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1.  Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma 
Nature genetics  2014;46(5):462-466.
Midline pediatric high-grade astrocytomas (pHGAs) are incurable with few treatment targets identified. Most tumors harbor K27M mutations on histone 3 variants. In 40 treatment-naïve midline pHGAs, 39 analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, we find additional somatic mutations specific to tumor location. Gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1 occur in tumors of the pons in conjunction with H3.1 K27M, while FGFR1 mutations/fusions occur in thalamic tumors associated with H3.3 K27M. Hyper-activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/ACVR1 developmental pathway in pHGAs harbouring ACVR1 mutations led to increased phospho-SMAD1/5/8 expression and up-regulation of BMP downstream early response genes in tumour cells. Global DNA methylation profiles were significantly associated with the K27M mutation regardless of the mutant H3 variant and irrespective of tumor location, supporting its role in driving the epigenetic phenotype. This significantly expands the potential treatment targets and further justifies pre-treatment biopsy in pHGA as a means to orient therapeutic efforts in this disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.2950
PMCID: PMC4282994  PMID: 24705250
2.  Heat-shock protein peptide complex–96 vaccination for recurrent glioblastoma: a phase II, single-arm trial 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;16(2):274-279.
Background
Outcomes for patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are poor and may be improved by immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of an autologous heat-shock protein peptide complex–96 (HSPPC-96) vaccine for patients with recurrent GBM.
Methods
In this open-label, single-arm, phase II study, adult patients with surgically resectable recurrent GBM were given vaccine after gross total resection. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, safety, and immune profiling. Outcome analyses were performed in the intention-to-treat and efficacy populations.
Results
Between October 3, 2007 and October 24, 2011, 41 patients underwent gross total resection of recurrent GBM and received a median of 6 doses of HSPPC-96 vaccine. Following treatment, 90.2% of patients were alive at 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.9–96.8) and 29.3% were alive at 12 months (95% CI: 16.6–45.7). Median overall survival was 42.6 weeks (95% CI: 34.7–50.5). Twenty-seven (66%) patients were lymphopenic prior to therapy, and patients with lymphocyte counts below the cohort median demonstrated decreased overall survival (hazard ratio: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.4–11.8; P = .012). There were no treatment-related deaths. There were 37 serious (grades 3–5) adverse events reported, with 17 attributable to surgical resection and a single grade 3 constitutional event related to the vaccine.
Conclusion
The HSPPC-96 vaccine is safe and warrants further study of efficacy for the treatment of recurrent GBM. Significant pretreatment lymphopenia may impact the outcomes of immunotherapy and deserves additional investigation.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/not203
PMCID: PMC3895386  PMID: 24335700
glioblastoma; heat-shock proteins; immunotherapy
4.  Genetic variants in telomerase-related genes are associated with an older age at diagnosis in glioma patients: evidence for distinct pathways of gliomagenesis 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;15(8):1041-1047.
Background
Genome-wide association studies have implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 genes as glioma risk factors, including 2 (TERT, RTEL1) involved in telomerase structure/function. We examined associations of these 7 established glioma risk loci with age at diagnosis among patients with glioma.
Methods
SNP genotype data were available for 2286 Caucasian glioma patients from the University of California, San Francisco (n = 1434) and the Mayo Clinic (n = 852). Regression analyses were performed to test for associations between “number of risk alleles” and “age at diagnosis,” adjusted for sex and study site and stratified by tumor grade/histology where appropriate.
Results
Four SNPs were significantly associated with age at diagnosis. Carrying a greater number of risk alleles at rs55705857 (CCDC26) and at rs498872 (PHLDB1) was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P = 1.4 × 10−22 and P = 9.5 × 10−7, respectively). These SNPs are stronger risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors, which tend to occur in younger patients, and their association with age at diagnosis varied across tumor subtypes. In contrast, carrying more risk alleles at rs2736100 (TERT) and at rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with older age at diagnosis (P = 6.2 × 10−4 and P = 2.5 × 10−4, respectively). These SNPs are risk factors for all glioma grades/histologies, and their association with age at diagnosis was consistent across tumor subgroups.
