To analyze the clinical performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in Chinese women.
1079 women attending ongoing cervical cancer screening and 211 “enriched” women aged ≥30yrs with biopsy-confirmed CIN2+ from five Chinese hospitals were enrolled during year 2014-2015. Cervical specimens were collected for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA analysis, Liquid-based cytology (LBC) and p16/Ki-67 dual staining. Colposcopy and biopsy were performed on women with any abnormal result.
p16/Ki-67 positivity increased with histologic severity. It was 18.4%(183/996) in normal histology, 54.0%(34/63) in CIN1, 81.0%(34/42) in CIN2, 93.3%(111/119) in CIN3, 71.4% (5/7) in adenocarcinoma and 95.2%(60/63) in squamous cell carcinoma. Compared with the HR-HPV negatives, p16/Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in the HPV16/18 positive (OR: 35.45(95%CI: 23.35-53.84)) and other 12 HR-HPV types positive group (OR: 8.01(95%CI: 5.81-11.05). The sensitivity and specificity of p16/Ki-67 to detect CIN2+ in the entire population were 90.9% and 79.5%, respectively. In women with ASC-US and LSIL, sensitivity and specificity for detection of CIN2+ were 87.5% and 66.4%, respectively, with a referral rate of 43.8%. In women who tested positive for HR-HPV, sensitivity and specificity of dual-staining for detection of CIN2+ were 92.7% and 52.7%, respectively, and the referral rate was 68.7%.
p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology provided a high sensitivity and moderate specificity to detect underlying cervical precancer and cancers in various settings, and might be considered as an efficient screening tool in China.
cervical cancer; p16/Ki-67 dual staining; human papillomavirus; Chinese women; Pathology Section
Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed nominally significant P-values in two previously published genome-wide scans that included a total of 2961 ESCC cases and 3400 controls. The meta-analysis revealed five SNPs at 2q33 with P< 5 × 10−8, and the strongest signal was rs13016963, with a combined odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.29 (1.19–1.40) and P= 7.63 × 10−10. An imputation analysis of 4304 SNPs at 2q33 suggested a single association signal, and the strongest imputed SNP associations were similar to those from the genotyped SNPs. We conducted an ancestral recombination graph analysis with 53 SNPs to identify one or more haplotypes that harbor the variants directly responsible for the detected association signal. This showed that the five SNPs exist in a single haplotype along with 45 imputed SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the strongest candidate was rs10201587, one of the genotyped SNPs. Our meta-analysis found genome-wide significant SNPs at 2q33 that map to the CASP8/ALS2CR12/TRAK2 gene region. Variants in CASP8 have been extensively studied across a spectrum of cancers with mixed results. The locus we identified appears to be distinct from the widely studied rs3834129 and rs1045485 SNPs in CASP8. Future studies of esophageal and other cancers should focus on comprehensive sequencing of this 2q33 locus and functional analysis of rs13016963 and rs10201587 and other strongly correlated variants.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype originated in China and has undergone a dramatic population growth and global spread in the last century. Here, a collection of M. tuberculosis Beijing family isolates from different provinces across all China was genotyped by high-resolution (24-MIRU-VNTR) and low-resolution, high-rank (modern and ancient sublineages) markers. The molecular profiles and global and local phylogenies were compared to the strain phenotype and patient data. The phylogeographic patterns observed in the studied collection demonstrate that large-scale (but not middle/small-scale) distance remains one of the decisive factors of the genetic divergence of M. tuberculosis populations. Analysis of diversity and network topology of the local collections appears to corroborate a recent intriguing hypothesis about Beijing genotype originating in South China. Placing our results within the Eurasian context suggested that important Russian B0/W148 and Asian/Russian A0/94-32 epidemic clones of the Beijing genotype could trace their origins to the northeastern and northwestern regions of China, respectively. The higher clustering of the modern isolates in children and lack of increased MDR rate in any sublineage suggest that not association with drug resistance but other (e.g., speculatively, virulence-related) properties underlie an enhanced dissemination of the evolutionarily recent, modern sublineage of the Beijing genotype in China.
Allium subgenus Anguinum is composed of two sister groups. In the eastern Asian geographical group, incongruence between gene trees and morphology-based taxonomies was recovered as was incongruence between data from plastid and nuclear sequences. This incongruence is likely due to the combined effects of a recent radiation, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization/introgression. The crown group of Anguinum originated during the late Miocene, and eastern Asia was the ancestral area for Anguinum. It is inferred that in the late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene, with cooling climates and the uplift of the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains, the ancestor of the eastern Asian alliance clade underwent a very recent radiation.
