Chondro-ectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which affects the ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal derivatives. There are numerous conditions reported under this title which include Ellis van Creveld syndrome. The oral findings include multiple gingivolabial frena, dental abnormality, malocclusion and hypodontia. The diagnosis of Ellis van Creveld syndrome is based on the presence of oral mucosal changes like notching of the lower alveolus, fusion of the upper lip and gingival mucosa; dental changes like oligodontia, conical shape of anterior teeth and occasional presence of neonatal teeth. The authors report a rare case of Ellis van Creveld syndrome occurring among two siblings with oral mucosal, dental and skeletal abnormalities.
To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and factors associated with post-surgical visual outcomes in migrant Indians living in Singapore.
Research Design and Methods
We conducted a population-based study in 3,400 Indian immigrants residing in Singapore−the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI). All participants underwent comprehensive medical eye examination and a standardized interview. Post-operative visual impairment (VI) was defined as best-corrected or presenting visual acuity (BCVA or PVA) of 20/60 or worse.
The age- and gender-standardized prevalence of cataract surgery was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.9%, 10.7%) in Singapore resident Indians. Post-operative VI defined by BCVA occurred in 10.9% eyes (87/795). The main causes of post-operative VI were diabetic retinopathy (20.7%), posterior capsular opacification (18.4%), and age-related macular degeneration (12.6%). Undercorrected refractive error doubled the prevalence of post-operative VI when PVA was used.
The rate of cataract surgery is about 10% in Indian residents in Singapore. Socioeconomic variables and migration had no significant impact on the prevalence of cataract surgery. Diabetic retinopathy was a major cause of post-operative VI in migrant Indians living in Singapore. Uncorrected postoperative refractive error remains an efficient way to improve vision.
Significance: Nitric oxide (NO) plays diverse physiological roles in the central nervous system, where it modulates neuronal communication, regulates blood flow, and contributes to the innate immune responses. In a number of brain pathologies, the excessive production of NO also leads to the formation of reactive and toxic intermediates generically termed reactive nitrogen species (RNS). RNS cause irreversible or poorly reversible damage to brain cells. Recent Advances: Recent work in the field focused on the ability of NO and RNS to yield protein modifications, including the S-nitrosation of cysteine residues, which, in many instances, impact cellular functions and viability. Critical Issues: The vast majority of neuropathological studies focus on the loss of cell viability, but nitrosative stress may also strongly impair the functions of neuronal processes: axonal projections and dendritic trees. The functional integrity of axons and dendrites critically depends on local metabolism and effective delivery of metabolic enzymes and organelles. Here, we summarize the existing literature describing the effects of nitrosative stress on the major pathways of energetic metabolism: glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mitochondrial respiration, with the emphasis on modifications of protein thiols. Future Directions: We propose that axons and dendrites are highly vulnerable to nitrosative stress because of their low glycolytic capacity and high dependence on timely delivery of metabolic enzymes and organelles from the cell body. Thus, supplementation with the end products of glycolysis, pyruvate or lactate, may help preserve metabolism in distal neuronal processes and protect or restore synaptic function in the ailing brain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 992–1012.
Radiotherapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors may lead to exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation, resulting in radiation-induced heart diseases (RIHD). The main manifestations of RIHD become apparent many years after treatment and include cardiomyopathy and accelerated atherosclerosis. This study examines the role of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in RIHD by investigating the cardiac radiation response in a kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek (BN/Ka) rat model. BN/Ka rats and wild-type Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to local heart irradiation with a single dose of 18 Gy or 24 Gy and were observed for 3-6 months. Examinations included in vivo and ex vivo cardiac function, histopathology, gene and protein expression measurements, and mitochondrial swelling assays. Upon local heart irradiation, changes in in vivo cardiac function were significantly less in BN/Ka rats. For instance, a single dose of 24 Gy caused a 35% increase in fractional shortening in BN rats compared to a 16% increase in BN/Ka rats. BN rats, but not BN/Ka rats, showed a 56% reduction in cardiac numbers of CD2-positive cells, and a 57% increase in CD68-positive cells, together with a 52% increase in phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Local heart irradiation had similar effects on histopathology, mitochondrial changes, and left ventricular mRNA levels of NADPH oxidases in the two genotypes. These results suggest that the KKS plays a role in the effects of radiation on cardiac function and recruitment of inflammatory cells. The KKS may have these effects at least in part by altering Erk1/2 signaling.
