity to 63%. The sensitivity of identifying patients with at least one postoperative complication was 68%; restricting analysis to more severe complications improved the sensitivity to 84%.
Administrative data identified the same risk factors for postoperative complications as chart review, but overestimated the magnitude of risk. This discrepancy may be explained by coding inaccuracies that selectively identifying the most serious complications and comorbidities.
Although effective treatments exist, many Canadians with chronic medical conditions do not receive the full care they require, possibly as a consequence of limited accessibility or availability. A commonly used indicator of inadequate access to or availability of care is the perception of unmet health care needs. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the association between chronic conditions and perceived unmet health care needs.
We extracted data for adult respondents from the combined 2001, 2003 and 2005 cross-sectional cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 7 high-prevalence and high-impact chronic conditions (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, mood disorder and stroke) and perceived unmet health care needs in the prior 12 months, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, health status and survey cycle.
Of the 360 105 adult respondents, 12.2% reported an unmet health care need. Compared with those without chronic conditions, respondents with at least one condition were more likely to report an unmet need (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–1.59). Those with mood disorders were almost twice as likely to report an unmet need (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.78–2.12), while those with diabetes or hypertension were less likely to report an unmet need (diabetes OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76–0.94; hypertension OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89–1.04). Furthermore, the likelihood of an unmet need increased with the number of chronic conditions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.56–1.88 for 3 or more conditions). Respondents with chronic conditions were more likely than those without to report an unmet need related to resource availability (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.22).
Adults with chronic medical conditions are more likely to report an unmet health care need, and the likelihood increases with an increasing number of conditions. Whether these unmet needs are associated with worse outcomes, and whether interventions targeted to address these needs may improve outcomes for Canadians with chronic disease, remain to be determined.
Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is an expensive and sometimes scarce blood product that carries some risk. It may often be used inappropriately. We evaluated the appropriateness of IVIG use before and after the introduction of an utilization control program to reduce inappropriate use.
We used the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to measure the appropriateness of IVIG use in the province of British Columbia (BC) in 2001 and 2003, before and after the introduction of a utilization control program designed to reduce inappropriate use. For comparison, we measured the appropriateness of use during the same periods in the province of Alberta, which had no control program.
Of 2256 instances of IVIG use, 54.1% were deemed to be appropriate, 17.4% were of uncertain benefit, and 28.5% were deemed inappropriate. The frequency of inappropriate use in BC after the introduction of the utilization control program did not differ significantly from the frequency before the program or the frequency in Alberta.
Almost half of IVIG use in BC and Alberta was judged to be inappropriate or of uncertain benefit, and the frequency of inappropriate use did not decrease after implementation of a utilization control program in BC. More effective utilization controls are necessary to prevent wasted resources and unnecessary risk to patients.
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were to examine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada and compare mortality among people with and without diagnosed hypertension.
We obtained data from linked health administrative databases from each province and territory for adults aged 20 years and older. We used a validated case definition to identify people with hypertension diagnosed between 1998/99 and 2007/08. We excluded pregnant women from the analysis.
This retrospective population-based study included more than 26 million people. In 2007/08, about 6 million adults (23.0%) were living with diagnosed hypertension and about 418 000 had a new diagnosis. The age-standardized prevalence increased significantly from 12.5% in 1998/99 to 19.6% in 2007/08, and the incidence decreased from 2.7 to 2.4 per 100. Among people aged 60 years and older, the prevalence was higher among women than among men, as was the incidence among people aged 75 years and older. The prevalence and incidence were highest in the Atlantic region. For all age groups, all-cause mortality was higher among adults with diagnosed hypertension than among those without diagnosed hypertension.
The overall prevalence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada from 1998 to 2008 was high and increasing, whereas the incidence declined during the same period. These findings highlight the need to continue monitoring the effectiveness of efforts for managing hypertension and to enhance public health programs aimed at preventing hypertension.
Diabetes guidelines recommend aggressive screening for type 2 diabetes in Asian patients because they are considered to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and potentially worse prognosis. We determined incidence of diabetes and risk of death or macrovascular complications by sex among major Asian subgroups, South Asian and Chinese, and white patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using population-based administrative data from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada (1997–1998 to 2006–2007), we identified patients with newly diagnosed diabetes aged ≥35 years and followed them for up to 10 years for death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Ethnicity was determined using validated surname algorithms.
There were 15,066 South Asian, 17,754 Chinese, and 244,017 white patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Chinese women and men had the lowest incidence of diabetes relative to that of white or South Asian patients, who had the highest incidence. Mortality in those with newly diagnosed diabetes was lower in South Asian (hazard ratio 0.69 [95% CI 0.62–0.76], P < 0.001) and Chinese patients (0.69 [0.63–0.74], P < 0.001) then in white patients. Risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure was similar or lower in the ethnic groups relative to that of white patients and varied by sex.
