Background and Aims
The genus Allium comprises more than 800 species, placing it among the largest monocotyledonous genera. It is a variable group that is spread widely across the Holarctic region. Previous studies of Allium have been useful in identifying and assessing its evolutionary lineages. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of infrageneric taxonomy and evolution of Allium. Further understanding of its phylogeny and biogeography will be achieved only through continued phylogenetic studies, especially of those species endemic to China that have often been excluded from previous analyses. Earlier molecular studies have shown that Chinese Allium is not monophyletic, so the goal of the present study was to infer the phylogeny and biogeography of Allium and to provide a classification of Chinese Allium by placement of Chinese species in the context of the entire phylogeny.
Phylogenetic studies were based on sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rps16 intron, analysed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Biogeographical patterns were conducted using statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA).
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Allium is monophyletic and consists of three major clades. Optimal reconstructions have favoured the ancestors of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum as originating in eastern Asia.
Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Allium is monophyletic but that some subgenera are not. The large genetic distances imply that Allium is of ancient origin. Molecular data suggest that its evolution proceeded along three separate evolutionary lines. S-DIVA indicates that the ancestor of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum originated from eastern Asia and underwent different biogeographical pathways. A taxonomic synopsis of Chinese Allium at sectional level is given, which divides Chinese Allium into 13 subgenera and 34 sections.
Allium; biogeography; classification; ITS; molecular phylogeny; rps16
The aim of this study is to present a new approach for making quantitative single-voxel T2 measurements from an arbitrarily shaped region of interest (ROI), where the advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per unit time of the single-voxel approach over conventional imaging approach can be achieved.
Materials and methods
Two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses are proposed in this work for T2 measurements based on using interleaved spiral trajectories in excitation k-space (pinwheel excitation pulses), combined with a summed Carr—Purcell Meiboom—Gill (CPMG) echo acquisition. The technique is described and compared to standard multi-echo imaging methods, on a two-compartment water phantom and an excised brain tissue.
The studies show good agreement between imaging and our method. The measured improvement factors of SNR per unit time of our single-voxel approach over imaging approach are close to the predicted values.
Measuring T2 relaxation times from a selected ROI of arbitrary shape using a single-voxel rather than an imaging approach can increase the SNR per unit time, which is critical for dynamic T2 or multi-component T2 measurements.
T2 measurement; Arbitrary shape localization; Interleaved spiral trajectory in k-space; CPMG
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection was necessary but not sufficient for KS development without other cofactors. We have previously reported that herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was an important cofactor that reactivated KSHV from latency by inducing the expression of KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA), the lytic switch protein. Here, we further investigated the possible cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulation of RTA during HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. The differential profiles of miRNAs expression between Mock- and HSV-1-infected body cavity-based lymphoma (BCBL-1) cells were identified by miRNA microarray analysis. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses showed that two of the HSV-1-downregulated cellular miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-320d, directly targeted the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of KSHV RTA. As a result, overexpression of these two miRNAs significantly inhibited HSV-1-induced KSHV replication, whereas repression of these miRNAs with specific suppressors enhanced HSV-1-mediated KSHV replication. In addition, miR-498 or miR-320d alone, without HSV-1 infection, regulated KSHV replication in BCBL-1 cells. Finally, bioinformatics Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that targets of HSV-1-regulated miRNAs were enriched for proteins, whose roles were involved in protein binding, enzyme activity, biological regulation, and several potential signaling pathways including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were likely to participate in HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrated that host-encoded miR-498 and miR-320d regulated HSV-1 induction of KSHV lytic replication by targeting RTA, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling KSHV lytic replication.
Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus strain, GD05/2010, isolated in 2010 from a patient with chikungunya fever in Guangdong, China. The sequence information is important for surveillance of this emerging arboviral infection in China.
Recently, a T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging (TRUST) MRI technique was developed to quantitatively estimate blood oxygen saturation fraction (Y) via the measurement of pure blood T2. This technique has shown promise for normalization of fMRI signals, for the assessment of oxygen metabolism, and in studies of cognitive aging and multiple sclerosis. However, a human validation study has not been conducted. In addition, the calibration curve used to convert blood T2 to Y has not accounted for the effects of hematocrit (Hct). In the present study, we first conducted experiments on blood samples under physiologic conditions, and the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) T2 was determined for a range of Y and Hct values. The data were fitted to a two-compartment exchange model to allow the characterization of a three-dimensional plot that can serve to calibrate the in vivo data. Next, in a validation study in humans, we showed that arterial Y estimated using TRUST MRI was 0.837±0.036 (N=7) during the inhalation of 14% O2, which was in excellent agreement with the gold-standard Y values of 0.840±0.036 based on Pulse-Oximetry. These data suggest that the availability of this calibration plot should enhance the applicability of TRUST MRI for non-invasive assessment of cerebral blood oxygenation.