Radiation-induced heart disease; Kallikrein-kinin system; Bradykinin
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978–980.)
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
The xenocin operon of Xenorhabdus nematophila consists of xciA and ximB genes encoding a 64-kDa xenocin and 42-kDa immunity protein to kill competing microbes in the insect larva. The catalytic domain of xenocin has RNase activity and is responsible for its cytotoxicity. Under SOS conditions, xenocin is produced with immunity protein as a complex. Here, we show that xenocin and immunity protein complex are exported through the flagellar type III system of X. nematophila. Secretion of xenocin complex was abolished in an flhA strain but not in an fliC strain. The xenocin operon is not linked to the flagellar operon transcriptionally. The immunity protein is produced alone from a second, constitutive promoter and is targeted to the periplasm in a flagellum-independent manner. For stable expression of xenocin, coexpression of immunity protein was necessary. To examine the role of immunity protein in xenocin export, an enzymatically inactive protein was produced by site-directed mutagenesis in the active site of the catalytic domain. Toxicity was abolished in D535A and H538A variants of xenocin, which were expressed alone without an immunity domain and secreted in the culture supernatant through flagellar export. Secretion of xenocin through the flagellar pathway has important implications in the evolutionary success of X. nematophila.
Hepatocyte transplantation; Injury; Rescue; Stem cells; Tissue engineering
Serotonin (5-HT) is a multifunctional signaling molecule that plays different roles in a concentration-dependent manner. We demonstrated that elevated levels of plasma 5-HT accelerate platelet aggregation resulting in a hypercoagulable state in which the platelet surface becomes occupied by several glycoproteins. Here we study the novel hypothesis that an elevated level of plasma 5-HT results in modification of the content of N-glycans on the platelet surface and this abnormality is associated with platelet aggregation. Mass spectrometry of total surface glycoproteins on platelets isolated from wild-type mice infused for 24 hours with saline or 5-HT revealed that the content of glycoproteins on platelets from 5-HT-infused mice switched from predominantly N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminate hydroxylase (CMAH) synthesizes Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac. Up-regulation of Neu5Gc content on the platelet surface resulted from an increase in the catalytic function, not expression, of CMAH in platelets of 5-HT-infused mice. The highest level of Neu5Gc was observed in platelets of 5-HT-infused, 5-HT transporter-knock out mice, suggesting that the surface delineated 5-HT receptor on platelets may promote CMAH catalytic activity. These new findings link elevated levels of plasma 5-HT to altered platelet N-glycan content, a previously unrecognized abnormality that may favor platelet aggregation.
Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI.