Conclusions
Carrying a greater number of risk alleles might be expected to decrease age at diagnosis. However, glioma susceptibility conferred by variation in telomerase-related genes did not follow this pattern. This supports the hypothesis that telomerase-related mechanisms of telomere maintenance are more associated with gliomas that develop later in life than those utilizing telomerase-independent mechanisms (ie, alternative lengthening of telomeres).
doi:10.1093/neuonc/not051
PMCID: PMC3714154  PMID: 23733245
age at diagnosis; glioma; single nucleotide polymorphism; telomerase; telomere
5.  Inherited variant on chromosome 11q23 increases susceptibility to IDH-mutated but not IDH-normal gliomas regardless of grade or histology 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;15(5):535-541.
Introduction
Recent discoveries of inherited glioma risk loci and acquired IDH mutations are providing new insights into glioma etiology. IDH mutations are common in lower grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and uncommon in primary glioblastomas. Because the inherited variant in 11q23 has been associated with risk of lower grade glioma and not with glioblastomas, we hypothesized that this variant increases susceptibility to IDH-mutated gliomas, but not to IDH-wild-type gliomas.
Methods
We tested this hypothesis in patients with glioma and controls from the San Francisco Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic, and Illumina controls (1102 total patients, 5299 total controls). Case-control additive associations of 11q23 risk alleles (rs498872, T allele) were calculated using logistic regression, stratified by tumor IDH status (mutated or wild-type) and by histology and grade. We also adjusted for the recently discovered 8q24 glioma risk locus rs55705857 G allele.
Results
The 11q23 glioma risk locus was associated with increased risk of IDH-mutated gliomas of all histologies and grades (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.74; P = 1.3X10−7) but not with IDH-wild-type gliomas of any histology or grade (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.81–1.03; P = 0.14). The associations were independent of the rs55705857 G allele.
Conclusion
A variant at the 11q23 locus increases risk for IDH-mutated but not IDH-wild-type gliomas, regardless of grade or histology.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos324
PMCID: PMC3635511  PMID: 23361564
adult glioma; IDH1 and IDH2 mutation; rs498872; rs55705857; single-nucleotide polymorphism
6.  Phase I Study of Vorinostat in Combination with Temozolomide in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas: North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 04-03 
Purpose
A phase I, dose-finding study of vorinostat in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and pharmacokinetics in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG).
Experimental Design
This phase I, dose-finding, investigational study was conducted in two parts. Part 1 was a dose-escalation study of vorinostat in combination with TMZ 150 mg/m2/day × 5 days every 28 days. Part 2 was a dose-escalation study of vorinostat in combination with TMZ 150 mg/m2/day × 5 days of the first cycle and 200 mg/m2/day × 5 days of the subsequent 28-day cycles.
Results
In Part 1, the MTD of vorinostat administered on days 1-7 and 15-21 of every 28 day cycle in combination with TMZ was 500 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included grade 3 anorexia, grade 3 ALT, and grade 5 hemorrhage in the setting of grade 4 thrombocytopenia. In Part 2, the MTD of vorinostat on days 1-7 and 15-21 of every 28 day cycle combined with TMZ was 400 mg daily. No DLTs were encountered, but vorinostat dosing could not be escalated further due to thrombocytopenia. The most common serious adverse events were fatigue, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and thromboembolic events. There were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions between vorinostat and TMZ. Vorinostat treatment resulted in hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in peripheral mononuclear cells.
Conclusion
Vorinostat in combination with temozolomide is well-tolerated in patients with HGG. A phase I/II trial of vorinostat with radiotherapy and concomitant TMZ in newly diagnosed glioblastoma is underway.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1841
PMCID: PMC3947570  PMID: 22923449
High-grade glioma; Temozolomide; Vorinostat; HDAC Inhibitor
7.  Comparing routes of delivery for nanoliposomal irinotecan shows superior anti-tumor activity of local administration in treating intracranial glioblastoma xenografts 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;15(2):189-197.
Background
Liposomal drug packaging is well established as an effective means for increasing drug half-life, sustaining drug activity, and increasing drug efficacy, whether administered locally or distally to the site of disease. However, information regarding the relative effectiveness of peripheral (distal) versus local administration of liposomal therapeutics is limited. This issue is of importance with respect to the treatment of central nervous system cancer, for which the blood-brain barrier presents a significant challenge in achieving sufficient drug concentration in tumors to provide treatment benefit for patients.
Methods
We compared the anti-tumor activity and efficacy of a nanoliposomal formulation of irinotecan when delivered peripherally by vascular route with intratumoral administration by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for treating intracranial glioblastoma xenografts in athymic mice.