T2 relaxation under spin tagging; arterial spin labeling; cerebral blood flow; hypoxia; normoxia
This article reviews the molecular structure, expression pattern, physiological function, pathological roles and molecular mechanisms of Twist1 in development, genetic disease and cancer. Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor. It forms homo- or hetero-dimers in order to bind the Nde1 E-box element and activate or repress its target genes. During development, Twist1 is essential for mesoderm specification and differentiation. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the human Twist1 gene cause several diseases including the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. The Twist1-null mouse embryos die with unclosed cranial neural tubes and defective head mesenchyme, somites and limb buds. Twist1 is expressed in breast, liver, prostate, gastric and other types of cancers, and its expression is usually associated with invasive and metastatic cancer phenotypes. In cancer cells, Twist1 is upregulated by multiple factors including SRC-1, STAT3, MSX2, HIF-1α, integrin-linked kinase and NF-κB. Twist1 significantly enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer cell migration and invasion, hence promoting cancer metastasis. Twist1 promotes EMT in part by directly repressing E-cadherin expression by recruiting the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex for gene repression and by upregulating Bmi1, AKT2, YB-1, etc. Emerging evidence also suggests that Twist1 plays a role in expansion and chemotherapeutic resistance of cancer stem cells. Further understanding of the mechanisms by which Twist1 promotes metastasis and identification of Twist1 functional modulators may hold promise for developing new strategies to inhibit EMT and cancer metastasis.
Twist1; development; differentiation; cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; metastasis
Our previous studies found that Homer 1a, a scaffolding protein localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic excitatory synapses, is significantly down-regulated in the brain of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, a first-line treatment drug for ADHD, methylphenidate, can up-regulate the expression of Homer 1a. To investigate the possible role of Homer 1a in the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD, a lentiviral vector containing miRNA specific for Homer 1a was constructed in this study. Intracerebroventricular injection of this vector into the brain of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats significantly decreased Homer 1a mRNA and protein expression levels. Compared to their negative controls, these rats displayed a range of abnormal behaviors, including increased locomotor activity and non-selective attention and impaired learning ability. Our results indicated that Homer 1a down-regulation results in deficits in control over behavioral output and learning similar to ADHD.
Homer 1a; RNAi; lentiviral vector; ADHD; behavior.
AIM: To elucidate high mobility group-box 3 (HMGB3) protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, its potential prognostic relevance, and possible mechanism of action.
METHODS: Ninety-two patients with gastric adenocarcinomas surgically removed entered the study. HMGB3 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry through a tissue microarray procedure. The clinicopathologic characteristics of all patients were recorded, and regular follow-up was made for all patients. The inter-relationship of HMGB3 expression with histological and clinical factors was analyzed using nonparametric tests. Survival analysis was carried out by Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) and multivariate Cox (Forward LR) analyses between the group with overexpression of HMGB3 and the group with low or no HMGB3 expression to determine the prognosis value of HMGB3 expression on overall survival. Further, HMGB3 expression was knocked down by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in the human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 to observe its influence on cell biological characteristics. The MTT method was utilized to detect gastric cancer cell proliferation changes, and cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Among 92 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas surgically removed in this study, high HMGB3 protein expression was detected in the gastric adenocarcinoma tissues vs peritumoral tissues (P < 0.001). Further correlation analysis with patients’ clinical and histology variables revealed that HMGB3 overexpression was obviously associated with extensive wall penetration (P = 0.005), a positive nodal status (P = 0.004), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between HMGB3 overexpression and the age and gender of the patient, tumor localization or histologic grade. Statistical Kaplan-Meier survival analysis disclosed significant differences in overall survival between the HMGB3 overexpression group and the HMGB3 no or low expression group (P = 0.006). The expected overall survival time was 31.00 ± 3.773 mo (95%CI = 23.605-38.395) for patients with HMGB3 overexpression and 49.074 ± 3.648 mo (95%CI = 41.925-57.311) for patients with HMGB3 no and low-level expression. Additionally, older age (P = 0.040), extensive wall penetration (P = 0.008), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.005), and advanced TNM tumor stage (P = 0.007) showed negative correlation with overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that HMGB3 overexpression was an independent variable with respect to age, gender, histologic grade, extent of wall penetration, lymph nodal metastasis, and TNM stage for patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinomas with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.791, 95%CI = 1.233-6.319, P = 0.019). In the gene function study, after HMGB3 was knocked down in the gastric cell line BGC823 by shRNA, the cell proliferation rate was reduced at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Compared to BGC823 shRNA-negative control (NC) cells, the cell proliferation rate in cells that had HMGB3 shRNA transfected was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Finally, cell cycle analysis by FACS showed that BGC823 cells that had HMGB3 knocked down were blocked in G1/G0 phase. The percentage of cells in G1/G0 phase in BGC823 cells with shRNA-NC and with shRNA-HMGB3 was 46.84% ± 1.7%, and 73.03% ± 3.51% respectively (P = 0.001), whereas G2/M cells percentage decreased from 26.51% ± 0.83% to 17.8% ± 2.26%.