The incidence of diagnosed diabetes varies significantly among ethnic groups. Mortality was substantially lower in South Asian and Chinese patients with newly diagnosed diabetes than in white patients.
The purpose of this study was to examine the change in health status of China's adult population between the years of 2003 and 2008 due to rapid economic growth and medical system improvement.
Data from the third and fourth Chinese national health services surveys covering 141,927 residents in 2003 and 136,371 residents in 2008 who were aged >18 years were analyzed.
Chinese respondents in 2008 were more likely to report disease than in 2003. Smoking slightly decreased among men and women, and regular exercise showed much improvement. Stratified analyses revealed significant subpopulation disparities in rate ratios for 2008/2003 in the presence of chronic disease, with greater increases among women, elderly, the Han nationality, unmarried and widow, illiterate, rural, and regions east of China than other groups.
Chinese adults in 2008 had worse health status than in 2003 in terms of presence of chronic disease. China's reform of health care will face more complex challenges in coming years from the deteriorating health status in Chinese adults.
Objective. To describe obstetrical and neonatal
outcomes in Canadian women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. An
administrative database of hospitalizations for neonatal delivery
(1998–2009) from Calgary, Alberta was searched to identify
women with RA (38 pregnancies) or SLE (95 pregnancies), and women
from the general population matched on maternal age and year of
delivery (150 and 375 pregnancies, resp.). Conditional
logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for
maternal and neonatal outcomes, adjusting for parity.
Results. Women with SLE had increased odds for
preeclampsia or eclampsia (SLE OR 2.16 (95% CI 1.10–4.21;
P = 0.024); RA OR 2.33 (95% CI 0.76–7.14; P = 0.138)). Women with SLE
had increased odds for cesarean section after adjustment for
dysfunctional labour, instrumentation and previous cesarean
section (OR 3.47 (95% CI 1.67–7.22; P < 0.001)). Neonates born to
women with SLE had increased odds of prematurity (SLE OR 6.17
(95% CI 3.28–11.58; P < 0.001); RA OR 2.66 (95% CI 0.90–7.84;
P = 0.076)) and of SGA (SLE OR 2.54 (95% CI 1.42–4.55; P = 0.002); RA
OR 2.18 (95% CI 0.84–5.66; P = 0.108)) after adjusting for maternal
hypertension. There was no excess risk of congenital defects in
neonates. Conclusions. There is increased obstetrical and neonatal morbidity
in Canadian women with RA or SLE.
Many studies have relied on administrative data to identify patients with heart failure (HF).
To systematically review studies that assessed the validity of administrative data for recording HF.
English peer-reviewed articles (1990 to 2008) validating International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-8, -9 and -10 codes from administrative data were included. An expert panel determined which ICD codes should be included to define HF. Frequencies of ICD codes for HF were calculated using up to the 16 diagnostic coding fields available in the Canadian hospital discharge abstract during fiscal years 2000/2001 and 2005/2006.
Between 1992 and 2008, more than 70 different ICD codes for defining HF were used in 25 published studies. Twenty-one studies validated hospital discharge abstract data; three studies validated physician claims and two studies validated ambulatory care data. Eighteen studies reported sensitivity (range 29% to 89%). Specificity and negative predictive value were greater than 70% across 17 studies. Nineteen studies reported positive predictive values (range 12% to 100%). Ten studies reported kappa values (range 0.39 to 0.84).
For Canadian hospital discharge data, ICD-9 and -10 codes 428 and I50 identified HF in 5.50% and 4.80% of discharge records, respectively. Additional HF-related ICD-9 and -10 codes did not impact HF prevalence.
The ICD-9 and -10 codes 428 and I50 were the most commonly used to define HF in hospital discharge data. Validity of administrative data in recording HF varied across the studies and data sources that were assessed.
Administrative data; Heart failure; Hospital discharge data; Validity
Failure to adhere to cardiac medications after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased mortality. Language barriers and preference for traditional medications may predispose certain ethnic groups at high risk for non-adherence. We compared prescribing and adherence to ACE-inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blockers (BB), and statins following AMI among elderly Chinese, South Asian, and Non-Asian patients.
Retrospective-cohort study of elderly AMI survivors (1995-2002) using administrative data from British Columbia. AMI cases and ethnicity were identified using validated ICD-9/10 coding and surname algorithms, respectively. Medication adherence was assessed using the 'proportion of days covered' (PDC) metric with a PDC ≥ 0.80 indicating optimal adherence. The independent effect of ethnicity on adherence was assessed using multivariable modeling, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.
