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1.  Specificity of childhood psychotic symptoms for predicting schizophrenia by 38 years of age: a birth cohort study 
Psychological medicine  2013;43(10):2077-2086.
Childhood psychotic symptoms have been used as a subclinical phenotype of schizophrenia in etiological research and as a target for preventative interventions. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the specificity of these symptoms for schizophrenia, suggesting alternative outcomes such as anxiety and depression. Using a prospective longitudinal birth cohort we investigated whether childhood psychotic symptoms predicted a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders by 38 years of age.
Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1037 children from Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed prospectively to 38 years of age (96% retention rate). Structured clinical interviews were administered at age 11 to assess psychotic symptoms and study members underwent psychiatric assessments at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 to obtain past-year DSM-III-R/IV diagnoses and self-reports of attempted suicides since adolescence.
Psychotic symptoms at age 11 predicted elevated rates of research diagnoses of schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and also suicide attempts by age 38, even when controlling for gender, social class and childhood psychopathology. No significant associations were found for persistent anxiety, persistent depression, mania or persistent substance dependence. Very few of the children presenting with age-11 psychotic symptoms were free from disorder by age 38.
Childhood psychotic symptoms were not specific to a diagnosis of schizophrenia in adulthood and thus future studies of early symptoms should be cautious in extrapolating findings only to this clinical disorder. However, these symptoms may be useful as a marker of adult mental health problems more broadly.
PMCID: PMC3758773  PMID: 23302254
Childhood; longitudinal; post-traumatic stress disorder; psychosis; suicide
2.  Polygenic risk and the development and course of asthma: Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study 
The lancet. Respiratory medicine  2013;1(6):453-461.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered loci that predispose to asthma. To integrate these new discoveries with emerging models of asthma pathobiology, research is needed to test how genetic discoveries relate to developmental and biological characteristics of asthma.
We derived a multi-locus profile of genetic risk from published GWAS of asthma case status. We then tested associations between this “genetic risk score” and developmental and biological characteristics of asthma in a population-based long-running birth cohort, the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (n=1,037). We evaluated asthma onset, persistence, atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness, incompletely reversible airflow obstruction, and asthma-related school and work absenteeism and hospitalization during 9 prospective assessments spanning ages 9–38 years, when 95% of surviving cohort members were seen.
Cohort members at higher genetic risk experienced asthma onset earlier in life (HR=1.12 [1.01–1.26]). Childhood-onset asthma cases at higher genetic risk were more likely to become life-course-persistent asthma cases (RR=1.36 [1.14–1.63]). Asthma cases at higher genetic risk more often manifested atopy (RR=1.07 [1.01–1.14]), airway hyperresponsiveness (RR=1.16 [1.03–1.32]), and incompletely reversible airflow obstruction (RR=1.28 [1.04–1.57]). They were also more likely to miss school or work due to asthma (IRR=1.38 [1.02–1.86]) and to be hospitalized with breathing problems (HR=1.38 [1.07–1.79]). Genotypic information about asthma risk was independent of and additive to information derived from cohort members’ family histories of asthma.
Findings from this population study confirm that GWAS-discoveries for asthma associate with a childhood-onset phenotype and advance asthma genetics beyond the original GWAS-discoveries in three ways: (1) We show that genetic risks predict which childhood-onset asthma cases remit and which become life-course-persistent cases, although these predictions are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to support immediate clinical translation; (2) We elucidate a biological profile of the asthma that arises from these genetic risks: asthma characterized by atopy and airway hyperresponsiveness and leading to incompletely reversible airflow obstruction; and (3) We describe the real-life impact of GWAS-discoveries by quantifying genetic associations with missed school and work and hospitalization.
PMCID: PMC3899706  PMID: 24429243
3.  Convergent translational evidence of a role for anandamide in amygdala-mediated fear extinction, threat processing and stress-reactivity 
Molecular psychiatry  2012;18(7):813-823.
Endocannabinoids are released ‘on-demand’ on the basis of physiological need, and can be pharmacologically augmented by inhibiting their catabolic degradation. The endocannabinoid anandamide is degraded by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Anandamide is implicated in the mediation of fear behaviors, including fear extinction, suggesting that selectively elevating brain anandamide could modulate plastic changes in fear. Here we first tested this hypothesis with preclinical experiments employing a novel, potent and selective FAAH inhibitor, AM3506 (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride). Systemic AM3506 administration before extinction decreased fear during a retrieval test in a mouse model of impaired extinction. AM3506 had no effects on fear in the absence of extinction training, or on various non-fear-related measures. Anandamide levels in the basolateral amygdala were increased by extinction training and augmented by systemic AM3506, whereas application of AM3506 to amygdala slices promoted long-term depression of inhibitory transmission, a form of synaptic plasticity linked to extinction. Further supporting the amygdala as effect-locus, the fear-reducing effects of systemic AM3506 were blocked by intra-amygdala infusion of a CB1 receptor antagonist and were fully recapitulated by intra-amygdala infusion of AM3506. On the basis of these preclinical findings, we hypothesized that variation in the human FAAH gene would predict individual differences in amygdala threat-processing and stress-coping traits. Consistent with this, carriers of a low-expressing FAAH variant (385A allele; rs324420) exhibited quicker habituation of amygdala reactivity to threat, and had lower scores on the personality trait of stress-reactivity. Our findings show that augmenting amygdala anandamide enables extinction-driven reductions in fear in mouse and may promote stress-coping in humans.