Results
Our results show significantly greater anti-tumor activity and survival benefit from CED of nanoliposomal irinotecan. In 2 of 3 efficacy experiments, there were animal subjects that experienced apparent cure of tumor from local administration of therapy, as indicated by a lack of detectable intracranial tumor through bioluminescence imaging and histopathologic analysis. Results from investigating the effectiveness of combination therapy with nanoliposomal irinotecan plus radiation revealed that CED administration of irinotecan plus radiation conferred greater survival benefit than did irinotecan or radiation monotherapy and also when compared with radiation plus vascularly administered irinotecan.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that liposomal formulation plus direct intratumoral administration of therapeutic are important for maximizing the anti-tumor effects of irinotecan and support clinical trial evaluation of this therapeutic plus route of administration combination.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos305
PMCID: PMC3548589  PMID: 23262509
convection-enhanced delivery; glioblastoma; irinotecan; liposome; xenograft
8.  Evidence for Sequenced Molecular Evolution of IDH1 Mutant Glioblastoma From a Distinct Cell of Origin 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(34):4482-4490.
Purpose
Mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) at R132 (IDH1R132MUT) is frequent in low-grade diffuse gliomas and, within glioblastoma (GBM), has been proposed as a marker for GBMs that arise by transformation from lower-grade gliomas, regardless of clinical history. To determine how GBMs arising with IDH1R132MUT differ from other GBMs, we undertook a comprehensive comparison of patients presenting clinically with primary GBM as a function of IDH1R132 mutation status.
Patients and Methods
In all, 618 treatment-naive primary GBMs and 235 lower-grade diffuse gliomas were sequenced for IDH1R132 and analyzed for demographic, radiographic, anatomic, histologic, genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptional characteristics.
Results
Investigation revealed a constellation of features that distinguishes IDH1R132MUT GBMs from other GBMs (including frontal location and lesser extent of contrast enhancement and necrosis), relates them to lower-grade IDH1R132MUT gliomas, and supports the concept that IDH1R132MUT gliomas arise from a neural precursor population that is spatially and temporally restricted in the brain. The observed patterns of DNA sequence, methylation, and copy number alterations support a model of ordered molecular evolution of IDH1R132MUT GBM in which the appearance of mutant IDH1 protein is an initial event, followed by production of p53 mutant protein, and finally by copy number alterations of PTEN and EGFR.
Conclusion
Although histologically similar, GBMs arising with and without IDH1R132MUT appear to represent distinct disease entities that arise from separate cell types of origin as the result of largely nonoverlapping sets of molecular events. Optimal clinical management should account for the distinction between these GBM disease subtypes.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.8715
PMCID: PMC3236649  PMID: 22025148
9.  Phase-1 trial of gefitinib and temozolomide in patients with malignant glioma: a North American brain tumor consortium study 
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology  2007;61(6):10.1007/s00280-007-0556-y.
Purpose
This is a phase-I study of gefitinib in combination with temozolomide in patients with gliomas. The goal of the study was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to characterize the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib when combined with temozolomide.
Patients and methods
Patients were stratified according to co-administration of enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (EIAEDs). There were 26 evaluable patients enrolled (16 on EIAEDs, 10 not on EIAEDs). All but seven patients had Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), and only six cases had a Karnosfsky Performance Status (KPS) of less than 80; median age was 51 years. All had received prior radiotherapy and 14 patients had no prior chemotherapy. The starting dose of temozolomide was 150 mg/m2/day for 5 days every 28 days and could be escalated to a maximum dose of 200 mg/m2/day in subsequent cycles. The starting dose of gefitinib was 500 mg/day given by mouth on a continuous basis. Dose-limiting toxicity was assessed in cycle one only.
Results
For patients on EIAEDs, the MTD of gefitinib was 1,000 mg/day in combination with temozolomide. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was due to diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. For patients not on EIAEDs, the MTD was 250 mg/day in combination with temozolomide. The DLT was due to increases in liver transaminases. Rash was not a significant toxicity at these dose levels. The peak concentration and AUC0–24hr at the 500 mg dose level was 1.8 and 2.5-fold lower, respectively, in the EIAED group compared to the non-EIAED group; trough levels of gefitinib increased in both groups consistent with the reported terminal half-life ranging from 27 to 51 h.