A primary aim of historical biogeography is to identify the causal factors or processes that have shaped the composition and distribution of biotas over time. Another is to infer the evolution of geographic ranges of species and clades in a phylogenetic context. To this end, historical biogeography addresses important questions such as: Where were ancestors distributed? Where did lineages originate? Which processes cause geographic ranges to evolve through time? Allium subgenus Anguinum comprises approximately twelve taxa with a disjunct distribution in the high mountains from south-western Europe to eastern Asia and in northeastern North America. Although both the systematic position and the geographical limits of Anguinum have been identified, to date no molecular systematic study has been performed utilizing a comprehensive sampling of these species. With an emphasis on the Anguinum eastern Asian geographical group, the goals of the present study were: (i) to infer species-level phylogenetic relationships within Anguinum, (ii) to assess molecular divergence and estimated the times of the major splits in Anguinum and (iii) to trace the biogeographic history of the subgenus. Four DNA sequences (ITS, matK, trnH-psbA, rps16) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Allium subgen. Anguinum. RbcL sequences were used to estimate divergences time for Allium, and sequences of ITS were used to estimate the divergence times for Anguinum and its main lineages and to provide implications for the evolutionary history of the subgenus. Phylogenetic analyses for all Allium corroborate that Anguinum is monophyletic and indicate that Anguinum is composed of two sister groups: one with a Eurasian–American distribution, and the other restricted to eastern Asia. In the eastern Asian geographical group, incongruence between gene trees and morphology-based taxonomies was recovered as was incongruence between data from plastid and nuclear sequences. This incongruence is likely due to the combined effects of a recent radiation, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization/introgression. Divergence time estimates suggest that the crown group of Anguinum originated during the late Miocene (ca. 7.16 Mya) and then diverged and dispersed. Biogeographic analyses using statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) and a likelihood method support an eastern Asia origin of Anguinum. It is inferred that in the late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene, with cooling climates and the uplift of the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains, the ancestor of the eastern Asian alliance clade underwent a very recent radiation.
Allium; anguinum; divergence time; historical biogeography; hybridization/introgression; incomplete lineage sorting; phylogeny; radiation
Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity.
Morus nigra; total flavonoids; antioxidant activity
Hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with microalbuminuria and glomerular injury in general and diabetic populations. However, HHcy’s role in hypertensive patients was not studied. We investigated whether HHcy is an independent risk factor for renal function decline and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive men and women. This was a community-based prospective cohort study of 2,387 hypertensive adults without CKD at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Baseline and follow-up levels of plasma Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, blood pressure and other pertinent covariables were obtained. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/per 1.73 m2 and an eGFR decline rate >1 ml/min/per 1.73 m2/year. There was a graded association between Hcy tertiles and eGFR decline. Subjects in the 3rd tertile of Hcy levels had an accelerated rate of eGFR decline and an increased risk of incident CKD, as compared with those in the 1st tertile, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, SBP, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, eGFR, folate and vitamin B12 levels. In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of Chinese hypertensive adults, elevated baseline plasma Hcy can serve as an independent biomarker to predict renal function decline and incident CKD.
We analyzed the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) and evaluated the effects of the targeted therapies treated with sorafenib and sunitinib.
Expression of HO-1 in cancer tissue from 66 patients was measured by immunohis-tochemical staining. The patients received either oral sorafenib (n=40) or oral sunitinib (n=26) within 4 weeks after nephrectomy and were followed up long term to determine the tumor response and prognosis.
Our current study revealed a high HO-1 expression level in 57.6% (38/66) of patients and a low HO-1 expression level in 42.4% (28/66) of patients with CC-RCC. The study also revealed that patients with high HO-1 expression did not have a higher objective response rate (2.6% versus 53.6%, P<0.01), clinical benefit rate (47.4% versus 92.9%, P<0.01), longer progression-free survival (4.4 versus 42 months, P=0.022), or overall survival (χ2=4.775, P=0.029) than patients with low HO-1 expression. In the low HO-1 level group, a higher tumor response rate and a longer survival time was achieved in patients who received sorafenib or sunitinib. Multivariate analysis showed that HO-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for tumor response and overall survival.