CONCLUSION: HMGB3 is likely to be a useful prognostic marker involved in gastric cancer disease onset and progression by regulating the cell cycle.
High mobility group-box 3; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Prognosis; Cell proliferation; Cell cycle
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumors do not express estrogen, progesterone or HER2/neu-receptors. There are no specific treatment guidelines for TNBC patients, however, it has been postulated that their phenotypic and molecular similarity to BRCA1-associated cancers would confer sensitivity to certain cytotoxic agents, including platinum. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy who had TNBC compared with those with non-TNBC. Electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases) and manual searches were conducted throughout December 2011 to identify trials evaluating the use of platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer. The methodological quality was assessed in accordance with the QUOROM statement. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, with a total of 717 patients. Of these patients, 225 were TNBC patients (31%), 492 were non-TNBC patients (69%), 275 received platinum-based neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and 442 had advanced/metastatic breast cancers. The results showed that during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, the clinical complete response (cCR) rate and the pathological complete response (pCR) rates were significantly higher for the TNBC group compared with the non-TNBC group (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.69–6.57; P=0.03 and OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.28, 6.53; P= 0.01, respectively). However, in advanced/metastatic breast cancers, the cCR, partial response (PR) and the disease control rates for the TNBC group were not significantly different compared with the non-TNBC group. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate for the TNBC group was higher than that of the non-TNBC group in all patients (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11–2.96; P= 0.02). However, the 1- and 2-year PFS rates were not significantly different (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.69–2.92; P=0.35 and OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.35–3.52; P= 0.85, respectively). Furthermore, the PFS rates were not significantly different between the groups in patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer. In conclusion, platinum-based chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients with TNBC showed an improved short-term efficacy compared with the non-TNBC group during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, but has not yet been demonstrated to have an improved effect in advanced breast cancer.
meta-analysis; triple-negative breast cancer; platinum
Arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVa) is a vital indicator of tissue perfusion and vascular reactivity. We extended the recently developed inflow vascular-space-occupancy (iVASO) MRI technique, which uses spatially selective inversion to suppress the signal from blood flowing into a slice, with a control scan to measure absolute CBVa using CSF for signal normalization. Images were acquired at multiple blood nulling times to account for the heterogeneity of arterial transit times across the brain, from which both CBVa and arterial transit times were quantified. Arteriolar CBVa was determined separately by incorporating velocity-dependent bipolar crusher gradients. Gray matter CBVa values (n = 11) were 2.04 ± 0.27 and 0.76 ± 0.17 ml blood/100 ml tissue without and with crusher gradients (b = 1.8 s/mm2), respectively. Arterial transit times were 671 ± 43 and 785 ± 69 ms, respectively. The arterial origin of the signal was validated by measuring its T2, which was within arterial range. The proposed approach does not require exogenous contrast agent administration, and provides a noninvasive alternative to existing blood volume techniques for mapping absolute CBVa in studies of brain physiology and neurovascular diseases.
cerebral blood volume; arterial blood volume; arterial transit time; double inversion; iVASO; VASO; perfusion; MRI
Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a dengue virus serotype 4 genotype II strain, GZ30, isolated in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, in 2010. The sequence information provided herein will help us to understand the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus and predict the risk of severe diseases in mainland China.
Some common genetic variants of TERT-CLPTM1L gene, which encode key protein subunits of telomerase, have been suggested to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. The TERT-CLPTM1L polymorphism rs401681 was of special interest for cancers risk but with inconclusive results.
We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 29 publications with a total of 91263 cases and 735952 controls. We assessed the strength of the association between rs401681 and overall cancers risk and performed subgroup analyses by cancer type, ethnicity, source of control, sample size and expected power. Rs401681 C allele was found to be associated with marginally increased cancers risk, with per allele OR of 1.04 (95%CI = 1.00–1.08, Pheterogeneity<0.001) and an expected power of 1.000. Following further stratified analyses, the increased cancers risk were discovered in subgroups of lung, bladder, prostate, basal cell carcinomas and Asians, while a declined risk of pancreatic cancer and melanoma were detected.