Conclusion
The recommended phase-2 dose of gefitinib when used in combination with temozolomide is 1,000 and 250 mg/day, respectively, for patients on or not on EIAEDs.
doi:10.1007/s00280-007-0556-y
PMCID: PMC3873156  PMID: 17694310
Temozolomide; Gefitinib; Malignant gliomas; Enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs
10.  Phase I/II study of sorafenib in combination with temsirolimus for recurrent glioblastoma or gliosarcoma: North American Brain Tumor Consortium study 05-02 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;14(12):1511-1518.
The activity of single-agent targeted molecular therapies in glioblastoma has been limited to date. The North American Brain Tumor Consortium examined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of combination therapy with sorafenib, a small molecule inhibitor of Raf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor–β, and temsirolimus (CCI-779), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin. This was a phase I/II study. The phase I component used a standard 3 × 3 dose escalation scheme to determine the safety and tolerability of this combination therapy. The phase II component used a 2-stage design; the primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) rate. Thirteen patients enrolled in the phase I component. The maximum tolerated dosage (MTD) for combination therapy was sorafenib 800 mg daily and temsirolimus 25 mg once weekly. At the MTD, grade 3 thrombocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity. Eighteen patients were treated in the phase II component. At interim analysis, the study was terminated and did not proceed to the second stage. No patients remained progression free at 6 months. Median PFS was 8 weeks. The toxicity of this combination therapy resulted in a maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus that was only one-tenth of the single-agent dose. Minimal activity in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme was seen at the MTD of the 2 combined agents.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos264
PMCID: PMC3499017  PMID: 23099651
anaplastic glioma; glioblastoma; malignant glioma; sorafenib; temsirolimus
11.  Phase II Study of Aflibercept in Recurrent Malignant Glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(19):2689-2695.
Purpose
Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a promising treatment approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy of aflibercept (VEGF Trap), a recombinantly produced fusion protein that scavenges both VEGF and placental growth factor in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
Patients and Methods
Forty-two patients with glioblastoma and 16 patients with anaplastic glioma who had received concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide were enrolled at first relapse. Aflibercept 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously on day 1 of every 2-week cycle.
Results
The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 7.7% for the glioblastoma cohort and 25% for patients with anaplastic glioma. Overall radiographic response rate was 24% (18% for glioblastoma and 44% for anaplastic glioma). The median progression-free survival was 24 weeks for patients with anaplastic glioma (95% CI, 5 to 31 weeks) and 12 weeks for patients with glioblastoma (95% CI, 8 to 16 weeks). A total of 14 patients (25%) were removed from the study for toxicity, on average less than 2 months from treatment initiation. The main treatment-related National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria grades 3 and 4 adverse events (38 total) included fatigue, hypertension, and lymphopenia. Two grade 4 CNS ischemias and one grade 4 systemic hemorrhage were reported. Aflibercept rapidly decreases permeability on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular analysis of baseline tumor tissue identified tumor-associated markers of response and resistance.
Conclusion
Aflibercept monotherapy has moderate toxicity and minimal evidence of single-agent activity in unselected patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.34.1636
PMCID: PMC3139373  PMID: 21606416
12.  Phase II Trials of Erlotinib or Gefitinib in Patients with Recurrent Meningioma 
Journal of neuro-oncology  2009;96(2):211-217.
There are no established treatments for recurrent meningioma when surgical and radiation options are exhausted. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often over-expressed in meningiomas and may promote tumor growth. In open label, single arm phase II studies of the EGFR inhibitors gefitinib (NABTC 00-01) and erlotinib (NABTC 01-03) for recurrent malignant gliomas, we included exploratory subsets of recurrent meningioma patients. We have pooled the data and report the results here. Patients with recurrent histologically confirmed meningiomas with no more than 2 previous chemotherapy regimens were treated with gefitinib 500 mg/day or erlotinib 150 mg/day until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Twenty-five eligible patients were enrolled with median age 57 years (range 29–81) and median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score 90 (range 60–100). Sixteen patients (64%) received gefitinib and 9 (36%) erlotinib. Eight patients (32%) had benign tumors, 9 (36%) atypical, and 8 (32%) malignant. For benign tumors, the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) was 25%, 12-month PFS (PFS12) 13%, 6-month overall survival (OS6) 63%, and 12-month OS (OS12) 50%. For atypical and malignant tumors, PFS6 was 29%, PFS12 18%, OS6 71%, and OS12 65%. The PFS and OS were not significantly different by histology. There were no objective imaging responses, but 8 patients (32%) maintained stable disease. Although treatment was well-tolerated, neither gefitinib nor erlotinib appear to have significant activity against recurrent meningioma. The role of EGFR inhibitors in meningiomas is unclear. Evaluation of multi-targeted inhibitors and EGFR inhibitors in combination with other targeted molecular agents may be warranted.
doi:10.1007/s11060-009-9948-7
PMCID: PMC3786190  PMID: 19562255
meningioma; erlotinib; gefitinib; epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor
13.  PTEN promoter methylation and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in pediatric gliomas and influence on clinical outcome 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;14(9):1146-1152.