“Trojan horse” antibiotic albomycins are peptidyl nucleosides consisting of a highly modified 4′-thiofuranosyl cytosine moiety and a ferrichrome siderophore that are linked by a peptide bond via a serine residue. While the latter component serves to sequester iron from the environment, the seryl nucleoside portion is a potent inhibitor of bacterial seryl-tRNA synthetases, resulting in broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities of albomycin δ2. The isolation of albomycins has revealed this biological activity is only optimized following two unusual cytosine modifications, N4-carbamoylation and N3-methylation. We identified a genetic locus (named abm) for albomycin production in Streptomyces sp. ATCC 700974. Gene deletion and complementation experiments along with bioinformatic analysis suggested 18 genes are responsible for albomycin biosynthesis and resistance, allowing us to propose a potential biosynthetic pathway for installing the novel chemical features. The gene abmI, encoding a putative methyltransferase, was functionally assigned in vitro and shown to modify the N3 of a variety of cytosine-containing nucleosides and antibiotics such as blasticidin S. Furthermore, a ΔabmI mutant was shown to produce the descarbamoyl-desmethyl albomycin analog, supporting that the N3-methylation occurs before the N4-carbamoylation in the biosynthesis of albomycin δ2. The combined genetic information was utilized to identify an abm-related locus (named ctj) from the draft genome of Streptomyces sp. C. Cross-complementation experiments and in vitro studies with CtjF, the AbmI homolog, suggest the production of a similar 4′-thiofuranosyl cytosine in this organism. In total, the genetic and biochemical data provide a biosynthetic template for assembling siderophore-inhibitor conjugates, and modifying the albomycin scaffold to generate new derivatives.
Background. Polyomavirus reactivation can cause significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients, particularly BK virus (BKV) in kidney transplant patients. Less is known about dynamics of John Cunningham virus (JCV) in nonkidney organ transplant patients.
Methods. We examined the frequency of urinary shedding of polyomaviruses BKV and JCV and their relationship to creatinine clearance (CrCl) in a longitudinal study of 41 kidney and 33 liver transplant recipients.
Results. Any polyomavirus urinary shedding was more frequent in liver than kidney recipients (64% vs 39%; P = .03). JCV was excreted more frequently by liver than kidney recipients (71% vs 38%), whereas BKV was shed more often by kidney than liver patients (69% vs 52%). Mean JCV loads were significantly higher than those of BKV in both patient groups (P < .0001). Lower mean CrCl values were significantly associated with JCV shedding in both kidney and liver recipients (P < .001).
Conclusions. These findings suggest that BKV and JCV display different patterns of reactivation and shedding in kidney and liver transplant patients and that JCV may have a role in renal dysfunction in some solid organ transplant recipients.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an angiogenesis-dependent and hypoxia-driven malignancy. As a result, there has been an increased interest in the use of antiangiogenic agents for the management of RCC in patients. However, the activity of tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDA) has not been extensively examined against RCC. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the tumor-VDA ASA404 (DMXAA, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, or vadimezan) in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) against RCC. In vitro studies were carried out using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in vivo studies using orthotopic RENCA tumors and immunohistochemical patient tumor-derived RCC xenografts. MRI was used to characterize the vascular response of orthotopic RENCA xenografts to combination treatment. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by tumor growth measurements and histopathologic evaluation. ASA404/everolimus combination resulted in enhanced inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting in the 3-dimensional spheroid assay. MRI of orthotopic RENCA xenografts revealed an early increase in permeability 4 hours posttreatment with ASA404, but not with everolimus. Twenty-four hours after treatment, a significant reduction in blood volume was observed with combination treatment. Correlative CD31/NG2 staining of tumor sections confirmed marked vascular damage following combination therapy. Histologic sections showed extensive necrosis and a reduction in the viable rim following combination treatment compared with VDA treatment alone. These results show the potential of combining tumor-VDAs with mTOR inhibitors in RCC. Further investigation into this novel combination strategy is warranted.
Renewed interest in autotransplantation has resulted in additional options in the treatment for rehabilitation of missing anterior teeth. Premolar teeth have been commonly used after extensive modifications while a supernumerary tooth from the anterior region when present would be a more suitable option. This case presents such a scenario, with a successful outcome ensuring adequate restoration of function, economical viability and aesthetic satisfaction for both the patient and clinician.
When gag reflex becomes abnormally active, it poses difficulty for the prosthodontists, as it hinders the process of fixed partial denture construction beginning with tooth preparation till impression making. In this case-report, the authors used a nerve block technique which is popular among anaesthetist and otolaryngologist, but is being applied in the field of prosthodontics for the first time, to tide over the difficulty.
Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a severe soft tissue infection which spreads rapidly through fascial planes, characterised by soft tissue necrosis and potentially life threatening. Involvement of the face from NF is rare. Only 35 such cases have been reported in the literature since 1960. It is associated with a high mortality and results in severe disfigurement of the face, posing challenging reconstructive problems. The authors present their experience on the comprehensive management of NF of face with severe disfigurement affecting a young female patient.
Chest pain is a common presenting symptom for emergency department (ED) patients, however a thorough cardiac evaluation can be difficult to complete within the ED setting. Implementation of a stand-alone unit for the evaluation of chest pain may improve care for chest pain patients. We designed a protocol for identifying patients without an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and with low to intermediate likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). These patients were monitored in a stand-alone chest pain evaluation center (CPEC) staffed with a small group of providers and tested for CAD, if necessary. In the first six weeks of operation, 181 patients were evaluated in the CPEC. The prevalence of CAD risk factors was low. Of the 181 patients, 159 (88%) were discharged to home and 22 (12%) required admission to the hospital for further care. We compared the number of chest pain evaluations and admissions for first six weeks of operation to the same six week period from the two previous years. While ED chest pain evaluations increased 66% over the two year time frame, the proportion admitted to the hospital decreased from 53% to 42% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, evidence-based evaluation of chest pain in patients without ACS and with low to intermediate likelihood of obstructive CAD can result in the significant majority of patients being discharged from the ED. Creation of a stand-alone CPEC in an academic hospital was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions.
chest pain; emergency medicine; exercise tests; X-Ray Computed Tomography; clinical pathway
Recent studies have identified common genetic variants that are unequivocally associated with central adiposity, BMI, and/or fasting plasma glucose among individuals of European descent. Our objective was to evaluate these associations in a population of Asian-Indians. We examined 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from loci previously linked to waist circumference, BMI, or fasting glucose in 1,129 Asian-Indians from New Delhi and Trivandrum. Trained medical staff measured waist circumference, height, and weight. Fasting plasma glucose was measured from collected blood specimens. Genotype–phenotype associations were evaluated using linear regression, with adjustments for age, gender, religion, and study region. For gene–environment interaction tests, total physical activity (PA) during the past 7 days was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The T allele at the FTO rs3751812 locus was associated with increased waist circumference (per allele effect of +1.58 cm, Ptrend = 0.0015) after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing (Padj = 0.04). We also found a nominally statistically significant FTO–PA interaction (Pinteraction = 0.008). Among participants with <81 metabolic equivalent (MET)-h/wk of PA, the rs3751812 variant was associated with increased waist size (+2.68 cm; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24, 4.12), but not among those with 212+ MET-h/wk (−1.79 cm; 95% CI = −4.17, 0.58). No other variant had statistically significant associations, although statistical power was modest. In conclusion, we confirmed that an FTO variant associated with central adiposity in European populations is associated with central adiposity among Asian-Indians and corroborated prior reports indicating that high PA attenuates FTO-related genetic susceptibility to adiposity.
Background: The bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is largely dependent on the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. This method has a low sensitivity, which can be improved by the concentration of the specimen with sodium hypochlorite (NaoCl), followed by centrifugation before doing acid fast staining (AFB).
Aim: To study the improvement in the sensitivity of the sputum smear by the bleach method.
Setting and Study Design: This study was conducted in BLDEU’s Shri B.M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Eighty five patients who visited Shri B.M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre between January 2012 to December 2012 were investigated. On spot, morning and second on spot samples were collected from each patient. Direct smears were prepared and they were stained with the hot ZN technique and the remaining samples were concentrated by using 5% NaoCl, followed by centrifugation and staining with ZN stain. The improvement in the sensitivity following the bleach method was studied.
Statistical Analysis: The Fisher’s exact test was used.
