Bioengineered fiber substrates are increasingly studied as a means to promote regeneration and remodeling in the injured central nervous system (CNS). Previous reports largely focused on the ability of oriented scaffolds to bridge injured regions and direct outgrowth of axonal projections. In the present work, we explored the effects of electrospun microfibers on the migration and physiological properties of brain astroglial cells. Primary rat astrocytes were cultured on either fibronectin-coated poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) films, fibronectin-coated randomly oriented PLLA electrospun fibers, or fibronectin-coated aligned PLLA electrospun fibers. Aligned PLLA fibers strongly altered astrocytic morphology, orienting cell processes, actin microfilaments, and microtubules along the length of the fibers. On aligned fibers, astrocytes also significantly increased their migration rates in the direction of fiber orientation. We further investigated if fiber topography modifies astrocytic neuroprotective properties, namely glutamate and glutamine transport and metabolism. This was done by quantifying changes in mRNA expression (qRT-PCR) and protein levels (Western blotting) for a battery of relevant biomolecules. Interestingly, we found that cells grown on random and/or aligned fibers increased the expression levels of two glutamate transporters, GLAST and GLT-1, and an important metabolic enzyme, glutamine synthetase, as compared to the fibronectin-coated films. Functional assays revealed increases in glutamate transport rates due to GLT-1 mediated uptake, which was largely determined by the dihydrokainate-sensitive GLT-1. Overall, this study suggests that aligned PLLA fibers can promote directed astrocytic migration, and, of most importance, our in vitro results indicate for the first time that electrospun PLLA fibers can positively modify neuroprotective properties of glial cells by increasing rates of glutamate uptake.
Poly-l-lactic acid; Aligned microfibers; Astrocytes; Migration; Glutamate transport; Glutamate metabolism
Previous studies from our lab have shown that both boric (BA) and phenylboronic acid (PBA) inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cell lines, as well as non-tumorigenic prostate cells. Our results indicate that PBA is more potent than BA in targeting metastatic and proliferative properties of cancer cells. Here we focus on the impact of BA and PBA on Rho family of GTP-binding proteins and their downstream targets. Treatment with 1 mM PBA and BA decreases activities of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in DU-145 metastatic prostate cancer cells, but not in normal RWPE-1 prostate cells. Furthermore, ROCKII activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase decrease as a result of either PBA or BA treatment in DU-145 cells, suggesting these compounds target actomyosin-based contractility.
boric acid; phenylboronic acid; migration; prostate cancer; natural compounds; DU-145
We recently reported that laminin-5, expressed by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), stimulates osteogenic gene expression in these cells in the absence of any other osteogenic stimulus. Here we employ two dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, along with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), to obtain a more comprehensive profile of the protein (and hence gene) expression changes occurring during laminin-5-induced osteogenesis of hMSC. Specifically, we compare the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated hMSC, hMSC cultured on laminin-5 (Ln-5 hMSC), and fully differentiated human osteoblasts (hOST) with profiles from hMSC treated with well-established osteogenic stimuli (collagen I, vitronectin, or dexamethazone). We find a marked reduction in the number of proteins (e.g., those involved with calcium signaling and cellular metabolism) expressed in Ln-5 hMSC compared to hMSC, consistent with our previous finding that hOST express far fewer proteins than do their hMSC progenitors, a pattern we call “osteogenic gene focusing.” This focused set, which resembles an intermediate stage between hMSC and mature hOST, mirrors the expression profiles of hMSC exposed to established osteogenic stimuli and includes osteogenic extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, vitronectin) and their integrin receptors, calcium signaling proteins, and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. These results provide direct evidence that laminin-5 alone stimulates global changes in gene/protein expression in hMSC that lead to commitment of these cells to the osteogenic phenotype, and that this commitment correlates with extracellular matrix production.
