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1.  A Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Addition Silicone of Different Consistencies with Two Different Spacer Designs - In-vitro Study 
Introduction: Dimensional accuracy of impression materials is crucial for the production of working casts in Fixed Prosthodontics. The accurate replication of tooth preparations and their arch position requires impression materials that exhibit limited distortion.
Methods: This study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the dimensional accuracy of additional silicones by comparing two different techniques and spacer designs, by measuring the linear changes in interpreparation distance. The impressions were made from a stainless steel master die simulating a three unit bridge. A total 80 die stone (type IV, Ultrarock) models were obtained from the impressions made using two different parameters. The two different parameters are Multimix and Monophasic technique and different spacer designs.
Result: The interpreparation distance of the abutments in the casts was measured using a travelling microscope. Each sample was measured thrice and the mean value was calculated. The results obtained were statistically analysed and the values fall within the clinically acceptable range.
Conclusion: The most accurate combination is multimix technique with spacer design which uses less bulk of impression material.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9139.4585
PMCID: PMC4149141  PMID: 25177635
Dimensional accuracy; Fixed partial denture; Polyvinyl siloxane
2.  Compound Odontoma in Deciduous Dentition 
Odontomas are benign tumors containing all the components of the odontogenic tissue. Disturbances in tooth eruption are one of the most common complications associated with odontomas. They are generally asymptomatic and are usually seen in second and third decades of life, rarely seen below 10 years of age. Herewith, we report an unusual occurrence of compound odontoma in a 4-year-old child visualized as a swelling of the cortical bone in the anterior maxilla.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.113683
PMCID: PMC3728881  PMID: 23919208
Compound odontoma; Odontogenic tumor; Odontoma
4.  Varied presentations of gastrointestinal stromal tumour 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(6):318-321.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are soft tissue tumours arising from the mesenchyma in the gastrointestinal tract. These are rare tumours. However, over the past few years with the better understanding of the pathogenesis of GIST and better imaging facilities, the diagnosis is made more frequently. The characteristic diagnostic feature of GIST is the expression of CD34 and receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, CD117 by these tumours. The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate has led to improved outcome. The presentation of GIST however remains non-specific, and varies depending upon the size and the organ of origin. We present a series of four cases of GIST with varied presentation.
doi:10.1007/s12262-008-0090-0
PMCID: PMC3452352  PMID: 23133091
Mesenchymal tumours; GIST; KIT; Imatinib
5.  Increases in sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour without a concurrent increase in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: a suggestion of HIV serosorting? 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2006;82(6):461-466.
Background
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) have been increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco. However, HIV incidence has stabilised.
Objectives
To describe recent trends in sexual risk behaviour, STI, and HIV incidence among MSM in San Francisco and to assess whether increases in HIV serosorting (that is, selective unprotected sex with partners of the same HIV status) may contribute to preventing further expansion of the epidemic.
Methods
The study applies an ecological approach and follows the principles of second generation HIV surveillance. Temporal trends in biological and behavioural measures among MSM were assessed using multiple pre‐existing data sources: STI case reporting, prevention outreach programmatic data, and voluntary HIV counselling and testing data.
Results
Reported STI cases among MSM rose from 1998 through 2004, although the rate of increase slowed between 2002 and 2004. Rectal gonorrhoea cases increased from 157 to 389 while early syphilis increased from nine to 492. UAI increased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) in community based surveys; however, UAI with partners of unknown HIV serostatus decreased overall (p<0.001) among HIV negative MSM, and among HIV positive MSM it declined from 30.7% in 2001 to a low of 21.0% in 2004 (p<0.001). Any UAI, receptive UAI, and insertive UAI with a known HIV positive partner decreased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) among MSM seeking anonymous HIV testing and at the STI clinic testing programme. HIV incidence using the serological testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) peaked in 1999 at 4.1% at the anonymous testing sites and 4.8% at the STI clinic voluntary testing programme, with rates levelling off through 2004.
Conclusions
HIV incidence among MSM appears to have stabilised at a plateau following several years of resurgence. Increases in the selection of sexual partners of concordant HIV serostatus may be contributing to the stabilisation of the epidemic. However, current incidence rates of STI and HIV remain high. Moreover, a strategy of risk reduction by HIV serosorting can be severely limited by imperfect knowledge of one's own and one's partners' serostatus.
doi:10.1136/sti.2006.019950
PMCID: PMC2563862  PMID: 17151031
men who have sex with men; sexual risk behaviour; sexually transmitted infections; HIV
6.  Determination of urinary peptides in patients with proteinuria 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2008;18(4):150-154.
