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author:("donath, P D")
1.  The C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 participates in stimulation of eosinophil arrest on inflammatory endothelium in shear flow. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(9):2017-2024.
Chemokines are widely hypothesized to stimulate firm adhesion of leukocytes on endothelium in shear flow. Thus far, this has been demonstrated experimentally for exogenously added chemoattractants, but not for those released by endothelium. We found that human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secreted eosinophil chemoattractants into the culture supernatant. This material induced transendothelial chemotaxis, stimulated eosinophil binding to purified intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and augmented binding to purified vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in a 3-min static assay. Chemotaxis and stimulation of adhesion were abrogated completely by the pretreatment of eosinophils with an mAb to the C-C chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3). Eosinophils accumulated efficiently on HUVEC stimulated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in shear flow at 1.5 dyn/cm2. CCR3 mAb slightly but significantly reduced eosinophil arrest and accumulation, by preventing development of firm adhesion by some of the tethered eosinophils, so that they detached within 30 s after the initial tethering. In the presence of mAb to the alpha4 integrin subunit, the effect of CCR3 mAb was more prominent, and approximately half of eosinophil arrest and accumulation was abolished. Inhibition by CCR3 mAb in the presence of beta2 integrin mAb was similar to that in control eosinophils. This is the first evidence that endothelial cell-derived chemokines can activate firm adhesion through alpha4 and beta2 integrins even in the presence of shear flow.
PMCID: PMC508789  PMID: 9576767
2.  High expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 in human blood basophils. Role in activation by eotaxin, MCP-4, and other chemokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(5):1137-1143.
Eosinophil leukocytes express high numbers of the chemokine receptor CCR3 which binds eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and some other CC chemokines. In this paper we show that CCR3 is also highly expressed on human blood basophils, as indicated by Northern blotting and flow cytometry, and mediates mainly chemotaxis. Eotaxin and MCP-4 elicited basophil migration in vitro with similar efficacy as regulated upon activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and MCP-3. They also induced the release of histamine and leukotrienes in IL-3-primed basophils, but their efficacy was lower than that of MCP-1 and MCP-3, which were the most potent stimuli of exocytosis. Pretreatment of the basophils with a CCR3-blocking antibody abrogated the migration induced by eotaxin, RANTES, and by low to optimal concentrations of MCP-4, but decreased only minimally the response to MCP-3. The CCR3-blocking antibody also affected exocytosis: it abrogated histamine and leukotriene release induced by eotaxin, and partially inhibited the response to RANTES and MCP-4. In contrast, the antibody did not affect the responses induced by MCP-1, MCP-3, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, which may depend on CCR1 and CCR2, two additional receptors detected by Northern blotting with basophil RNA. This study demonstrates that CCR3 is the major receptor for eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-4 in human basophils, and suggests that basophils and eosinophils, which are the characteristic effector cells of allergic inflammation, depend largely on CCR3 for migration towards different chemokines into inflamed tissues.
PMCID: PMC508288  PMID: 9276730
3.  Utilization of C-C chemokine receptor 5 by the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(3):2522-2527.
We examined chemokine receptors for the ability to facilitate the infection of CD4-expressing cells by viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239. Expression of either human or simian C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 allowed the SIVmac239 envelope glycoproteins to mediate virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Thus, distantly related immunodeficiency viruses such as SIV and the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates can utilize CCR5 as an entry cofactor.
PMCID: PMC191367  PMID: 9032394
4.  Production of the novel C-C chemokine MCP-4 by airway cells and comparison of its biological activity to other C-C chemokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(5):926-936.
Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4) is a newly identified C-C chemokine with potent eosinophil chemoattractant properties. We describe studies of its biological activity in vitro to induce chemotaxis of peripheral blood eosinophils and to induce histamine release from IL-3-primed peripheral blood basophils. MCP-4 and eotaxin caused a similar rise in eosinophil intracytoplasmic Ca2+ and complete cross-desensitization. MCP-4 also abolished the eosinophil Ca2+ response to MCP-3 and partially desensitized the response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. MCP-4 activated cell migration via either CCR2b or CCR3 in mouse lymphoma cells transfected with these chemokine receptors. MCP-4 inhibited binding of 125I-eotaxin to eosinophils and CCR3-transfected cells and inhibited 125I-MCP-1 binding to CCR2b-transfectants. MCP-4 mRNA was found in cells collected in bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects and was prominently expressed in human lung and heart. MCP-4 mRNA was expressed in several human bronchial epithelial cell lines after cytokine stimulation. Pretreatment of BEAS-2B epithelial cells with the glucocorticoid budesonide inhibited MCP-4 mRNA expression. These features make MCP-4 a candidate for playing a role in eosinophil recruitment during allergic respiratory diseases.