Results: A total of two hundred and fifty five specimens from eighty five patients were included in this study; each patient produced three specimens. AFB was detected in twenty five direct smears and in eighty four bleach smears. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in the positivity with the use of the bleach method was detected as compared to that with the use of the direct method. The ZN sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and the negative predictive value (NPV) were 29%, 99%, 96% and 74% respectively with a 95% confidence interval, with the use of the 5% NaoCl method.
Conclusion: The bleach method has advantages over the direct ZN method, as it is simple and as it does not require any additional expertise beyond that which is required for the conventional direct smear microscopy. The materials and the reagents are also affordable and they are available locally.
Tuberculosis; Ziehl-Neelsen method; Acid fast bacilli; Sodium hypochlorite
Introduction: As we know, some of the species of animals are endangered, as there is an increase in their declining rate and a decrease in their survival rate. The same is true for the antibiotics also, as there is a rise in the antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) has become a major obstacle in the way of the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Therefore, to fight against AMR, antibiotic utilisation studies are being carried out. Therefore, with the same perspective, this prospective study was done to evaluate the current usage of the anti-microbial agents in medicine department of a teaching hospital in northern India.
Methods: This was a prospective study which was done for a period of three months from Nov 2012 – Jan 2013. The prescriptions and the patient records are reviewed and analysed. The rationality of the drug usage was also evaluated by analysing the drug prescriptions.
Results: Out of the 494 drugs which were prescribed to 180 patients, 291 were antibiotics. The most commonly used AMAs were the β-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins) –n = 102, followed by the quinolones –n = 93, Nitroimidazoles –n = 43, aminoglycosides –n = 35 and the macrolides –n = 18. The most common indication for the antimicrobial therapy was infection. According to the evaluation, the use of the antimicrobial therapy was found to be rational in 77.77 per cent patients. The average number of antibacterial agents which were prescribed per patient per course was found to be 1.61 and the average numbers of drugs which were prescribed per patient were 2.74.The average cost per prescription per day was Rs.115 and the average antibiotic cost per encounter was Rs. 85.
Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate due to the irrational prescribing habits of physicians, leading to increasing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs. Therefore, the medical professionals as well as government personnel who are related to the health sector, need to understand that antibiotics are precious and finite resources. The remedy of this situation requires that regular educational awareness programmes should be conducted in hospitals at a regular basis.
Antimicrobial agents; Drug utilisation; Medicine; Infections
Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic amine that also acts as a mitogen and a developmental signal early in rodent embryogenesis. Genetic and pharmacological disruption of 5-HT signaling causes various diseases and disorders via mediating central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and serious abnormalities on a growing embryo. Today, neither the effective modulators on 5-HT signaling pathways nor the genes affected by 5-HT signal are well known yet.
In an attempt to identify the genes altered by 5-HT signaling pathways, we analyzed the global gene expression via the Illumina array platform using the mouse WG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip containing 45,281 probe sets representing 30,854 genes in megakaryocytes isolated from mice infused with 5-HT or saline. We identified 723 differentially expressed genes of which 706 were induced and 17 were repressed by elevated plasma 5-HT.
Hierarchical gene clustering analysis was utilized to represent relations between groups and clusters. Using gene ontology mining tools and canonical pathway analyses, we identified multiple biological pathways that are regulated by 5-HT: (i) cytoskeletal remodeling, (ii) G-protein signaling, (iii) vesicular transport, and (iv) apoptosis and survival. Our data encompass the first extensive genome-wide based profiling in the progenitors of platelets in response to 5-HT elevation in vivo.
Mesiodens, a common supernumerary tooth, is found in the midline in anterior maxilla between the incisors. Its occurrence as multiples is termed as ‘mesiodentes’. Double mesiodentes, a rare phenomenon, is seldom reported in literature and show a plethora of manifestations as described in the case report. They may not be apparent clinically, necessitating the use of imaging modalities and require careful evaluation to prevent complications. This paper presents a report of six double mesiodentes cases with negative family history for supernumerary teeth and absence of any syndromes. This is an effort to educate dentists about signs, symptoms, complications and management of mesiodentes.