The signaling pathways that underlie the pathogenesis of pediatric gliomas are poorly understood. We characterized the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in pediatric gliomas of all grades. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by evaluating the downstream signaling molecules phospho(p)-S6, phospho(p)-4BP1, and phospho(p)-PRAS40; PTEN; and PTEN promoter methylation, as well as the MIB labeling index. We correlated these findings with the clinical outcomes of 48 children with gliomas. Eighty percent of high-grade gliomas (12/15) showed activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway based on p-S6 and p-4EBP1 expression. The majority of high-grade gliomas were negative for PTEN expression (10/15), and 50% had PTEN promoter methylation (grade III: 2/4; grade IV: 3/6). Low-grade gliomas demonstrated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation in 14/32 (43.8%) by p-S6 and 16/32 (50%) by p-4EBP1. Over 50% of grade I (6/11) and almost all grade II tumors (6/7) showed PTEN promoter methylation. Tumor grade correlated negatively with PTEN expression and positively with expression of p-S6 and p-4EBP1 (PTEN: P = .0025; pS6: P = .0075; p-4EBP1: P = .0066). There was a trend toward inverse correlation of methylation of the PTEN promoter with expression of PTEN protein (P= .0990) and direct correlation of expression of p-S6 and p-4EBP1 with poorer clinical outcome, as measured by progression-free survival (p-S6: P= .0874; p-4EBP1: P= .0475). Tumors with no PTEN expression had a higher MIB labeling index (P= .007). The majority of pediatric gliomas show activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, with methylation of the PTEN promoter occurring commonly in these tumors.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos140
PMCID: PMC3424210  PMID: 22753230
pediatric gliomas; PI3K/Akt/mTOR; PTEN promoter methylation
14.  SSBP2 variants are associated with survival in glioblastoma patients 
Purpose
Glioblastoma is a devastating, incurable disease with few known prognostic factors. Here we present the first genome-wide survival and validation study for glioblastoma.
Methods
Cox regressions for survival with 314,635 inherited autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 315 San Francisco Adult Glioma Study patients for discovery and three independent validation datasets (87 Mayo Clinic, 232 GliomaSE and 115 The Cancer Genome Atlas patients) were used to identify SNPs associated with overall survival for Caucasian glioblastoma patients treated with the current standard of care, resection, radiation and temozolomide (total n=749). Tumor expression of the gene that contained the identified prognostic SNP was examined in three separate datasets (total n=619). Genotype imputation was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for SNPs that had not been directly genotyped.
Results
From the discovery and validation analyses, we identified a variant in SSBP2 (single-stranded DNA-binding protein 2) on 5q14.1 associated with overall survival in combined analyses (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.64; P = 1.3X10−6). Expression of SSBP2 in tumors from three independent datasets also was significantly related to patient survival (P = 5.3 X 10−4). Using genotype imputation, the SSBP2 SNP rs17296479 had the strongest statistically significant genome-wide association with poorer overall patient survival (HR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.45–2.22; P = 1.0 X 10−7).
Conclusion
The minor allele of SSBP2 SNP rs17296479 and the increased tumor expression of SSBP2 were statistically significantly associated with poorer overall survival among glioblastoma patients. With further confirmation, previously unrecognized inherited variations influencing survival may warrant inclusion in clinical trials to improve randomization. Unaccounted for genetic influence on survival could produce unwanted bias in such studies.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2778
PMCID: PMC3607457  PMID: 22472174
glioma; glioblastoma; GWAS; survival; epidemiology; SSBP2
15.  Differential Sensitivity of Glioma- versus Lung Cancer-specific EGFR mutations to EGFR Kinase Inhibitors 
Cancer Discovery  2012;2(5):458-471.
Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastoma (GBM) occurs through mutations or deletions in the extracellular (EC) domain. Unlike lung cancers with EGFR kinase domain (KD) mutations, GBMs respond poorly to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Using RNAi, we show that GBM cells carrying EGFR EC mutations display EGFR addiction. In contrast to KD mutants found in lung cancer, glioma-specific EGFR EC mutants are poorly inhibited by EGFR inhibitors that target the active kinase conformation (e.g., erlotinib). Inhibitors which bind to the inactive EGFR conformation, on the other hand, potently inhibit EGFR EC mutants and induce cell death in EGFR mutant GBM cells. Our results provide first evidence for single kinase addiction in GBM, and suggest that the disappointing clinical activity of first-generation EGFR inhibitors in GBM versus lung cancer may be attributed to the different conformational requirements of mutant EGFR in these two cancer types.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0284
PMCID: PMC3354723  PMID: 22588883
17.  A low frequency variant at 8q24.21 is strongly associated with risk of oligodendroglial tumors and IDH1 or IDH2 mutated astrocytomas 
Nature genetics  2012;44(10):1122-1125.
SNPs mapped to 8q24.21 have been shown to be associated with glioma development. By means of tag SNP genotyping/imputation, pooled next-generation sequencing (NGS) using long-range PCR, and subsequent validation SNP genotyping we identified seven low-frequency SNPs that were consistently and highly associated with glioma risk (p=10−25 to 10−14). The most associated SNP, rs55705857, remained highly significant after individual adjustment for the other top six and two previously published SNPs. After stratifying by histologic and tumor genetic subtype, the most significant associations were with oligodendroglial tumors and IDH1 or IDH2 mutated gliomas, (ORrs55705857 = 5.1, p=1.1x10−31 and ORrs55705857 = 4.8, p=6.6 x10−22, respectively). Strong associations were observed for IDH1 or IDH2 mutated astrocytomas (grades II–IV) (OR rs55705857=5.16–6.66; p=4.7x10−12 to 2.2x10−8), but not IDH1 or IDH2 wild-type astrocytomas (smallest p=0.26). The conserved sequence block that includes rs55705857 is consistently modeled as a microRNA.
doi:10.1038/ng.2388
PMCID: PMC3600846  PMID: 22922872
Oligodendroglioma; Glioblastoma; IDH1 and IDH2 mutation; single nucleotide polymorphism
18.  Reply to J.W. Locasale et al 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;30(3):338-339.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.38.6680
PMCID: PMC3269956
19.  Clinical Stratification of Glioblastoma Based on Alterations in Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Protein (RB1) and Association with the Proneural Subtype 
A recent study of CDK4/6-inhibitors in glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts identified retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein RB1 status as a determinant of tumor therapeutic efficacy. Because of the need for clinically applicable RB1 testing, we assessed the utility of 2 complementary methods for determining RB1 status in GBM. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we analyzed 34 GBMs that had also undergone molecular characterization as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). By IHC, 4 tumors (11.8%) had complete loss of RB protein expression, including 2 with homozygous deletion of RB1 by FISH and 1 with hemizygous deletion of RB1 by FISH combined with a novel nonsense mutation in RB1. Consistent with these results, in an independent set of 51 GBMs tested by IHC we demonstrated loss of RB1 protein in 5 (9.8%). In GBM molecular subtype analysis of TCGA data, complete loss of RB1 transcript expression was seen in 18 of 170 tumors (10.6%) and these were highly enriched for, but not exclusive to, the proneural subtype (p < 0.01). These data support the use of IHC for determining RB1 status in clinical GBM specimens and suggest that RB1 alterations may be more common in certain GBM subgroups.
doi:10.1097/NEN.0b013e31823fe8f1
PMCID: PMC3246124  PMID: 22157621
Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Glioblastoma; Immunohistochemistry; Patient stratification; RB1; The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)
20.  Phase II and pharmacogenomics study of enzastaurin plus temozolomide during and following radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and gliosarcoma 
Neuro-Oncology  2011;13(12):1331-1338.