Laminin-5; extracellular matrix; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenesis
The concept of using stem cells as self-renewing sources of healthy cells in regenerative medicine has existed for decades, but most applications have yet to achieve clinical success. A main reason for the lack of successful stem cell therapies is the difficulty in fully recreating the maintenance and control of the native stem cell niche. Improving the performance of transplanted stem cells therefore requires a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms guiding stem cell behavior in both native and engineered three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Most techniques, however, for uncovering mechanisms controlling cell behavior in vitro have been developed using 2D cell cultures and are of limited use in 3D environments such as engineered tissue constructs. Deciphering the mechanisms controlling stem cell fate in native and engineered 3D environments, therefore, requires rigorous quantitative techniques that permit mechanistic, hypothesis-driven studies of cell–microenvironment interactions. Here, we review the current understanding of 2D and 3D stem cell control mechanisms and propose an approach to uncovering the mechanisms that govern stem cell behavior in 3D.
Tissue morphogenesis remains one of the least understood problems in cell and developmental biology. There is a disconnect between the mechanisms that apply to two dimensional (2D) cultures and those seen in vivo. Three dimensional (3D) culture presents a complex stimulus triggering cellular responses that are only partially understood. We compared 2D and 3D cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, to determine the role of ERK in collagen induced differentiation. 3D collagen I culture enhanced and accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Contrary to 2D results, the addition of PD98059 induced a significant amplification of osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in 3D cultures. The inhibition of ERK altered cell-mediated compaction, proliferation and resulted in the development of distinct tissue microstructure. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to reorganize collagen in 3D is an important step in ERK mediated osteogenic differentiation. This work aims to propose a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and hMSC directed collagen I remodeling. We present a potential mechanistic link (ERK) through which the three dimensionality of an engineered tissue acts to differentially induce and maintain cellular phenotype during tissue development.
adult stem cells; collagen; differentiation; osteogenesis; matrix signaling
Tissue morphogenesis remains one of the least understood problems in cell and developmental biology. There is a disconnect between the mechanisms that apply to two-dimensional (2D) cultures and those seen in vivo. Three-dimensional (3D) culture presents a complex stimulus triggering cellular responses that are only partially understood. We compared 2D and 3D cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, to determine the role of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) in collagen-induced differentiation. 3D collagen I culture enhanced and accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Contrary to 2D results, the addition of PD98059 induced a significant amplification of osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in 3D cultures. The inhibition of ERK altered cell-mediated compaction, proliferation, and resulted in the development of distinct tissue microstructure. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to reorganize collagen in 3D is an important step in ERK-mediated osteogenic differentiation. This work aims to propose a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and hMSC-directed collagen I remodeling. We present a potential mechanistic link (ERK) through which the three dimensionality of an engineered tissue acts to differentially induce and maintain cellular phenotype during tissue development.
We compared the in vitro effect of boric acid (BA) versus phenylboronic acid (PBA) on the migration of prostate and breast cancer cell lines and non-tumorigenic cells from the same tissues. Treatment at 24 hours with BA (≤500 µM) did not inhibit chemotaxis on fibronectin in any cell line. However, treatment over the same time course with concentrations of PBA as low as 1 µM significantly inhibited cancer cell migration without effecting non-tumorigenic cell lines. The compounds did not affect cell adhesion or viability at 24 hours but did alter morphology; both decreased cancer cell viability at eight days. These results suggest that PBA is more potent than BA in targeting the metastatic and proliferative properties of cancer cells.
boron; boric acid; DU-145; PC-3; ZR-75-1; RWPE-1; MCF-10A; adhesion; fibronectin
The overall mechanisms governing the role of laminins during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are poorly understood. We previously reported that laminin-332 induces an osteogenic phenotype in hMSC and does so through a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) dependent pathway. We hypothesized that this is a result of integrin-ECM binding, and that it occurs via the known α3 LG3 integrin binding domain of laminin-332. To test this hypothesis we cultured hMSC on several different globular domains of laminin-332. hMSC adhered best to the LG3 domain, and this adhesion maximally activated FAK and ERK within 120 minutes. Prolonged culturing (8 or 16 days) of hMSC on LG3 led to activation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 and expression of key osteogenic markers (osterix, bone sialoprotein 2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, extracellular calcium) in hMSC. LG3 domain binding did not increase matrix mineralization, demonstrating that the LG3 domain alone is not sufficient to induce complete osteogenic differentiation in vitro. We conclude that the LG3 domain mediates attachment of hMSC to laminin-332 and that this adhesion recapitulates most, but not all, of the osteogenic differentiation associated with laminin-5 binding to hMSC.