Although considered useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal diseases, proteinuria can only be detected after significant renal paranchymal changes. There is considerable interest in the estimation of urinary peptides as an early marker of renal disease. In the current study, we have estimated urinary peptides in patients with different grades of proteinuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 138 subjects and classified into three groups based on the urine protein excreted: group I (normoproteinuria, 0–150 mg/day, n = 37), group II (microproteinuria, 150–300 mg/day, n = 31), and group III (macroproteinuria, > 300 mg/day, n = 70). Urine proteins were determined using Bradford's method and urinary peptide levels were determined by subtracting Bradford's value from the Lowry value of the same sample. There was a significant decrease in the levels of urinary peptides in group III compared to group I (P < 0.01), however, there was no difference in peptides between groups I and II. The percentage of urinary peptides was decreased in both groups II and III compared to group I (P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference in % urinary peptide content in group II compared to group III (P < 0.01). On correlation, % urinary peptides correlated negatively with urinary proteins/g creatinine (r = - 0.782, P < 0.01) and positively with urinary peptides/g creatinine (r = 0.238, P < 0.01). Our data suggest that there is a marked decrease in urinary peptide levels with an increase in proteinuria. This may suggest impaired tubular protein reabsorption and degradation capacity of renal tubules.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.45289
PMCID: PMC2813534  PMID: 20142926
Urinary peptides; protein degradation; proteinuria; urinary peptides
7.  Serum paraoxonase activity and protein thiols in chronic renal failure patients 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2008;18(1):13-16.
Serum paraoxonase is known to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation and atherogenesis. Association of paraoxonase with the oxidative status and lipid profile in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative management and those on chronic maintenance hemodialysis was analyzed in the present study. Serum paraoxonase, protein thiols, lipid hydroperoxides, lipid profile, creatinine and albumin levels were estimated by spectrophotometric methods in CRF patients on conservative management, those on hemodialysis and in healthy controls. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipid hydroperoxides and creatinine levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, protein thiols, albumin levels and paraoxonase activity were lower in patients than in healthy controls. Paraoxonase activity correlated positively with protein thiols and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid hydroperoxides. In conclusion, paraoxonase activity is decreased in CRF patients particularly on chronic maintenance hemodialysis and correlates well with the oxidative stress markers.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.41282
PMCID: PMC2847723  PMID: 20368914
Chronic renal failure; lipid hydroperoxides; lipid profile; oxidative stress; paraoxonase; protein thiols
8.  Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments 
Introduction:
Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4), 197–200 (2004)], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3), 324 (2001); Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4), 283–286 (2002)], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45), 847–852 (2002)]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported.
Materials and Methods:
Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision.
Results:
A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85%) of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g). Mean operative time was 214 min (45–390 min). The conversion rate was 11.5% (n = 3). Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3–30 days). Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.16529
PMCID: PMC3004107  PMID: 21206648
Laparoscopy; minimal access surgery; splenectomy
9.  Encouraging adolescents toward Mental Health Careers via Website Biographies 
This project designed, developed, implemented and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive, multi-media website designed to encourage adolescents to consider careers in mental health. This Web-based learning environment features biographies of mental health scientists. Evaluation is conducted in a systematic, structured way using cognitive achievement, usability (ease of use), and affective scales (e.g., fun to use) as outcome measures.
PMCID: PMC1480217  PMID: 14728555
10.  Potential pitfalls in quantification of pericardial effusions by echocardiography. 
British Heart Journal  1977;39(5):529-535.
In the echocardiographic assessment of patients with pericardial effusions, the apparent width of the echo-free space between the left ventricular posterior wall and the parietal pericardium is commonly used to estimate the amount of pericardial fluid present. In 4 patients with pericardial effusions, we showed a distinct disparity between the widths of the posterior pericardial space at different levels of the left ventricular posterior wall. In 2 of them, a 'swinging heart' appearance was recorded when the ultrasoound beam was directed caudally, but not when its direction was cephalad or less caudad. It is suggested that the left ventricle should be scanned at all possible sites to minimise potential errors in estimating the amount of a pericardial effusion.
Images
PMCID: PMC483270  PMID: 861096

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