These findings suggested that rs401681 C allele was a low-penetrance risk allele for the development of cancers of lung, bladder, prostate and basal cell carcinoma, but a potential protective allele for melanoma and pancreatic cancer.
Recent reports have suggested that SDF (Stromal cell-derived factor)-1α- CXCR4 axis has a direct effect on stem and progenitor cell recruitment in muscle and neural tissue repair after injury. No information is available about SDF-1α or CXCR4 in dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of SDF-1α and its receptor, CXCR4, in healthy or inflamed human dental pulp and to evaluate the effects of SDF-1α on dental pulp cells (DPCs) in both proliferation and migration in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR detected weak expression of SDF-1α and CXCR4 in healthy dental pulp and strong expression of SDF-1a and CXCR4 in inflamed dental pulp. An MTT assay demonstrated that SDF-1α could not promote DPCs proliferation. A transmigration assay, however, indicated that SDF-1α enhanced DPCs migration, and which could be abolished by anti-CXCR4 antibodies. Taken together, these results imply that the SDF-1α-CXCR4 axis may play a role in the recruitment of CXCR4-positive DPCs toward the damaged sites
In the present study, we examined the effect of etanercept on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cells in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, with the aim of exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of etanercept on sciatica-related nociception and the potential interaction between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and HMGB1 in DRG neuron cells. A rat CCI model was employed and the animals were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=20/group): untreated, sham only, sham/saline, sham/etanercept, CCI only, CCI/saline and CCI/etanercept. Our results revealed that compared with the sham/saline and sham/etanercept groups, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as HMGB1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in the DRG neuron cells, were induced by CCI, and were significantly inhibited by etanercept. Although etanercept showed no significant effect on the sham group, it significantly reduced the phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) levels induced by CCI in the DRG neuron cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that etanercept significantly decreased the HMGB1 expression induced by CCI in the DRG neuron cells. This study not only explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of etanercept on sciatica-related nociception, but also provided indirect evidence for an interaction between TNF-α and HMGB1 in DRG neuron cells.
etanercept; high mobility group box 1; tumor necrosis factor-α; chronic constriction injury; dorsal root ganglion; mitogen-activated protein kinase
IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p = 5.00×10−7 in first stage, p = 1.34×10−3 in second stage, and p = 4.22×10−9 when combined). Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P<0.05), but there was no significant interaction between smoking and the identified SNP (P>0.05). It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor involved in multiple cell processes. To investigate the role of PTEN in the development of gastric carcinoma, we determined the expression pattern of PTEN in primary gastric carcinoma and in paired adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. We also determined the correlation of PTEN expression with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. Overall, 159 gastric carcinomas and 151 paired adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were used in the present study. PTEN expression was determined using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of PTEN expression were calculated using receiver operator characteristic curves. Results showed that the loss of cytoplasmic PTEN was significantly more frequent in carcinoma tissue compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissue (62 vs. 5%, respectively; P<0.0001). PTEN expression was markedly downregulated in carcinoma tissues compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. The loss of cytoplasmic PTEN expression was positively correlated with histological stage (P=0.016). The loss of nuclear or total PTEN, and downregulation of total PTEN expression, was significantly different between American Joint Committee on Cancer tumors of stage I and stages II–IV. A low cytoplasmic or total PTEN expression showed high clinical sensitivity and specificity for gastric carcinoma. However, PTEN expression was not significantly associated with overall or 3-year survival rates. The findings of the present study indicated that PTEN expression may be a molecular diagnostic marker for gastric cancer. Thus, the loss or reduced expression of PTEN potentially correlate with advanced stages of gastric carcinoma.
phosphatase and tensin homolog; advanced gastric carcinoma; tissue microarray; immunohistochemistry; receiver operator characteristic curve
l-DOPA–induced dyskinesia (LID), a detrimental consequence of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease, is associated with an alteration in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and glutamate receptor interactions. We hypothesized that the synaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 plays a pivotal role in this process, as it interacts with D1R, regulates its trafficking and function, and is overexpressed in LID. Here, we demonstrate in rat and macaque models that disrupting the interaction between D1R and PSD-95 in the striatum reduces LID development and severity. Single quantum dot imaging revealed that this benefit was achieved primarily by destabilizing D1R localization, via increased lateral diffusion followed by increased internalization and diminished surface expression. These findings indicate that altering D1R trafficking via synapse-associated scaffolding proteins may be useful in the treatment of dyskinesia in Parkinson’s patients.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the most important enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism and its functional genetic polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted to explore the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study.