LG domain; osteogenesis; laminin-332; mesenchymal stem cell; osterix; extracellular matrix
The intracellular signaling events controlling human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation into osteoblasts are not entirely understood. We recently demonstrated that contact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSC through an ERK-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that FAK signaling pathways provide a link between activation of ERK 1/2 by ECM, and stimulate subsequent phosphorylation of the Runx2/Cbfa-1 transcription factor that controls osteogenic gene expression. We plated hMSC on purified collagen I (COLL-I) and vitronectin (VN) in the presence or absence of FAK-specific siRNA, and assayed for phosphorylation of Runx2/Cbfa-1 as well as expression of established osteogenic differentiation markers (bone sialoprotein-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium deposition, and spectroscopically determined mineral:matrix ratio). We found that siRNA treatment reduced FAK mRNA levels by >40% and decreased ECM-mediated phosphorylation of FAK Y397 and ERK 1/2. Serine phosphorylation of Runx2/Cbfa-1 was significantly reduced after 8 days in treated cells. Finally, FAK inhibition blocked osterix transcriptional activity and the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC, as assessed by lowered expression of osteogenic genes (RT-PCR), decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, greatly reduced calcium deposition, and a lower mineral:matrix ratio after 28 days in culture. These results suggest that FAK signaling plays an important role in regulating ECM-induced osteogenic differentiation of hMSC.
Human mesenchymal stem cells; focal adhesion kinase; osteogenic differentiation; extracellular matrix
Prognosis of breast cancer is primarily predicted by the histological grading of the tumor, where pathologists manually evaluate microscopic characteristics of the tissue. This labor intensive process suffers from intra- and inter-observer variations; thus, computer-aided systems that accomplish this assessment automatically are in high demand. We address this by developing an image analysis framework for the automated grading of breast cancer in in vitro three-dimensional breast epithelial acini through the characterization of acinar structure morphology. A set of statistically significant features for the characterization of acini morphology are exploited for the automated grading of six (MCF10 series) cell line cultures mimicking three grades of breast cancer along the metastatic cascade. In addition to capturing both expected and visually differentiable changes, we quantify subtle differences that pose a challenge to assess through microscopic inspection. Our method achieves 89.0% accuracy in grading the acinar structures as nonmalignant, noninvasive carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma grades. We further demonstrate that the proposed methodology can be successfully applied for the grading of in vivo tissue samples albeit with additional constraints. These results indicate that the proposed features can be used to describe the relationship between the acini morphology and cellular function along the metastatic cascade.
The structure/function relationship is fundamental to our understanding of biological systems at all levels, and drives most, if not all, techniques for detecting, diagnosing, and treating disease. However, at the tissue level of biological complexity we encounter a gap in the structure/function relationship: having accumulated an extraordinary amount of detailed information about biological tissues at the cellular and subcellular level, we cannot assemble it in a way that explains the correspondingly complex biological functions these structures perform. To help close this information gap we define here several quantitative temperospatial features that link tissue structure to its corresponding biological function. Both histological images of human tissue samples and fluorescence images of three-dimensional cultures of human cells are used to compare the accuracy of in vitro culture models with their corresponding human tissues. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior work on a quantitative comparison of histology and in vitro samples. Features are calculated from graph theoretical representations of tissue structures and the data are analyzed in the form of matrices and higher-order tensors using matrix and tensor factorization methods, with a goal of differentiating between cancerous and healthy states of brain, breast, and bone tissues. We also show that our techniques can differentiate between the structural organization of native tissues and their corresponding in vitro engineered cell culture models.
