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1.  Accurate Reading with Sequential Presentation of Single Letters 
Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 wpm and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR) method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with greater than 90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.
doi:10.3389/fnins.2012.00158
PMCID: PMC3483628  PMID: 23115548
visual prosthesis; bionic vision; low vision; reading; RSVP; phosphene; word recognition
2.  Caged mitochondrial uncouplers that are released in response to hydrogen peroxide 
Tetrahedron  2010;66(13):2384-2389.
Caged versions of the most common mitochondrial uncouplers (proton translocators) have been prepared that sense the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide to release the uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) from caged states with second order rate constants of 10 (±0.8) M−1 s−1 and 64.8 (±0.6) M−1 s−1, respectively. The trigger mechanism involves conversion of an arylboronate into a phenol followed by fragmentation. Hydrogen peroxide-activated uncouplers may be useful for studying the biological process of ageing.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1016/j.tet.2010.01.103
PMCID: PMC2852674  PMID: 20418941
Mitochondria; Caged; Uncoupler; Boronate; Hydrogen peroxide; Ageing; Oxidative stress; ROS
3.  An Antiviral Peptide Targets a Coiled-Coil Domain of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoprotein 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(5):3281-3290.
Retrovirus entry into cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins which, through a cascade of conformational changes, orchestrate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In the absence of membrane fusion, viral entry into the host cell cannot occur. For human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), synthetic peptides that mimic a carboxy-terminal region of the transmembrane glycoprotein (TM) ectodomain are potent inhibitors of membrane fusion and virus entry. Here, we demonstrate that this class of inhibitor targets a fusion-active structure of HTLV-1 envelope. In particular, the peptides bind specifically to a core coiled-coil domain of envelope, and peptide variants that fail to bind the coiled-coil lack inhibitory activity. Our data indicate that the inhibitory peptides likely function by disrupting the formation of a trimer-of-hairpins structure that is required for membrane fusion. Importantly, we also show that peptides exhibiting dramatically increased potency can be readily obtained. We suggest that peptides or peptide mimetics targeting the fusion-active structures of envelope may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of HTLV-1 infections.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.5.3281-3290.2003
PMCID: PMC149751  PMID: 12584351
4.  pH Reduction as a Trigger for Dissociation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Scaffolds 
Journal of Virology  2002;76(15):7407-7417.
Assembly of the infectious herpes simplex virus type 1 virion is a complex, multistage process that begins with the production of a procapsid, which is formed by the condensation of capsid shell proteins around an internal scaffold fashioned from multiple copies of the scaffolding protein, pre-VP22a. The ability of pre-VP22a to interact with itself is an essential feature of this process. However, this self-interaction must subsequently be reversed to allow the scaffolding proteins to exit from the capsid to make room for the viral genome to be packaged. The nature of the process by which dissociation of the scaffold is accomplished is unknown. Therefore, to investigate this process, the properties of isolated scaffold particles were investigated. Electron microscopy and gradient sedimentation studies showed that the particles could be dissociated by low concentrations of chaotropic agents and by moderate reductions in pH (from 7.2 to 5.5). Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism analyses revealed that there was relatively little change in tertiary and secondary structures under these conditions, indicating that major structural transformations are not required for the dissociation process. We suggest the possibility that dissociation of the scaffold may be triggered by a reduction in pH brought about by the entry of the viral DNA into the capsid.
doi:10.1128/JVI.76.15.7407-7417.2002
PMCID: PMC136365  PMID: 12097553
5.  The Herpes Simplex Virus Triplex Protein, VP23, Exists as a Molten Globule 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(12):10066-10072.
Two proteins, VP19C (50,260 Da) and VP23 (34,268 Da), make up the triplexes which connect adjacent hexons and pentons in the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid. VP23 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by Ni-agarose affinity chromatography. In vitro capsid assembly experiments demonstrated that the purified protein was functionally active. Its physical status was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate binding studies. These studies established that the bacterially expressed VP23 exhibits properties consistent with its being in a partially folded, molten globule state. We propose that the molten globule represents a functionally relevant intermediate which is necessary to allow VP23 to undergo interaction with VP19C in the process of capsid assembly.
PMCID: PMC110536  PMID: 9811746

Results 1-5 (5)