PMCID: PMC507900  PMID: 9062350
5.  Chemokine receptor usage by human eosinophils. The importance of CCR3 demonstrated using an antagonistic monoclonal antibody. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(2):178-184.
Chemokines bind and signal through G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptors. Various chemokine receptors are expressed on leukocytes, and these may impart selective homing of leukocyte subsets to sites of inflammation. Human eosinophils express the eotaxin receptor, CCR3, but respond to a variety of CC chemokines apart from eotaxin, including RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4. Here we describe a mAb, 7B11, that is selective for CCR3 and has the properties of a true receptor antagonist. 7B11 blocked binding of various radiolabeled chemokines to either CCR3 transfectants, or eosinophils. Pretreatment of eosinophils with this mAb blocked chemotaxis and calcium flux induced by all CCR3 ligands. In all individuals examined, including allergic and eosinophilic donors, > 95% of the response of eosinophils to eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4 was shown to be mediated through CCR3. The IL-8 receptors, particularly CXCR2, were induced on IL-5 primed eosinophils, however these eosinophils responded to CC chemokines in the same manner as unprimed eosinophils. These results demonstrate the importance of CCR3 for eosinophil responses, and the feasibility of completely antagonizing this receptor.
PMCID: PMC507784  PMID: 9005985
6.  Cloning of the human eosinophil chemoattractant, eotaxin. Expression, receptor binding, and functional properties suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of eosinophils. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(3):604-612.
The CC chemokine eotaxin, identified in guinea pigs and also recently in mice, may be a key element for the selective recruitment of eosinophils to certain inflamed tissues. Using a partial mouse eotaxin CDNA probe, the human eotaxin gene was cloned and found to be 61.8 and 63.2% identical at the amino acid level to guinea pig and mouse eotaxin. Human eotaxin protein was a strong and specific eosinophil chemoattractant in vitro and was an effective eosinophil chemoattractant when injected into the skin of a rhesus monkey. Radiolabeled eotaxin was used to identify a high affinity receptor on eosinophils (0.52 nM Kd), expressed at 4.8 x 10(4) sites per cell. This receptor also bound RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 with lower affinity, but not macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Eotaxin could desensitize calcium responses of eosinophils to RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3, although RANTES was able to only partially desensitize eosinophil calcium responses to eotaxin. Immunohistochemistry on human nasal polyp with antieotaxin mAbs showed that certain leukocytes as well as respiratory epithelium were intensely immunoreactive, and eosinophil infiltration occurred at sites of eotaxin upregulation. Thus eotaxin in humans is a potent and selective eosinophil chemoattractant that is expressed by a variety cell types in certain inflammatory conditions.
PMCID: PMC507095  PMID: 8609214
7.  A factor that regulates the class II major histocompatibility complex gene DPA is a member of a subfamily of zinc finger proteins that includes a Drosophila developmental control protein. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(12):8438-8450.
A novel DNA sequence element termed the J element involved in the regulated expression of class II major histocompatibility complex genes was recently described. To study this element and its role in class II gene regulation further, a cDNA library was screened with oligonucleotide probes containing both the S element and the nearby J element of the human DPA gene. Several DNA clones were obtained by this procedure, one of which, clone 18, is reported and characterized here. It encodes a protein predicted to contain 688 amino acid residues, including 11 zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type in the C-terminal region, that are Krüppel-like in the conservation of the H/C link sequence connecting them. The 160 N-terminal amino acids in the nonfinger region of clone 18 are highly homologous with similar regions of several other human, mouse, and Drosophila sequences, defining a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins termed TAB (tramtrack [ttk]-associated box) here. One of the Drosophila sequences, ttk, is a developmental control gene, while a second does not contain a zinc finger region but encodes a structure important in oocyte development. An acidic activation domain is located between the N-terminal conserved region of clone 18 and its zinc fingers. This protein appears to require both the S and J elements, which are separated by 10 bp for optimal binding. Antisense cDNA to clone 18 inhibited the expression of a reporter construct containing the DPA promoter, indicating its functional importance in the expression of this class II gene.
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PMCID: PMC359383  PMID: 7969177

Results 1-7 (7)