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1.  Incidence of Stroke According to Presence of Diabetic Nephropathy and Severe Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(12):4140-4146.
Type 1 diabetes is associated with a markedly increased risk of stroke, but only a few studies on the incidence of stroke in type 1 diabetes exist. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes and studied the impact of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and severe diabetic retinopathy (SDR) on this risk.
We studied 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age was 37.4 ± 11.8 years, duration of diabetes was 21.6 ± 12.1 years, and 52% were men. Strokes were identified from medical records, death certificates, and the National Hospital Discharge Register and classified based on medical files and brain images.
During 36,680 person-years of follow-up, 149 (4%) patients suffered an incident stroke (105 infarctions and 44 hemorrhages). Of the infarctions, 58 (55%) were lacunar. The incidence of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage was 406 (95% CI 344–477), 286 (234–347), and 120 (87–161) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In an adjusted analysis, microalbuminuria increased the risk of stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.2 (1.9–5.6), macroalbuminuria 4.9 (2.9–8.2), and end-stage renal disease 7.5 (4.2–13.3), and SDR increased the risk with an HR of 3.0 (1.9–4.5). The risk of cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and lacunar infarction increased in a similar manner. The proportion of lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction did not change across DN groups.
The presence of SDR and DN, independently, increases the risk of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage in patients with type 1 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3836162  PMID: 24101700
2.  Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(11):3754-3758.
To estimate for the first time the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in type 1 diabetes.
Using the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study cohort of 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age of 37.4 ± 11.8 years at enrollment), we analyzed the incidence of first-ever SAH events.
During the follow-up time of 36,680 person-years (median 9.4 years), 15 patients with type 1 diabetes experienced an aneurysmal or nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of SAH was 40.9 (95% CI 22.9–67.4) per 100,000 person-years. One patient had a verified aneurysmal SAH, and four patients died suddenly of an SAH, which was most likely caused by an aneurysm. SAHs in 10 out of 15 patients were classified as nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH was 27.3 (13.1–50.1) per 100,000 person-years. None of the nonaneurysmal SAHs were fatal. In univariate analysis, current smokers had a hazard ratio of 4.82 (95% CI 1.31–17.81) for nonaneurysmal SAH.
The incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH is high among patients with type 1 diabetes. Our findings suggest that nonaneurysmal SAH is a distinct new microvascular complication in type 1 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3816906  PMID: 23877984
3.  Lessons from everyday stroke care for clinical research and vice versa: comparison of a comprehensive and a research population of young stroke patients 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:45.
Translating knowledge derived from medical research into the clinical setting is dependent on the representativeness of included patients. Therefore we compared baseline data of patients included in a recent large study addressing young stroke in comparison to a large representative stroke registry.
We analysed baseline data of 5023 patients (age 18-55 years) with an acute cerebrovascular event included in the sifap1 (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients) study. For comparison 17007 stroke patients (age 18-55 years) documented (2004-2010) in a statutory stroke registry of the Institute of Quality Assurance Hesse of the Federal State of Hesse (GQH), Germany.
Among 17007 juvenile (18-55 years) patients identified in the GQH registry 15997 had an ischaemic stroke or TIA (91%) or an intracranial haemorrhage (9%). In sifap1 5023 subjects were included. Sex distribution was comparable (men: 59% sifap1 versus 60.5% GQH) whereas age differed between the groups: median age was 46 years in sifap1 versus 49 years in GQH. Slightly higher percentages for diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the GQH registry were noted. There were no differences in stroke severity as assessed by NIHSS (median 3) and mRS (median 2). In patients with ischaemic stroke or TIA (n = 4467 sifap1; n = 14522 GQH) higher rates of strokes due to small artery occlusion and atherosclerosis occurred in older age groups; cardioembolism and strokes of other determined cause occurred more frequently in younger patients.
The comparison of baseline characteristics between the sifap1 study and the GQH registry revealed differences mainly determined by age.
PMCID: PMC3984721  PMID: 24607068
Ischemic stroke; Stroke in the young; Stroke severity; Stroke registry
4.  IV Thrombolysis-Bridging and Endovascular Treatment for Occlusive Internal Carotid Artery Dissection with Tandem Occlusion 
Case Reports in Neurology  2012;4(1):13-19.
Compared to other etiologies of ischemic stroke, occlusive internal carotid artery dissection responds worse to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. Intracranial tandem occlusion is a predictor of poor outcome. A direct endovascular approach has been proposed as a safe and probably superior alternative to IV thrombolysis. However, it may lead to considerable treatment delays. We used rapidly initiated IV thrombolysis-bridging and subsequent endovascular treatment in two patients with severe hemispheric ischemia due to occlusive internal carotid artery dissection with tandem occlusion and achieved good outcomes. Minimizing recanalization times likely improves patient outcome and IV thrombolysis-bridging may be a reasonable strategy to achieve this. The positive initial results obtained with endovascular approaches and IV thrombolysis-bridging in this patient group deserve further scientific exploration.
PMCID: PMC3290017  PMID: 22379480
Carotid artery dissection; Carotid stenting; Thrombolysis; Ischemic stroke; Thrombectomy
5.  Carotid Embolectomy and Endarterectomy for Symptomatic Complete Occlusion of the Carotid Artery as a Rescue Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke 
Case Reports in Neurology  2011;3(3):301-308.
Emergency endarterectomy of an occluded internal carotid artery (ICA) has not been investigated as an option of rescue therapy for severe acute ischemic stroke in the era of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis treatment neither as a primary treatment nor after failed IV thrombolysis. Data from the pre-IV thrombolysis era are conflicting and therefore emergency endarterectomy has not been recommended. The number of patients reaching the emergency room within the IV thrombolysis time window has vastly grown due to advanced acute stroke treatment protocols. The efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy as a primary or add-on to IV thrombolysis therapy option is being actively investigated. We herein report 2 cases of acute ischemic stroke with computerized tomography (CT) angiography-documented occlusion of an ICA that were treated with emergency carotid endarterectomy and embolectomy to restore cerebral blood flow. Both cases presented with severe stroke symptoms and signs not responding to IV thrombolysis and showed severe CT-perfusion deficits mainly representing ischemic penumbra. Blood flow was surgically restored after 5 h of symptom onset. Both patients achieved a favorable outcome. We conclude that timely surgical approach of acute ICA occlusion after failed thrombolysis as a rescue therapy may be a viable option in well-selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3250650  PMID: 22220158
Internal carotid artery; Carotid endarterectomy; Acute stroke treatment; Embolectomy
6.  Spinal Epidural Hematoma as a Complication of Intravenous Thrombolysis in an Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient 
Case Reports in Neurology  2010;2(1):32-36.
An 80-year-old white male suffered a stroke, fell to the floor, and suffered acute right hemiparesis and facial palsy. After an intravenous alteplase infusion 2.5 h later, the patient first complained of numbness in his right arm, then neck pain, followed by left leg numbness and slowly progressing paraparesis. MRI of the spine demonstrated an acute spinal dorsal epidural hematoma extending from the C6 to the T6 level; 12 h later, he underwent hematoma evacuation and laminectomy. Three months after surgery, the patient was paraplegic with moderate sensory loss below mamillary level. Acute ischemic stroke is often associated with a sudden fall, which, after thrombolysis, may result in unusual hemorrhagic complications.
PMCID: PMC2914369  PMID: 20689632
Cerebral infarction; Thrombolysis; Spinal epidural hematoma

Results 1-6 (6)