PMCID: PMC3549323  PMID: 22688188
amygdala; anxiety; cannabinoid; fear; gene; stress
4.  Effects of cannabis on lung function: a population-based cohort study 
The effects of cannabis on lung function remain unclear and may be different from those of tobacco. We compared the associations between use of these substances and lung function in a population-based cohort (n=1,037).
Cannabis and tobacco use were reported at ages 18, 21, 26 and 32 yrs. Spirometry, plethysmography and carbon monoxide transfer factor were measured at 32 yrs. Associations between lung function and exposure to each substance were adjusted for exposure to the other substance.
Cumulative cannabis use was associated with higher forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume. Cannabis was also associated with higher airway resistance but not with forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced expiratory ratio or transfer factor. These findings were similar among those who did not smoke tobacco. In contrast, tobacco use was associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s, lower forced expiratory ratio, lower transfer factor and higher static lung volumes, but not with airway resistance.
Cannabis appears to have different effects on lung function from those of tobacco. Cannabis use was associated with higher lung volumes, suggesting hyperinflation and increased large-airways resistance, but there was little evidence for airflow obstruction or impairment of gas transfer.
PMCID: PMC3805041  PMID: 19679602
Cannabis; cohort study; marijuana; respiratory function; smoking; tobacco
5.  How should we construct psychiatric family history scores? A comparison of alternative approaches from the Dunedin Family Health History Study 
Psychological medicine  2008;38(12):1793-1802.
There is increased interest in assessing the family history of psychiatric disorders for both genetic research and public health screening. It is unclear how best to combine family history reports into an overall score. We compare the predictive validity of different family history scores.
Probands from the Dunedin Study (n=981, 51% male) had their family history assessed for nine different conditions. We computed four family history scores for each disorder: (1) a simple dichotomous categorization of whether or not probands had any disordered first-degree relatives ; (2) the observed number of disordered first-degree relatives ; (3) the proportion of first-degree relatives who are disordered; and (4) Reed’s score, which expressed the observed number of disordered first-degree relatives in terms of the number expected given the age and sex of each relative. We compared the strength of association between each family history score and probands’ disorder outcome.
Each score produced significant family history associations for all disorders. The scores that took account of the number of disordered relatives within families (i.e. the observed, proportion, and Reed’s scores) produced significantly stronger associations than the dichotomous score for conduct disorder, alcohol dependence and smoking. Taking account of family size (i.e. using the proportion or Reed’s score) produced stronger family history associations depending on the prevalence of the disorder among family members.
Dichotomous family history scores can be improved upon by considering the number of disordered relatives in a family and the population prevalence of the disorder.
PMCID: PMC3752774  PMID: 18366822
Family history; predictive validity; prevalence; psychiatry
6.  The Validity of the Family History Screen for Assessing Family History of Mental Disorders 
There is a need to collect psychiatric family history information quickly and economically (e.g., for genome-wide studies and primary care practice). We sought to evaluate the validity of family history reports using a brief screening instrument, the Family History Screen (FHS). We assessed the validity of parents’ reports of seven psychiatric disorders in their adult children probands from the Dunedin Study (n=959, 52% male), using the proband’s diagnosis as the criterion outcome. We also investigated whether there were informant characteristics that enhanced accuracy of reporting or were associated with reporting biases. Using reports from multiple informants, we obtained sensitivities ranging from 31.7% (alcohol dependence) to 60.0% (conduct disorder) and specificities ranging from 76.0% (major depressive episode) to 97.1% (suicide attempt). There was little evidence that any informant characteristics enhanced accuracy of reporting. However, three reporting biases were found: the probability of reporting disorder in the proband was greater for informants with versus without a disorder, for female versus male informants, and for younger versus older informants. We conclude that the FHS is as valid as other family history instruments (e.g., the FH-RDC, FISC), and its brief administration time makes it a cost-effective method for collecting family history data. To avoid biasing results, researchers who aim to compare groups in terms of their family history should ensure that the informants reporting on these groups do not differ in terms of age, sex or personal history of disorder.