High expression of HO-1 was associated with a lower tumor response rate and a shorter overall survival time when compared with low expression of HO-1. Overall, HO-1 expression might be a useful biomarker for predicting the response to sunitinib and sorafenib for patients with metastatic CC-RCC.
HO-1; renal cell carcinoma; sunitinib; sorafenib target therapy
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as an important global public health issue, which is predominantly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). There is no available vaccine against HFMD. An ideal HFMD vaccine should be bivalent against both EV-A71 and CVA16. Here, a novel strategy to produce bivalent HFMD vaccine based on chimeric EV-A71 virus-like particles (ChiEV-A71 VLPs) was proposed and illustrated. The neutralizing epitope SP70 within the capsid protein VP1 of EV-A71 was replaced with that of CVA16 in ChiEV-A71 VLPs. Structural modeling revealed that the replaced CVA16-SP70 epitope is well exposed on the surface of ChiEV-A71 VLPs. These VLPs produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited similarity in both protein composition and morphology as naive EV-A71 VLPs. Immunization with ChiEV-A71 VLPs in mice elicited robust Th1/Th2 dependent immune responses against EV-A71 and CVA16. Furthermore, passive immunization with anti-ChiEV-A71 VLPs sera conferred full protection against lethal challenge of both EV-A71 and CVA16 infection in neonatal mice. These results suggested that this chimeric vaccine, ChiEV-A71 might have the potential to be further developed as a bivalent HFMD vaccine in the near future. Such chimeric enterovirus VLPs provide an alternative platform for bivalent HFMD vaccine development.
Chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related polyhalogenated organic pollutants occurs as a consequence of modern life. Exploring the cellular basis for their action is anticipated to help understand the risk they pose and improve the foundation for their regulation. A basis for the striking change in human keratinocyte colony morphology due to TCDD exposure has been investigated by shotgun proteomics. Concentrating on changes in protein levels among three cell strains has revealed significant decreases in the differentiation markers filaggrin, keratin 1 and keratin 10. EGF treatment in concert with TCDD enhanced the changes in these markers and several other proteins while reducing the levels of certain other proteins. The only protein stimulated by TCDD in all three strains and reversed by EGF in them was vimentin, not previously observed to be in the Ah receptor response domain. Although TCDD is often proposed to enhance keratinocyte differentiation, proteomic analysis reveals it uncouples the differentiation program and suggests that reduced levels of differentiation marker proteins contribute to the observed excessive stratification it induces.
Cell culture; Cross-linked envelopes; Dioxin; Epidermal growth factor; Filaggrin; Keratins; Polyhalogenated organic pollutants; Vimentin
Although CD44 was overexpressed and considered as a useful prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma, the prognostic role of CD44s in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains controversial. Moreover, the correlation and prognostic significance of CD44s and its downstream signaling target pSTAT3 are unclear in ccRCC. In this study, 75 pairs of carcinoma and paired adjacent non-tumor renal tissue samples were collected from patients with localized ccRCC who underwent a nephrectomy. The expression levels of CD44s and pSTAT3 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Correlations between CD44s/pSTAT3 expression and clinical and pathological characteristics were determined using χ test, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox’s proportional hazards model. We found that CD44s is highly expressed in 46.67% of tumor tissues, and its high expression was significantly associated with high tumor grade (P<0.001), large tumor size (P=0.009) and advanced T stage (P=0.004). A strong correlation exists between high expression of CD44s and pSTAT3 (r=0.4013, P=0.004). The joint over expression of CD44s and pSTAT3 was present in 42.66% of tumor specimens and had an additive negative impact on overall survival. Patients with CD44spSTAT3 expression had significantly poor survival as compared to patients with CD44spSTAT3 tumor expression (P=0.024), though the concurrent overexpression of CD44s and pSTAT3 was not an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Our data indicate that expression of both CD44s and pSTAT3 in ccRCC is associated with advanced tumor stage and patient survival. The conclusions from this study may improve the prediction of ccRCC prognosis information when CD44s and pSTAT3 expression are evaluated together with classical clinicopathological parameters.