Deferasirox is a once-daily, oral iron chelator that is widely used in the management of patients with transfusional hemosiderosis. Several Phase II trials along with their respective extension studies as well as a Phase III trial have established the efficacy and safety of this novel agent in transfusion-dependent patients with β-thalassemia, sickle-cell disease and bone marrow-failure syndromes, including myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia. Data from various clinical trials show that a deferasirox dose of 20 mg/kg/day stabilizes serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration, while a dose of 30–40 mg/kg/day reduces these parameters and achieves negative iron balance in red cell transfusion-dependent patients with iron overload. Across various pivotal clinical trials, deferasirox was well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash, nonprogressive increases in serum creatinine, and elevations in liver enzyme levels. Longer-term extension studies have also confirmed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox. However, it is essential that patients on deferasirox therapy are monitored regularly to ensure timely management for any adverse events that may occur with long-term therapy.
deferasirox; iron overload; thalassemia; sickle-cell disease; myelodysplastic syndrome
High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified. Interestingly, further analysis of compounds showed plant part specific unique pattern of metabolites; that is, regenerated bark is observed to be the best source for catechin/catechin derivative while flowers were found to be the source for wide variety of flavonoids. Moreover, these plant part specific compounds can be used as biomarkers for the identification of plant material or herbal drugs. Overall, the present study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic components of this herb which may be helpful not only to understand their usage but also to contribute to quality control as well.
To study the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with intrauterine growth retardation.
76 patients with intrauterine growth retardation were studied and compared with 50 controls which included pregnant patients without any pregnancy complications. Fasting Plasma homocysteine levels were measured and statistical analysis using tests of significance and logistic regression analysis was performed. Those in the study group were given homocysteine lowering agents for 6 wks and pregnancy outcome was studied.
57.8 % women in the study group were found to have hyperhomocysteinemia. Logistic Regression analysis shows an OR of 2.45 in favor of occurrence of IUGR if homocysteine levels are raised which is statistically significant. Mean plasma homocysteine levels decreased after treatment for 6 wks but this decrease in the case of placebo group is marginal whereas the decrease in the homocysteine levels the treatment group. This implies that treatment has a definitive role in lowering of plasma homocysteine levels.
The present study shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with IUGR and should be identified as a risk factor as correction favors pregnancy outcome.
Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040, a member of the Roseobacter clade, forms a symbiosis with unicellular phytoplankton, which is inextricably linked to the biphasic “swim or stick” lifestyle of the bacteria. Mutations in flaC bias the population toward the motile phase. Renewed examination of the FlaC− strain (HG1016) uncovered that it is composed of two different cells: a pigmented type, PS01, and a nonpigmented cell, PS02, each of which has an identical mutation in flaC. While monocultures of PS01 and PS02 had few motile cells (0.6 and 6%, respectively), coculturing the two strains resulted in a 10-fold increase in the number of motile cells. Cell-free supernatants from coculture or wild-type cells were fully capable of restoring motility to PS01 and PS02, which was due to increased fliC3 (flagellin) transcription, FliC3 protein levels per cell, and flagella synthesis. The motility-inducing compound has an estimated mass of 226 Da, as determined by mass spectrometry, and is referred to as Roseobacter Motility Inducer (RMI). Mutations affecting genes involved in phenyl acetic acid synthesis significantly reduced RMI, while defects in tropodithietic acid (TDA) synthesis had marginal or no effect on RMI. RMI biosynthesis is induced by p-coumaric acid, a product of algal lignin degradation. When added to algal cultures, RMI caused loss of motility, cell enlargement, and vacuolization in the algal cells. RMI is a new member of the roseobacticide family of troponoid compounds whose activities affect roseobacters, by shifting their population toward motility, as well as their phytoplankton hosts, through an algicidal effect.