This open-label, single-arm, phase II study combined enzastaurin with temozolomide plus radiation therapy (RT) to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma. Adults with newly diagnosed disease and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 60 were enrolled. Treatment was started within 5 weeks after surgical diagnosis. RT consisted of 60 Gy over 6 weeks. Temozolomide was given at 75 mg/m2 daily during RT and then adjuvantly at 200 mg/m2 daily for 5 days, followed by a 23-day break. Enzastaurin was given once daily during RT and in the adjuvant period at 250 mg/day. Cycles were 28 days. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and correlations between efficacy and molecular markers analyzed from tumor tissue samples were also evaluated. A prospectively planned analysis compared OS and PFS of the current trial with outcomes from 3 historical phase II trials that combined novel agents with temozolomide plus RT in patients with GBM or gliosarcoma. Sixty-six patients were enrolled. The treatment regimen was well tolerated. OS (median, 74 weeks) and PFS (median, 36 weeks) results from the current trial were comparable to those from a prior phase II study using erlotininb and were significantly better than those from 2 other previous studies that used thalidomide or cis-retinoic acid, all in combination with temozolomide plus RT. A positive correlation between O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation and OS was observed. Adjusting for age and KPS, no other biomarker was associated with survival outcome. Correlation of relevant biomarkers with OS may be useful in future trials.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor130
PMCID: PMC3223090  PMID: 21896554
adjuvant therapy; enzastaurin; glioblastoma multiforme; radiation therapy; temozolomide
21.  Investigation of intravenous delivery of nanoliposomal topotecan for activity against orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts 
Neuro-Oncology  2011;13(12):1288-1295.
Achieving effective treatment outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) has been impeded by many obstacles, including the pharmacokinetic limitations of antitumor agents, such as topotecan (TPT). Here, we demonstrate that intravenous administration of a novel nanoliposomal formulation of TPT (nLS-TPT) extends the survival of mice with intracranial GBM xenografts, relative to administration of free TPT, because of improved biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the liposome-formulated drug. In 3 distinct orthotopic GBM models, 3 weeks of biweekly intravenous therapy with nLS-TPT was sufficient to delay tumor growth and significantly extend animal survival, compared with treatment with free TPT (P ≤ .03 for each tumor tested). Analysis of intracranial tumors showed increased activation of cleaved caspase-3 and increased DNA fragmentation, both indicators of apoptotic response to treatment with nLS-TPT. These results demonstrate that intravenous delivery of nLS-TPT is a promising strategy in the treatment of GBM and support clinical investigation of this therapeutic approach.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor139
PMCID: PMC3223095  PMID: 21954443
bioluminescence imaging; glioma; liposome; topotecan; xenograft
22.  A phase I trial of tipifarnib with radiation therapy, with and without temozolomide, for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma 
Purpose
To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of tipifarnib in combination with conventional radiotherapy (RT) for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). MTD was evaluated in three patient cohorts, stratified based on concurrent use of enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAED) or concurrent treatment with temozolomide (TMZ): Group A - patients not receiving EIAED and not receiving TMZ; Group A-TMZ - patients not on EIAED, and on treatment with TMZ; Group B – any patients receiving EIAED, but no TMZ.
Methods and Materials
After diagnostic surgery or biopsy, treatment with tipifarnib started 5–9 days before initiating RT, twice daily, in four-week cycles using discontinuous dosing (21 out of 28 days), until toxicity or progression. For Group A-TMZ, patients also received TMZ daily during radiotherapy and then standard 5/28 days dosing after radiotherapy. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was determined over the first 10 weeks of therapy for all cohorts.
Results
Fifty-one patients were enrolled for MTD determination: 10 patients in Group A, 21 patients in Group A-TMZ, 20 patients in Group B. In Group A and Group A-TMZ cohorts, patients achieved the intended MTD of 300 mg bid with DLTs including rash and fatigue. For Group B, the MTD was determined as 300 mg bid, half the expected dose. DLTs included rash and 1 intracranial hemorrhage. Thirteen of the 20 patients evaluated in Group A-TMZ were alive at one year.
Conclusion
Tipifarnib is well tolerated at 300 mg bid given discontinuously (21/28 days) in 4-week cycles, concurrently with standard chemo/radiotherapy. A phase II study should evaluate the efficacy of tipifarnib with radiation and TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed GBM and not on EIAED.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.07.1997
PMCID: PMC3020272  PMID: 20934264
tipifarnib; newly diagnosed glioblastoma; radiation; farnesyltransferase inhibitor; temozolomide
23.  Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma? 
Neuro-Oncology  2011;13(10):1118-1124.