CD44s; pSTAT3; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); prognosis; survival
Multiple studies have investigated the prognostic role of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) for patients with heart failure (HF), but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to estimate the impact of RDW on the prognosis of HF by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods and Results
The Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 16, 2013 to identify eligible cohort studies. The quality of each study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The association between RDW, either on admission or at discharge, and HF outcomes (all-cause mortality [ACM], heart transplantation, cardiovascular mortality, and rehospitalization, etc.) were reviewed. The overall hazard ratio (HR) for the effect of RDW on ACM was pooled using a random-effects model, and the publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Eggers' tests. Seventeen studies, with a total of 18288 HF patients, were included for systematic review. All eligible studies indicated that RDW on admission and RDW at discharge, as well as its change during treatment, were of prognostic significance for HF patients. The HR for the effect of a 1% increase in baseline RDW on ACM was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.07–1.13), based on pooling of nine studies that provided related data. However, publication bias was observed among these studies.
HF patients with higher RDW may have poorer prognosis than those with lower RDW. Further studies are needed to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association.
Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms.
To investigate whether the expression of OX40/OX40 ligand (OX40L) was upregulated in a murine model of asthma and their significance in the pathogenesis of asthma.
After an ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged murine model of asthma was established, the expressions of OX40, OX40L in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell pellets were measured. Then T cell proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), and the protein levels of OX40 and OX40L in the lungs were determined by immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of IL-4 and IFN-γ in BALF and T cell culture supernatant were evaluated by ELISA.
The percentages of CD4+OX40+, CD19+OX40L+, F4/80+OX40L+ in PBMCs and BALF cell pellets were higher in asthma group than in control group (all P<0.01). The proliferation capacity of T cells in asthma group was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). In asthma group, stimulation of OX40 by anti-OX40 mAb obviously promoted T cell proliferation and secretion of IL-4 and IFN-γ. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that OX40 and OX40L protein levels were higher in asthma group than those in control group (all P<0.05).
The expressions of OX40 and OX40L were upregulated in the murine asthmatic model. The upregulation of OX40/OX40L signals could induce the proliferation and cytokines secretion of T cells in asthmatic mice, indicating that OX40/OX40L signal was involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
Asthma; animal models; OX40; OX40 ligand (OX40L); T cell proliferation
Arsenic, a human skin carcinogen, suppresses differentiation of cultured keratinocytes. Exploring the mechanism of this suppression revealed that BMP-6 greatly increased levels of mRNA for keratins 1 and 10, two of the earliest differentiation markers expressed, a process prevented by co-treatment with arsenite. BMP also stimulated, and arsenite suppressed, mRNA for FOXN1, an important transcription factor driving early keratinocyte differentiation. Keratin mRNAs increased slowly after BMP-6 addition, suggesting they are indirect transcriptional targets. Inhibition of Notch1 activation blocked BMP induction of keratins 1 and 10, while FOXN1 induction was largely unaffected. Supporting a requirement for Notch1 signaling in keratin induction, BMP increased levels of activated Notch1, which was blocked by arsenite. BMP also greatly decreased active ERK, while co-treatment with arsenite maintained active ERK. Inhibition of ERK signaling mimicked BMP by inducing keratin and FOXN1 mRNAs and by increasing active Notch1, effects blocked by arsenite. Of 6 dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) targeting ERK, two were induced by BMP unless prevented by simultaneous exposure to arsenite and EGF. Knockdown of DUSP2 or DUSP14 using shRNAs greatly reduced FOXN1, and keratins 1 and 10 mRNA levels and their induction by BMP. Knockdown also decreased activated Notch1, keratin 1 and keratin 10 protein levels, both in the presence and absence of BMP. Thus, one of the earliest effects of BMP is induction of DUSPs which increase FOXN1 transcription factor and activate Notch1, both required for keratin gene expression. Arsenite prevents this cascade by maintaining ERK signaling, at least in part by suppressing DUSP expression.
Dual specificity phosphatases; EGF; ERK; FOXN1; Keratins 1 and 10; Notch1
The present study seeks to investigate the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. Stereotaxic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist Quinolinic acid (QA) into the unilateral striatum was used to produce the in vivo excitotoxic model. Co-administration of QA and the cathepsin L inhibitor Z-FF-FMK or 1-Naphthalenesulfonyl-IW-CHO (NaphthaCHO) was used to assess the contribution of cathepsin L to QA-induced striatal neuron death. Western blot analysis and cathepsin L activity assay were used to assess the changes in the levels of cathepsin L after QA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to assess the changes in the protein levels of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha isoform (IκB-α) and phospho-IκB alpha (p-IκBα) after QA treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced NF-κB. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effects of Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO on QA-induced IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, changes in the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα, TP53, caspase-3, beclin1, p62, and LC3II/LC3I. The results show that QA-induced loss of striatal neurons were strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, up-regulation of NF-κB responsive gene TP53, and activation of caspase-3 was strongly inhibited by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. QA-induced increases in beclin 1, LC3II/LC3I, and down-regulation of p62 were reduced by Z-FF-FMK or NaphthaCHO. These results suggest that cathepsin L is involved in glutamate receptor-induced NF-κB activation. Cathepsin L inhibitors have neuroprotective effects by inhibiting glutamate receptor-induced IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation.