PMCID: PMC3750954  PMID: 18449865
family history; sensitivity; specificity; accuracy; bias
7.  How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment 
Psychological medicine  2009;40(6):899-909.
Most information about the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders comes from retrospective surveys, but how much these surveys have undercounted due to recall failure is unknown. We compared results from a prospective study with those from retrospective studies.
The representative 1972–1973 Dunedin New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) was followed to age 32 years with 96% retention, and compared to the national New Zealand Mental Health Survey (NZMHS) and two US National Comorbidity Surveys (NCS and NCS-R). Measures were research diagnoses of anxiety, depression, alcohol dependence and cannabis dependence from ages 18 to 32 years.
The prevalence of lifetime disorder to age 32 was approximately doubled in prospective as compared to retrospective data for all four disorder types. Moreover, across disorders, prospective measurement yielded a mean past-year-to-lifetime ratio of 38% whereas retrospective measurement yielded higher mean past-year-to-lifetime ratios of 57% (NZMHS, NCS-R) and 65% (NCS).
Prospective longitudinal studies complement retrospective surveys by providing unique information about lifetime prevalence. The experience of at least one episode of DSM-defined disorder during a lifetime may be far more common in the population than previously thought. Research should ask what this means for etiological theory, construct validity of the DSM approach, public perception of stigma, estimates of the burden of disease and public health policy.
PMCID: PMC3572710  PMID: 19719899
Epidemiology; longitudinal; prevalence; psychiatry; retrospective
8.  Maternal Oral Health Predicts Their Children’s Caries Experience in Adulthood 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(5):672-677.
The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands’ caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as “poor” or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as “excellent”. Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood.
PMCID: PMC3144114  PMID: 21248361
oral health; intergenerational; life-course; risk; family history
9.  Long-term Dental Visiting Patterns and Adult Oral Health 
Journal of dental research  2010;89(3):307-311.
To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants’ use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health.
PMCID: PMC2821461  PMID: 20093674
oral health; utilization; dental visiting
10.  Long-term Dental Visiting Patterns and Adult Oral Health 
Journal of Dental Research  2010;89(3):307-311.
To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants’ use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health.
PMCID: PMC2821461  PMID: 20093674
oral health; utilization; dental visiting
11.  Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort 
To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders.
Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories.
DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the ‘stress reaction’ subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the ‘social closeness’ subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant.
Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety have been observed. Some trajectories (totalling more than 90% of the cohort) had clear associations with external influences, but others were more strongly associated with characteristics such as personality traits. A mix of both influences was observed with only the stable anxious dental anxiety trajectory.
PMCID: PMC2817941  PMID: 19508269
adult; dental anxiety; longitudinal study; natural history; trajectory analysis; young adult
12.  Breast feeding is related to C reactive protein concentration in adult women 
To assess the influence of infant breast feeding on C reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low grade inflammation associated with cardiovascular mortality independent of serum cholesterol concentrations.
Serum CRP, total cholesterol, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed along with assessment of infant breast feeding duration, birth weight, smoking status, adult socioeconomic status, number of health problems, and hormonal contraceptive use.
A New Zealand predominantly European descent community birth cohort.
822 men and women aged 26 years.
Main results
There was a significant linear relation (p<0.001) between duration of breast feeding and adult CRP level in women. The geometric means (IQR) for CRP were 2.22 (1, 4) mg/l for women breast fed for six months or more and 3.95 (2, 8) mg/l for women not breast fed (ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 (0.55 to 0.87). The linear association between cholesterol and breast feeding was also significant (p = 0.01), the geometric mean (IQR) total cholesterol levels being 4.62 (4.10, 5.10) for those breast fed for six months or more and 5.04 (4.5, 5.80) for those not breast fed (ratio, 95% CI: 0.92 (0.87, 0.98). There was no relation between CRP or total cholesterol and duration of breast feeding in men.
The findings of lower CRP with an increased duration of breast feeding in women suggest early postnatal nutrition may influence long term cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC2566145  PMID: 16415265
breast feeding; C reactive protein; cholesterol; cardiovascular risk
13.  Oral Health Beliefs in Adolescence and Oral Health in Young Adulthood 
Journal of dental research  2006;85(4):339-343.
According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.
PMCID: PMC2276695  PMID: 16567555
dentistry; longitudinal study; sex differences; oral health beliefs; caries
14.  Trajectory Patterns of Dental Caries Experience in the Permanent Dentition to the Fourth Decade of Life 
Journal of dental research  2008;87(1):69-72.