Cancer cells are defined by their ability to divide uncontrollably
and metastasize to secondary sites in the body. Consequently,
tumor cell migration represents a promising target for anticancer
drug development. Using our high-throughput cell migration assay,
we have screened several classes of compounds for noncytotoxic
tumor cell migration inhibiting activity. One such compound,
apocynin (4-acetovanillone), is oxidized by peroxidases to yield a
variety of oligophenolic and quinone-type compounds that are
recognized inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and may be inhibitors of
the small G protein Rac1 that controls cell migration. We report
here that while apocynin itself is not effective, apocynin
derivatives inhibit migration of the breast cancer cell line
MDA-MB-435 at subtoxic concentrations; the migration of
nonmalignant MCF10A breast cells is unaffected. These compounds
also cause a significant rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton,
cell rounding, and decreased levels of active Rac1 and its related
G protein Cdc42. These results may suggest a promising new route
to the development of novel anticancer therapeutics.
The mechanisms controlling human mesenchymal stem
cells (hMSC) differentiation are not entirely understood. We
hypothesized that the contact with extracellular matrix (ECM)
proteins normally found in bone marrow would promote osteogenic
differentiation of hMSC in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we
cultured hMSC on purified ECM proteins in the presence or absence
of soluble osteogenic supplements, and assayed for the presence of
well-established differentiation markers (production of
mineralized matrix, osteopontin, osteocalcin, collagen I, and
alkaline phosphatase expression) over a 16-day time course. We
found that hMSC adhere to ECM proteins with varying affinity
(fibronectin>collagen I≥collagen IV≥vitronectin>laminin-1)
and through distinct integrin receptors.
Importantly, the greatest osteogenic differentiation occurred in
cells plated on vitronectin and collagen I and almost no
differentiation took place on fibronectin or uncoated plates. We
conclude that the contact with vitronectin and collagen I promotes
the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC, and that ECM contact
alone may be sufficient to induce differentiation in these cells.
Computational analysis of tissue structure reveals sub-visual differences in tissue functional states by extracting quantitative signature features that establish a diagnostic profile. Incomplete and/or inaccurate profiles contribute to misdiagnosis.
In order to create more complete tissue structure profiles, we adapted our cell-graph method for extracting quantitative features from histopathology images to now capture temporospatial traits of three-dimensional collagen hydrogel cell cultures. Cell-graphs were proposed to characterize the spatial organization between the cells in tissues by exploiting graph theory wherein the nuclei of the cells constitute the nodes and the approximate adjacency of cells are represented with edges. We chose 11 different cell types representing non-tumorigenic, pre-cancerous, and malignant states from multiple tissue origins.
We built cell-graphs from the cellular hydrogel images and computed a large set of features describing the structural characteristics captured by the graphs over time. Using three-mode tensor analysis, we identified the five most significant features (metrics) that capture the compactness, clustering, and spatial uniformity of the 3D architectural changes for each cell type throughout the time course. Importantly, four of these metrics are also the discriminative features for our histopathology data from our previous studies.
Together, these descriptive metrics provide rigorous quantitative representations of image information that other image analysis methods do not. Examining the changes in these five metrics allowed us to easily discriminate between all 11 cell types, whereas differences from visual examination of the images are not as apparent. These results demonstrate that application of the cell-graph technique to 3D image data yields discriminative metrics that have the potential to improve the accuracy of image-based tissue profiles, and thus improve the detection and diagnosis of disease.
Cell cooperation is a critical event during tissue development. We present the first precise metrics to quantify the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and extra cellular matrix (ECM). In particular, we describe cooperative collagen alignment process with respect to the spatio-temporal organization and function of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions.