Tectorigenin is a plant isoflavonoid originally isolated from the dried flower of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Although its anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycosemia effects have been well documented, the effect of tectorigenin on endothelial dysfunction insulin resistance involved has not yet been reported. Herein, this study aims to investigate the action of tectorigenin on amelioration of insulin resistance in the endothelium. Palmitic acid (PA) was chosen as a stimulant to induce ROS production in endothelial cells and successfully established insulin resistance evidenced by the specific impairment of insulin PI3K signaling. Tectorigenin effectively inhibited the ability of PA to induce the production of reactive oxygen species and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, tectorigenin presented strong inhibition effect on ROS-associated inflammation, as TNF-α and IL-6 production in endothelial cells was greatly reduced with suppression of IKKβ/NF-κB phosphorylation and JNK activation. Tectorigenin also can inhibit inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and restore the impaired insulin PI3K signaling, leading to a decreased NO production. These results demonstrated its positive regulation of insulin action in the endothelium. Meanwhile, tectorigenin down-regulated endothelin-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 overexpression, and restored the loss of insulin-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta. These findings suggested that tectorigenin could inhibit ROS-associated inflammation and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction implicated in insulin resistance through regulating IRS-1 function. Tectorigenin might have potential to be applied for the management of cardiovascular diseases involved in diabetes and insulin resistance.
Background and Aims
The genus Allium comprises more than 800 species, placing it among the largest monocotyledonous genera. It is a variable group that is spread widely across the Holarctic region. Previous studies of Allium have been useful in identifying and assessing its evolutionary lineages. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of infrageneric taxonomy and evolution of Allium. Further understanding of its phylogeny and biogeography will be achieved only through continued phylogenetic studies, especially of those species endemic to China that have often been excluded from previous analyses. Earlier molecular studies have shown that Chinese Allium is not monophyletic, so the goal of the present study was to infer the phylogeny and biogeography of Allium and to provide a classification of Chinese Allium by placement of Chinese species in the context of the entire phylogeny.
Phylogenetic studies were based on sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rps16 intron, analysed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Biogeographical patterns were conducted using statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA).
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Allium is monophyletic and consists of three major clades. Optimal reconstructions have favoured the ancestors of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum as originating in eastern Asia.
Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Allium is monophyletic but that some subgenera are not. The large genetic distances imply that Allium is of ancient origin. Molecular data suggest that its evolution proceeded along three separate evolutionary lines. S-DIVA indicates that the ancestor of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum originated from eastern Asia and underwent different biogeographical pathways. A taxonomic synopsis of Chinese Allium at sectional level is given, which divides Chinese Allium into 13 subgenera and 34 sections.
Allium; biogeography; classification; ITS; molecular phylogeny; rps16
We extended our previous GWAS for psoriasis with a a multistage replication study including 8,312 cases and 12,919 controls from China as well as 3,293 cases, 4,188 controls from Germany and the USA, and 254 nuclear families from the USA. We identified 6 new susceptibility loci associated to psoriasis in Chinese, containing candidate genes ERAP1, PTTG1, CSMD1, GJB2, SERPINB8, ZNF816A (PCombined<5×10−8) and replicated one locus 5q33.1 (TNIP1/ANXA6) previously reported (PCombined=3.8×10−21) in European studies. Two of these loci showed evidence for association evidence in the German study, at ZNF816A and GJB2 with P=3.6×10−3 and P=7.9×10−3, respectively. ERAP1 and ZNF816A were preferentially associated with Type I (early onset) psoriasis in Chinese Han population (test for heterogeneity P=6.5×10−3 and P=1.5×10−3, respectively). Comparisons with previous GWAS of psoriasis highlight the heterogeneity of disease susceptibility between Chinese and European populations. Our study identifies new genetic susceptibility factors and suggests new biological pathways in psoriasis.
The aim of this study is to present a new approach for making quantitative single-voxel T2 measurements from an arbitrarily shaped region of interest (ROI), where the advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per unit time of the single-voxel approach over conventional imaging approach can be achieved.