Dental caries is a chronic, cumulative disease, but no studies have investigated longitudinal patterns of caries experience. The objective of this study was to identify and describe developmental trajectories of caries experience in the permanent dentition to age 32. Longitudinal caries data for 955 participants in a longstanding birth cohort study were analyzed by trajectory analysis. Three caries experience trajectories were identified by the SAS macro PROC TRAJ; these were categorized as “high” (~ 15%), “medium” (~ 43%), and “low” (~ 42%) DMFS (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces). All were relatively linear, although the higher trajectories were more “S-shaped”. This effect disappeared following adjustment for the number of unaffected surfaces remaining at each age, suggesting that, among individuals following a similar caries trajectory, caries rate is relatively constant across time.
PMCID: PMC2254448  PMID: 18096897
longitudinal study; adult; trajectory analysis; caries
15.  Progression of Dental Caries and Tooth Loss between the Third and Fourth Decades of Life: A Birth Cohort Study 
Caries research  2006;40(6):459-465.
The majority of what is known of the experience of dental caries among adults is from cross-sectional studies, and there are surprisingly few population-level longitudinal studies of dental caries among adults. Dental examinations were conducted at age 26 and again at age 32 among participants in a longstanding prospective study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 1972/1973. Some 901 individuals (88.8%) were dentally examined at both ages. The mean number of remaining teeth and tooth surfaces fell between 26 and 32, reflecting ongoing tooth loss. The overall prevalence of caries rose from 94.9 to 96.8%, while there were greater increases in the proportion with caries-associated tooth loss (from 10.8 to 22.8%). Caries experience was greatest in the molar teeth and upper premolars, and was lowest in the lower anterior teeth. The mean crude caries increment (CCI) was 5.0 surfaces (SD 6.6); 681 (75.5%) experienced 1+ CCI, and the mean CCI among those individuals was 6.6 surfaces (SD 6.9). Substantial dental caries and tooth loss experience occur as people move from the third into the fourth decade of life.
PMCID: PMC2253678  PMID: 17063015
Caries; Tooth loss
16.  Changes in medication use from age 26 to 32 in a representative birth cohort 
Internal medicine journal  2007;37(8):543-549.
To date, longitudinal studies of medications have been confined to older adults or clinical samples, with no data from prospective studies of younger adults. The aim of the study was to examine changes in medication usage between ages 26 and 32 in a prospective study of a representative birth cohort.
Medication use during the previous 2 weeks was investigated among 960 individuals at ages 26 and 32.
Nearly two-thirds took at least one medication at each age, with medication prevalence higher among women than among men. Three-quarters of those taking at least one at age 26 were doing so at 32. Over-the-counter medication prevalence increased from 35 to 43% between 26 and 32 years of age. Although the prevalence of prescribed medications decreased (from just under half to just over one-third, and from two-thirds to below half among women), there was no significant difference between the ages once hormonal contraceptives were accounted for. By 32, reduced usage of hormonal contraceptives was apparent, with one-third of age-26 users still taking these at 32. Other categories showing major changes were analgesics (increased), anti-asthma drugs (decreased), antidepressants (increased) and antiulcer drugs (increased). At 32, 82% of those taking analgesics, 85% of those taking nutrient supplements, 71% of those taking antihistamines and 33% of those taking antiulcer drugs had self-prescribed them.
A considerable proportion of the sample used medications by age 32, and there was considerable change between 26 and 32. The changes are likely to have been due to a mix of ageing and period effects.
PMCID: PMC2249167  PMID: 17445008
prescription drug; nonprescription drug; cohort study; drug usage
17.  Relationship between socioeconomic status and asthma: a longitudinal cohort study 
Thorax  2004;59(5):376-380.
Background: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors.
Methods: We report a prospective cohort study of approximately 1000 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–3. This sample has been assessed regularly throughout childhood and into adulthood, with detailed information collected on asthma symptoms, lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy. The prevalence of these in relation to measures of socioeconomic status were analysed with and without controls for potential confounding influences including parental history of asthma, smoking, breast feeding, and birth order using cross sectional time series models.
Results: No consistent association was found between childhood or adult socioeconomic status and asthma prevalence, lung function, or airway responsiveness at any age. Having asthma made no difference to educational attainment or socioeconomic status by age 26. There were trends to increased atopy in children from higher socioeconomic status families consistent with previous reports.
Conclusions: Socioeconomic status in childhood had no significant impact on the prevalence of asthma in this New Zealand born cohort. Generalisation of these results to other societies should be done with caution, but our results suggest that the previously reported associations may be due to confounding.
PMCID: PMC1747001  PMID: 15115861
18.  Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study 
Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study.
Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21.
Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury.
Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
PMCID: PMC1737678  PMID: 11784831

Results 1-18 (18)