We defined two precise metrics: Collagen Alignment Index and Cell Dissatisfaction Level, for quantitatively tracking type I collagen and fibrillogenesis remodeling by mesenchymal stem cells over time. Computation of these metrics was based on graph theory and vector calculus. The cells and their three dimensional type I collagen microenvironment were modeled by three dimensional cell-graphs and collagen fiber organization was calculated from gradient vectors. With the enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, acceleration through different phases was quantitatively demonstrated. The phases were clustered in a statistically significant manner based on collagen organization, with late phases of remodeling by untreated cells clustering strongly with early phases of remodeling by differentiating cells. The experiments were repeated three times to conclude that the metrics could successfully identify critical phases of collagen remodeling that were dependent upon cooperativity within the cell population.
Definition of early metrics that are able to predict long-term functionality by linking engineered tissue structure to function is an important step toward optimizing biomaterials for the purposes of regenerative medicine.
Pathological examination of a biopsy is the most reliable and widely used technique to diagnose bone cancer. However, it suffers from both inter- and intra- observer subjectivity. Techniques for automated tissue modeling and classification can reduce this subjectivity and increases the accuracy of bone cancer diagnosis. This paper presents a graph theoretical method, called extracellular matrix (ECM)-aware cell-graph mining, that combines the ECM formation with the distribution of cells in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histopathological images of bone tissues samples. This method can identify different types of cells that coexist in the same tissue as a result of its functional state. Thus, it models the structure-function relationships more precisely and classifies bone tissue samples accurately for cancer diagnosis. The tissue images are segmented, using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix, to compute spatial coordinates of cell nuclei as the nodes of corresponding cell-graph. Upon segmentation a color code is assigned to each node based on the composition of its surrounding ECM. An edge is hypothesized (and established) between a pair of nodes if the corresponding cell membranes are in physical contact and if they share the same color. Hence, multiple colored-cell-graphs coexist in a tissue each modeling a different cell-type organization. Both topological and spectral features of ECM-aware cell-graphs are computed to quantify the structural properties of tissue samples and classify their different functional states as healthy, fractured, or cancerous using support vector machines. Classification accuracy comparison to related work shows that ECM-aware cell-graph approach yields 90.0% whereas Delaunay triangulation and simple cell-graph approach achieves 75.0% and 81.1% accuracy, respectively.
Colored Cell-Graphs; Cancer Diagnosis; Graph Mining; Tissue Classification
There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30–150 μm diameter hydrogel “beads.” The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in bead environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14–21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen beads exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in gel disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D beads and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel bead format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such beads can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications.
mesenchymal stem cell; osteogenic differentiation; collagen I; hydrogels; defined microenvironment
Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.). A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models) can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.
We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a collagen I substrate accelerated the osteogenic differentiation induced by a static collagen I substrate.
Our results suggest gene- and protein-level models whereby stem cells undergo transdifferentiation to osteoblasts, and lay the foundation for mechanistic, hypothesis-driven studies. Our analysis methods are applicable to a wide range of stem cell differentiation models.
Recently, we demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) stimulated with dexamethazone undergo gene focusing during osteogenic differentiation (Stem Cells Dev 14(6): 1608–20, 2005). Here, we examine the protein expression profiles of three additional populations of hMSC stimulated to undergo osteogenic differentiation via either contact with pro-osteogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen I, vitronectin, or laminin-5) or osteogenic media supplements (OS media). Specifically, we annotate these four protein expression profiles, as well as profiles from naïve hMSC and differentiated human osteoblasts (hOST), with known gene ontologies and analyze them as a tensor with modes for the expressed proteins, gene ontologies, and stimulants.
Direct component analysis in the gene ontology space identifies three components that account for 90% of the variance between hMSC, osteoblasts, and the four stimulated hMSC populations. The directed component maps the differentiation stages of the stimulated stem cell populations along the differentiation axis created by the difference in the expression profiles of hMSC and hOST. Surprisingly, hMSC treated with ECM proteins lie closer to osteoblasts than do hMSC treated with OS media. Additionally, the second component demonstrates that proteomic profiles of collagen I- and vitronectin-stimulated hMSC are distinct from those of OS-stimulated cells. A three-mode tensor analysis reveals additional focus proteins critical for characterizing the phenotypic variations between naïve hMSC, partially differentiated hMSC, and hOST.