Materials and methods
Two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses are proposed in this work for T2 measurements based on using interleaved spiral trajectories in excitation k-space (pinwheel excitation pulses), combined with a summed Carr—Purcell Meiboom—Gill (CPMG) echo acquisition. The technique is described and compared to standard multi-echo imaging methods, on a two-compartment water phantom and an excised brain tissue.
The studies show good agreement between imaging and our method. The measured improvement factors of SNR per unit time of our single-voxel approach over imaging approach are close to the predicted values.
Measuring T2 relaxation times from a selected ROI of arbitrary shape using a single-voxel rather than an imaging approach can increase the SNR per unit time, which is critical for dynamic T2 or multi-component T2 measurements.
T2 measurement; Arbitrary shape localization; Interleaved spiral trajectory in k-space; CPMG
AIM: To investigate the distribution of HBV genotypes and their YMDD mutations in Guangxi Zhuang population, China, and to study the relationship between HBV genotypes and clinical types of HB, ALT, HBV DNA, HBe system as well as the curative effect of Lamivudine (LAM) on hepatitis B.
METHODS: A total of 156 cases were randomly chosen as study subjects from 317 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV genotypes were determined by PCR-microcosmic nucleic acid cross-ELISA. YMDD mutations were detected by microcosmic nucleic acid cross-nucleic acid quantitative determination. HBV DNA was detected by fluorescence ratio PCR analysis. LAM was given to 81 cases and its curative effect was observed by measuring ALT, HBV DNA load, HBeAg, and HBeAg/HBeAb conversion rate.
RESULTS: HBV genotypes B, C, D, and non-classified genotypes were found in Guangxi Zhuang population. accounting for 25.6%, 47.4%, 58.3%, and 16.0%, respectively. Seventy-four cases were CD-, CB-, BD-mixed genotypes (47.7%). Forty-six (29.5%) cases had YMDD mutations. Genotype B was mostly found in mild and moderate CHB patients. Genotypes C, D and mixed genotype mostly occurred in severe CHB cases. Genotypes D and CD HBV-infected patients had higher ALT and HBV DNA than patients with other types of HBV infection. There was no significant difference among the genotypes in YMDD mutations, clinical types, ALT and HBV DNA level. Non-classified types geno had a significantly lower positive rate of HBeAg than other genotypes (χ2=12.841, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ALT recovery rate, HBV DNA load, HBeAg, and HBeAg/HBeAb conversion rate, 48 wk after LAM treatment between groups of genotypes D, CD, and non-classified type.
CONCLUSION: Genotypes B, C, and D, non-classified and mixed genotype of HBV are identified in the Guangxi Zhuang population. Variations in genotypes are associated with clinical severity and serum ALT levels, but not with YMDD mutation or HBV DNA load. Therapeutic effects of LAM on clinical parameters are not influenced by differences in genotypes. Further studies are needed to gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between HBV genotypes and serum HBeAb and HBeAg.
Hepatitis B virus; Chronic hepatitis; Genotype; YMDD mutation; Lamivudine; Zhuang nationality
AIM: To polymerase P region (YMDD) mutations of hepatitis B virus gene (HBV DNA) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) untreated with antiviral medicines and to explore its correlation with pre-c-zone mutations, HBV genotypes and HBV DNA level, and to observe its curative effect.
METHODS: A total of 104 cases (38 cases in group of familial aggregation and 66 cases in group of non-familial aggregation) were randomly chosen from 226 patients with CHB who did not receive the treatment of lamivudine (LAM) and any other antivirus drugs within the last one year. Their serum YMDD mutations were detected by microcosmic nucleic acid and cross-nucleic acid quantitative determination, HBV genotypes by PCR-microcosmic nucleic acid cross-ELISA, HBV DNA quantitative determination and fluorescence ration PCR analysis, hepatitis B virus markers (HBVM) by ELISA. LAM was taken by 10 patients with YMDD mutations and its curative effect was observed.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight cases (26.9%) had YMDD mutations, of them 11 cases (28.9%) were in familial aggregation group (38 cases) and 17 cases (25.8%) in non-familial aggregation group (66 cases) with no significant difference between the two groups. Twenty-seven point one percent (16/59) cases were positive for HBeAg YMDD mutations, and 26.7% (12/45) cases were negative for HBeAg and positive for anti-HBe. There was also no significant difference between the two groups. Different YMDD incidence rate existed in different HBV genotypes. HBV DNA level did not have a positive correlation with the incidence of YMDD mutations. LAM was effective for all patients with mutations.
