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author:("poles, Jerry")
1.  Ectopic NGAL expression can alter sensitivity of breast cancer cells to EGFR, Bcl-2, CaM-K inhibitors and the plant natural product berberine 
Cell Cycle  2012;11(23):4447-4461.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family and has diverse roles. NGAL can stabilize matrix metalloproteinase-9 from autodegradation. NGAL is considered as a siderocalin that is important in the transport of iron. NGAL expression has also been associated with certain neoplasias and is implicated in the metastasis of breast cancer. In a previous study, we examined whether ectopic NGAL expression would alter the sensitivity of breast epithelial, breast and colorectal cancer cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. While abundant NGAL expression was detected in all the cells infected with a retrovirus encoding NGAL, this expression did not alter the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin as compared with empty vector-transduced cells. We were also interested in determining the effects of ectopic NGAL expression on the sensitivity to small-molecule inhibitors targeting key signaling molecules. Ectopic NGAL expression increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to EGFR, Bcl-2 and calmodulin kinase inhibitors as well as the natural plant product berberine. Furthermore, when suboptimal concentrations of certain inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin, a reduction in the doxorubicin IC50 was frequently observed. An exception was observed when doxorubicin was combined with rapamycin, as doxorubicin suppressed the sensitivity of the NGAL-transduced MCF-7 cells to rapamycin when compared with the empty vector controls. In contrast, changes in the sensitivities of the NGAL-transduced HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line and the breast epithelial MCF-10A cell line were not detected compared with empty vector-transduced cells. Doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/DoxR cells were examined in these experiments as a control drug-resistant line; it displayed increased sensitivity to EGFR and Bcl-2 inhibitors compared with empty vector transduced MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that NGAL expression can alter the sensitivity of certain cancer cells to small-molecule inhibitors, suggesting that patients whose tumors exhibit elevated NGAL expression or have become drug-resistant may display altered responses to certain small-molecule inhibitors.
doi:10.4161/cc.22786
PMCID: PMC3552927  PMID: 23159854
NGAL; Lcn2; lipocalins; siderocalins; targeted therapy; inhibitor sensitivity; EGFR; rapamycin; berberine; BCL-2; calmodulin kinase; breast cancer; colorectal cancer
2.  Advances in Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways 
Oncotarget  2012;3(12):1505-1521.
Over the past few years, significant advances have occurred in both our understanding of the complexity of signal transduction pathways as well as the isolation of specific inhibitors which target key components in those pathways. Furthermore critical information is being accrued regarding how genetic mutations can affect the sensitivity of various types of patients to targeted therapy. Finally, genetic mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance after targeted therapy are being discovered which may allow the creation of alternative therapies to overcome resistance. This review will discuss some of the highlights over the past few years on the roles of key signaling pathways in various diseases, the targeting of signal transduction pathways and the genetic mechanisms governing sensitivity and resistance to targeted therapies.
PMCID: PMC3681490  PMID: 23455493
Targeted Therapy; Therapy Resistance; Cancer Stem Cells; Raf; Akt; PI3K; mTOR; AMPK; Metformin
3.  Effects of Ectopic Expression of NGAL on Doxorubicin Sensitivity 
Oncotarget  2012;3(10):1236-1245.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family which has diverse roles including stabilizing matrix metalloproteinase-9 from auto-degradation and as siderocalins which are important in the transport of iron. NGAL also has important biological functions involved in immunity and inflammation as well as responses to kidney damage. NGAL expression has also been associated with certain neoplasia and is important in the metastasis of breast cancer. Many advanced cancer patients have elevated levels of NGAL in their urine and it has been proposed that NGAL may be a prognostic indicator for certain cancers (e.g. breast, brain, and others). NGAL expression is detected in response to various chemotherapeutic drugs including doxorubicin and docetaxel. We were interested in the roles of NGAL expression in cancer and whether it is associated with chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether increased NGAL expression led to resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer cells (HT-29). We infected the various cell lines with a retrovirus encoding NGAL which we constructed. Increased NGAL expression was readily detected in the NGAL-infected cells but not the empty vector-infected cells. However, increased NGAL expression did not alter the sensitivity of the cells to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Thus, although NGAL expression is often detected after chemotherapeutic drug treatment, it by itself, does not lead to doxorubicin resistance.
PMCID: PMC3717946  PMID: 23100449
NGAL; Lcn2; Doxorubicin; lipocalins; siderocalins; iron transport; MMP-9; drug resistance
4.  Overexpression of TWIST2 correlates with poor prognosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas 
Oncotarget  2011;2(12):1165-1175.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable presentation and clinical behavior. Despite improvements in surgical and radiation therapy techniques, the 5-year survival rate has not improved significantly over the past decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel markers that may allow for the development of personalized therapeutic approaches. In the present study we evaluated the prognostic role of the expression of genes related to the induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). To this aim, a consecutive series of 69 HNSCC were analyzed for the expression of TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1, SNAI2, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin.
TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 were significantly overexpressed in HNSCC, with TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 being more markedly increased in tumors compared to normal mucosae. The expression of TWIST1 and SNAI2 was associated with upregulation of mesenchymal markers, but failed to correlate with pathological parameters or clinical behaviour. In contrast, we found that upregulation of TWIST2, which was independent of the activation of a mesenchymal differentiation program, correlated with poor differentiation grade (p=0.016) and shorter survival (p=0.025), and identifies a subset of node-positive oral cavity/pharynx cancer patients with very poor prognosis (p<0.001).
Overall our study suggests that the assessment of TWIST2 expression might help to stratify HNSCC patients for risk of disease progression, pointing to TWIST2 as a potential prognostic marker.
PMCID: PMC3282075  PMID: 22201613
TWIST1; TWIST2; SNAI1; SNAI2; EMT; HNSCC
5.  Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Complete Pathologic Response after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for cT3 Rectal Cancer: Implications for Local Excision Surgical Strategies 
Annals of Surgical Oncology  2011;18(13):3686-3693.
Background
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by radical surgery including total mesorectal excision (TME) is standard treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Emerging data indicate that patients with complete pathologic response (ypCR) after CRT have favorable outcome, suggesting the possibility of less invasive surgical treatment. We analyzed long-term outcome of cT3 rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant CRT in relation to ypCR and type of surgery.
Methods
The study population comprised 139 patients (93 men, 46 women; median age 62 years) with cT3N0–1M0 mid and distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated by CRT and surgery (110 TME and 29 local excision) at our institution between 1996 and 2008. At pathology, ypCR was defined as no residual cancer cells in the primary tumor.
Results
Tumors of 42 patients (30.2%) were classified as ypCR. After a median follow-up of 55.4 months, comparing patients with ypCR to patients with no ypCR, 5-year disease-specific survival was 95.8% versus 78.0% (P = 0.004), and 5-year disease-free survival was 90.1% vs. 64.0% (P = 0.004). In patients with ypCR, no statistically significant outcome difference was observed between TME and local excision. In patients treated by local excision, comparing patients with ypCR to patients with no ypCR, 5-year disease-free survival was 100% vs. 65.5% (P = 0.024), and 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 92.9% vs. 66.7% (P = 0.047).
Conclusions
With retrospective analysis limitations, our data confirm favorable long-term outcome of cT3 rectal cancer with ypCR after CRT and warrant clinical trials exploring local excision surgical strategies.
doi:10.1245/s10434-011-1822-0
PMCID: PMC3222828  PMID: 21691880
8.  Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:310.
Background
The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age.
Results
A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age <35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age ≥45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count <200 cells/μl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.
Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied.
Conclusions
In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-310
PMCID: PMC2904281  PMID: 20565935

Results 1-8 (8)