Historically, the North American Brain Tumor Consortium used 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) as the primary outcome for recurrent glioma phase II clinical trials. In some trials, a subset of patients received the trial treatment before surgery to assess tumor uptake and biological activity. We compared PFS6 and overall survival (OS) for patients with glioblastoma undergoing surgery at progression to results for those without surgery to evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on these outcomes. Two data sets were analyzed. The first included 511 patients enrolled during the period 1998–2005, 105 of whom had surgery (excluding biopsies) during the study or ≤30 days prior to registration. Analysis was stratified on the basis of whether temozolomide was part of the protocol treatment regimen. The second data set included 247 patients enrolled during 2005–2008, 103 of whom underwent surgery during the clinical trial or immediately prior to study registration. A combined data set consisting of all patients who did not receive temozolomide was also compiled. No statistically significant difference in PFS6 or OS was found between the surgery and nonsurgery groups in either data set alone or in the combined data set (P > .45). We conclude that PFS6 and OS results for patients with and without surgical intervention at the time of progression are similar, allowing data from these patients to be combined in assessing the benefit of new treatments without the need for stratification or other statistical adjustment.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor110
PMCID: PMC3177665  PMID: 21813511
glioblastoma; PFS6; prognosis; recurrence; surgery
24.  A phase I/II trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin for adults with recurrent malignant glioma: North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 03-03 
Neuro-Oncology  2011;13(5):509-516.
Romidepsin, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, has shown activity in preclinical glioma models. The primary objectives of this trial were to determine the pharmacokinetics of romidepsin in patients with recurrent glioma on enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) and to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of romidepsin in patients with recurrent glioblastoma who were not receiving EIAEDs. Two dose cohorts were studied in the phase I component of the trial (13.3 and 17.7 mg/m2/d). Patients in the phase II component were treated with intravenous romidepsin at a dosage of 13.3 mg/m2/day on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle. Eight patients were treated on the phase I component. A similar romidepsin pharmacokinetic profile was demonstrated between patients receiving EIAEDs to those not receving EIAEDs. Thirty-five patients with glioblastoma were accrued to the phase II component. There was no objective radiographic response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8 weeks and only 1 patient had a PFS time ≥6 months (PFS6 = 3%). To date, 34 patients (97%) have died, with a median survival duration of 34 weeks. Despite in vitro studies showing that romidepsin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, no decrease in exposure to romidepsin was seen in patients receiving potent CYP3A4 inducers. Romidepsin, at its standard dose and schedule, was ineffective for patients with recurrent glioblastomas.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00085540.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor017
PMCID: PMC3093337  PMID: 21377994
glioblastoma; glioma; histone deacetylase inhibitor; romidepsin
25.  The A/G Allele of Rs16906252 Predicts for MGMT Methylation and Is Selectively Silenced in Premalignant Lesions from Smokers and in Lung Adenocarcinomas 
Purpose
To address the association between sequence variants within the MGMT promoter-enhancer region and methylation of MGMT in premalignant lesions from smokers and lung adenocarcinomas, their biological effects on gene regulation, and targeting MGMT for therapy.
Experimental Design
SNPs identified through sequencing a 1.9kb fragment 5' of MGMT were examined in relation to MGMT methylation in 169 lung adenocarcinomas and 1731 sputum samples from smokers. The effect of promoter haplotypes on MGMT expression was tested using a luciferase reporter assay and cDNA expression analysis along with allele-specific sequencing for methylation. The response of MGMT methylated lung cancer cell lines to the alkylating agent temozolomide was assessed.
Results
The A allele of rs16906252 and the haplotype containing this SNP were strongly associated with increased risk for MGMT methylation in adenocarcinomas (ORs ≥ 94). This association was observed to a lesser extent in sputum samples in both smoker cohorts. The A allele was selectively methylated in primary lung tumors and cell lines heterozygous for rs16906252. With the most common haplotype as the reference, a 20–41% reduction in promoter activity was seen for the haplotype carrying the A allele that correlated with lower MGMT expression. The sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to temozolamide was strongly correlated with levels of MGMT methylation and expression.
Conclusions
These studies provide strong evidence that the A allele of a MGMT promoter-enhancer SNP is a key determinant for MGMT methylation in lung carcinogenesis. Moreover, temozolamide treatment may benefit a subset of lung cancer patients methylated for MGMT.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3026
PMCID: PMC3070839  PMID: 21355081
MGMT; allele specific methylation; single nucleotide polymorphism; sputum; lung cancer

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