CONCLUSION: Wild mutant strains in HBV and their incidence rate have no significant difference between familial aggregation and non-familial aggregation. It may have no significant relationship between YMDD mutations and pre-c-zone mutations. HBV DNA level may not have a positive correlation with YMDD mutations. LAM is clinically effective for CHB patients with YMDD mutations.
Hepatitis B virus; Chronic hepatitis; Genotypes; YMDD mutation; Lamivudine
AIM: To assess the effects of somatostatin on proliferation and apoptosis of activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
METHODS: HSCs isolated from the livers of adult Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 400-500 g) by in situ perfusion and purified by single-step density gradient centrifugation with Nycodenz, became activated after 10 days’ cultivation. Then the apoptotic rate of HSCs treated with different doses of somatostatin for 72 h, was assayed by acridine orange/ ethidium bromide fluorescent staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry, while the proliferation of HSCs was measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, the mechanisms of somatostatin were investigated by cytodynamic analysis.
RESULTS: Somatostatin at the concentration of 10-6-10-9 mol/L could decrease the proliferative rate, and promote the apoptosis of activated rat HSCs in a dose-dependent way. Its action was most significant when the concentration reached 10-6 mol/L or 10-7 mol/L (P < 0.05-0.01). An obvious cell-cycle arrest (G0/G1 arrest) was the important way for somatostatin to exert its action.
CONCLUSION: Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of low-dose somatostatin on activated rat HSCs can be obtained. These findings reveal its potential antifibrotic action.
A Steady Pulsed Imaging and Labeling (SPIL) scheme is proposed to obtain high-resolution multi-slice perfusion images of mice brain using standard preclinical MRI equipment.
The SPIL scheme repeats a pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) module together with a short mixing time to extend the temporal duration of the generated PASL bolus to the total experimental time. Multi-slice image acquisition takes place during the mixing times. The mixing time is also used for magnetization recovery following image acquisition. The new scheme is able to yield multi-slice perfusion images rapidly. The perfusion kinetic curve can be measured by a multi-pulsed imaging and labeling (MPIL) scheme, i.e., acquiring single-slice ASL signals before reaching steady-state in the SPIL sequence.
When applying the SPIL method to normal mice, and to mice with unilateral ischemia, high-resolution multi-slice (5 slices) CBF images could be obtained in 8 minutes. Perfusion data from ischemic mice showed clear CBF reductions in in ischemic regions. The SPIL method was also applied to postmortem mice, showing that the method is free from magnetization transfer (MT) confounds.
The new SPIL scheme provides for robust measurement of CBF with multi-slice imaging capability in small animals.
Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL); Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL); UN-inverted Flow-sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (UNFAIR); Steady Pulsed Imaging and Labeling (SPIL); multi-pulsed imaging and labeling (MPIL); Perfusion; Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF)
Urapidil is putatively effective for patients with hypertension and acute heart failure, although randomized controlled trials thereon are lacking. We investigated the efficacy and safety of intravenous urapidil relative to that of nitroglycerin in older patients with hypertension and heart failure in a randomized controlled trial.
Materials and Methods
Patients (>60 y) with hypertension and heart failure were randomly assigned to receive intravenous urapidil (n=89) or nitroglycerin (n=91) for 7 days. Hemodynamic parameters, cardiac function, and safety outcomes were compared.
Patients in the urapidil group had significantly lower mean systolic blood pressure (110.1±6.5 mm Hg) than those given nitroglycerin (126.4±8.1 mm Hg, p=0.022), without changes in heart rate. Urapidil was associated with improved cardiac function as reflected by lower N terminal-pro B type natriuretic peptide after 7 days (3311.4±546.1 ng/mL vs. 4879.1±325.7 ng/mL, p=0.027) and improved left ventricular ejection fraction (62.2±3.4% vs. 51.0±2.4%, p=0.032). Patients given urapidil had fewer associated adverse events, specifically headache (p=0.025) and tachycardia (p=0.004). The one-month rehospitalization and all-cause mortality rates were similar.
Intravenous administration of urapidil, compared with nitroglycerin, was associated with better control of blood pressure and preserved cardiac function, as well as fewer adverse events, for elderly patients with hypertension and acute heart failure.
Urapidil; hypertension; acute heart failure; randomized controlled trial