There were 9926 elderly AMI survivors (258 Chinese, 511 South Asian patients). More Chinese patients were prescribed BBs (79.7% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04) and more South Asian patients were prescribed statins (73.5% vs. 65.2%, p = 0.001). Both Chinese (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.53; 95%CI, 0.39-0.73; p < 0.0001) and South Asian (OR 0.78; 95%CI, 0.61-0.99; p = 0.04) patients were less adherent to ACEI compared to Non-Asian patients. South Asian patients were more adherent to BBs (OR 1.3; 95%CI, 1.04-1.62; p = 0.02). There was no difference in prescribing of ACEI, nor adherence to statins among the ethnicities.
Despite a higher likelihood of being prescribed evidence-based therapies following AMI, Chinese and South Asian patients were less likely to adhere to ACEI compared to their Non-Asian counterparts.
medication adherence; acute myocardial infarction; ethnicity
Co-morbidity information derived from administrative data needs to be validated to allow its regular use. We assessed evolution in the accuracy of coding for Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities at three time points over a 5-year period, following the introduction of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), coding of hospital discharges.
Cross-sectional time trend evaluation study of coding accuracy using hospital chart data of 3'499 randomly selected patients who were discharged in 1999, 2001 and 2003, from two teaching and one non-teaching hospital in Switzerland. We measured sensitivity, positive predictive and Kappa values for agreement between administrative data coded with ICD-10 and chart data as the 'reference standard' for recording 36 co-morbidities.
For the 17 the Charlson co-morbidities, the sensitivity - median (min-max) - was 36.5% (17.4-64.1) in 1999, 42.5% (22.2-64.6) in 2001 and 42.8% (8.4-75.6) in 2003. For the 29 Elixhauser co-morbidities, the sensitivity was 34.2% (1.9-64.1) in 1999, 38.6% (10.5-66.5) in 2001 and 41.6% (5.1-76.5) in 2003. Between 1999 and 2003, sensitivity estimates increased for 30 co-morbidities and decreased for 6 co-morbidities. The increase in sensitivities was statistically significant for six conditions and the decrease significant for one. Kappa values were increased for 29 co-morbidities and decreased for seven.
Accuracy of administrative data in recording clinical conditions improved slightly between 1999 and 2003. These findings are of relevance to all jurisdictions introducing new coding systems, because they demonstrate a phenomenon of improved administrative data accuracy that may relate to a coding 'learning curve' with the new coding system.
ICD-10; Agreement; Administrative Data; Co-morbidity
Previous studies evaluated cardiac procedure use and outcome over the short term, with relatively few Asian patients included.
To determine the likelihood of undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting, and survival during 10.5 years of follow-up after coronary angiography among South Asian, Chinese and other Canadian patients.
Using prospective cohort study data from two large Canadian provinces, 3061 South Asian, 1473 Chinese and 77,314 other Canadian patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease from 1995 to 2004 were assessed, and their revascularization and mortality rates during 10.5 years of follow-up were determined.
Compared with other Canadian patients, South Asian and Chinese patients were slightly less likely to undergo revascularization (risk-adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98 for South Asian patients; and HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.00 for Chinese patients). However, South Asian patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.07) and Chinese patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.04) as frequently as other Canadian patients. Although the 30-day mortality rate was similar across the three ethnic groups, the mortality rate in the follow-up period was significantly lower for South Asian patients (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.95) and marginally lower for Chinese patients (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.07) compared with other Canadian patients.
South Asian and Chinese patients used revascularization slightly less but had better survival outcomes than other Canadian patients. The factors underlying the better outcomes for South Asian and Chinese patients warrant further study.
Chinese Canadians; Coronary artery disease; Invasive cardiac procedure; South Asian Canadians
Studies before the turn of the century reported sex differences in procedure rates. It is unknown whether these differences persist.
To examine time trends and sex differences in coronary catheterization and revascularization following acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients 20 years of age or older who were admitted to hospital in British Columbia with an AMI between April 1, 1994, and March 31, 2003. Segmented regression analysis was used to examine the inflection point of the time trend in 90-day catheterization rates post-AMI. Multivariable Cox regression modelling was used to evaluate sex differences in receiving catheterization and revascularization following AMI.
Ninety-day coronary catheterization rates increased significantly over the study period for both men and women (P<0.0001 for trend), with a steeper increase beginning in September 2000. Women were less likely to undergo catheterization than men, even after adjustment for baseline differences; this sex effect was modified by age and care in the intensive care unit or cardiac care unit (ICU/CCU). Specifically, ICU/CCU admission eliminated the sex difference among patients who were younger than 65 years of age. Conditional on receiving cardiac catheterization post-AMI, female sex was not associated with a lower likelihood of receiving revascularization within one year (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.02).
Despite recent increases in catheterization rates post-AMI, women were less likely to undergo catheterization than men. Interestingly, access to ICU/CCU care removed the sex difference in catheterization access in patients younger than 65 years of age.
Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiac catheterization; Revascularization; Sex