Systematic searches of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were performed. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association.
A total of 56 studies including 34,358 breast cancer cases and 45,429 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk were found for LL versus HH, HL versus HH, LL versus HL, recessive model LL versus HL+HH, and dominant model LL+HL versus HH. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, and menopausal status, there was still no significant association detected in any of the genetic models.
Our meta-analysis results suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism may not contribute to breast cancer susceptibility.
The virtual slides(s) for this article can be found here:
COMT; Polymorphism; Breast cancer; Meta-analysis
Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with gastric cancer is a serious therapeutic problem and major efforts are underway to understand the underlying mechanisms. We have previously identified RhoGDI2 as a contributor to 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry and the current study aimed to further investigate this role. The expression of RhoGDI2 in seven gastric cancer cell lines was positively correlated with resistance to 5-FU. Lower 5-FU sensitivity of isolated tumor cells from patients with gastric cancer was also associated with higher RhoGDI2 expression. Ectopic expression of RhoGDI2 in gastric cancer cells increased the resistance to 5-FU and reverted low dose 5-FU-induced G2/M phase arrest without affecting the population of sub-G1 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that RhoGDI2 is associated with 5-FU resistance and is a potential therapeutic target for enhancing chemotherapy efficacy in gastric cancer.
RhoGDI2; 5-fluorouracil resistance; gastric cancer; cell cycle
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the key enzyme regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. FAS overexpression has been found in many types of tumors and is associated with poor survival. However, the expression of FAS and its relationship with prognosis in Chinese patients with gastric carcinoma are still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the expression of FAS using tissue microarrays and determined its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric carcinoma in Chinese patients. FAS overexpression was graded as S (T/A) <1, ≥1 to <2, ≥2 to <3 or ≥3 in 35 (38.9%), 20 (22.2%), 9 (10%) and 26 (28.9%) patients, respectively. High FAS overexpression [S (T/A) ≥3] was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (log-rank test, P= 0.0078) and with decreased 3-year survival rate (χ2 test, P=0.0023). FAS overexpression was not significantly associated with other clinicopathological characteristics. In conclusion, our results suggest that FAS expression might be a potential prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma in Chinese patients.
fatty acid synthase; gastric cancer; tissue microarray; prognostic marker
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C has emerged as a cause of epidemic disease in Hefei. The establishment of serogroup C as the predominant cause of endemic disease has not been described.
We conducted national laboratory-based surveillance for invasive meningococcal disease during 2000–2010. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing.
A total of 845 cases of invasive meningococcal disease were reported. The incidence increased from 1.25 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 3.14 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p < 0.001), and peaked at 8.43 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The increase was mainly the result of an increase in the incidence of serogroup C disease. Serogroup C disease increased from 2/23 (9%) meningococcal cases and 0.11 cases per 100,000 in 2000 to 33/58 (57%) cases and 1.76 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p < 0.01). Patients infected with serogroup C had serious complications more frequently than those infected with other serogroups. Specifically, 161/493 (32.7%) cases infected with serogroup C had at least one complication. The case-fatality rate of serogroup C meningitis was 11.4%, significantly higher than for serogroup A meningitis (5.3%, p = 0.021). Among patients with meningococcal disease, factors associated with death in univariate analysis were age of 15–24 years, infection with serogroup C, and meningococcemia.
The incidence of meningococcal disease has substantially increased and serogroup C has become endemic in Hefei. The serogroup C strain has caused more severe disease than the previously predominant serogroup A strain.
Neisseria meningitidis; Serogroup C strain; Incidence
AU-rich elements (AREs), residing in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of many labile mRNAs, are important cis-acting elements that modulate the stability of these mRNAs by collaborating with trans-acting factors such as tristetraprolin (TTP). AREs also regulate translation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here we examined the function and mechanism of TTP in ARE-mRNA translation. Through a luciferase-based reporter system, we used knockdown, overexpression, and tethering assays in 293T cells to demonstrate that TTP represses ARE reporter mRNA translation. Polyribosome fractionation experiments showed that TTP shifts target mRNAs to lighter fractions. In murine RAW264.7 macrophages, knocking down TTP produces significantly more tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) than the control, while the corresponding mRNA level has a marginal change. Furthermore, knockdown of TTP increases the rate of biosynthesis of TNF-α, suggesting that TTP can exert effects at translational levels. Finally, we demonstrate that the general translational repressor RCK may cooperate with TTP to regulate ARE-mRNA translation. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel function of TTP in repressing ARE-mRNA translation and that RCK is a functional partner of TTP in promoting TTP-mediated translational repression.