The differences between the proteomic profiles of OS-stimulated hMSC and ECM-hMSC characterize different transitional phenotypes en route to becoming osteoblasts. This conclusion is arrived at via a three-mode tensor analysis validated using hMSC plated on laminin-5.
The laminin family of proteins is critical for managing a variety of cellular activities including migration, adhesion, and differentiation. In bone, the roles of laminins in controlling osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are unknown. We report here that laminin-5 is found in bone and expressed by hMSC. hMSC isolated from bone synthesize laminin-5 and adhere to exogenous laminin-5 through α3β1 integrin. Adhesion to laminin-5 activates extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) within 30 min and leads to phosphorylation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/CBFA-1 within 8 d. Cells plated on laminin-5 for 16 d express increased levels of osteogenic marker genes, and those plated for 21 d deposit a mineralized matrix, indicative of osteogenic differentiation. Addition of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 mitigates these effects. We conclude that contact with laminin-5 is sufficient to activate ERK and to stimulate osteogenic differentiation in hMSC.
A treatment to remove vascular blockages, angioplasty, can cause damage to the vessel wall and a subsequent abnormal wound healing response, known as restenosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) lining the vessel wall respond to growth factors and other stimuli released by injured cells. However, the extracellular matrix (ECM) may differentially modulate VSMC responses to these growth factors, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. Our previous reports of low-level expression of one ECM molecule, laminin-5, in normal and injured vessels suggest that laminin-5, in addition to growth factors, may mediate VSMC response following vascular injury. To elucidate VSMC response on laminin-5 we investigated-the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade as a possible link between growth-factor initiated phenotypic changes in vitro and the ECM.
Using a system of in vitro assays we assessed rat vascular smooth muscle cell (rVSMC) responses plated on laminin-5 to the addition of exogenous, soluble PDGF-BB. Our results indicate that although laminin-5 induces haptotactic migration of rVSMC, the addition of PDGF-BB significantly increases rVSMC migration on laminin-5, which is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1). In addition, PDGF-BB greatly reduces rVSMC adhesion to laminin-5, an effect that is reversible by MAPK inhibition or the addition of TGF-β1. In addition, this reduction in adhesion is less significant on another ECM substrate, fibronectin and is reversible using TGF-β1 but not MAPK inhibition. PDGF-BB also strongly increased rVSMC proliferation on laminin-5, but had no effect on rVSMC plated on fibronectin. Finally, plating rVSMC on laminin-5 did not induce an increase in MAPK activation, while plating on fibronectin or the addition of soluble PDGF-BB did.
These results suggest that rVSMC binding to laminin-5 activates integrin-dependent intracellular signaling cascades that are different from those of fibronectin or PDGF-BB, causing rVSMC to respond more acutely to the inhibition of MAPK. In contrast, our results suggest that fibronectin and PDGF-BB may activate parallel, reinforcing intracellular signaling cascades that converge in the activation of MAPK and are therefore less sensitive to MAPK inhibition. These results suggest a partial mechanism to explain the regulation of rVSMC behaviors, including migration, adhesion, and proliferation that may be responsible for the progression of restenosis.
The monoterpene d-limonene exhibits chemotherapeutic and
chemopreventive potential in breast cancer patients. D-limonene and its related compounds, perillyl alcohol and perillyl aldehyde, were chosen as candidate drugs for application in a screen for nontoxic inhibitors of cell
migration. Using the nontumorigenic human breast cell line MCF-10A, we delineated the toxicity as greatest for the perillyl aldehyde, intermediate for perillyl alcohol, and least for limonene. A noncytotoxic concentration of
0.5 mmol/L perillyl alcohol inhibited the migration, while the same concentration of limonene failed to do so. Adhesion of the MCF-10A cell line and the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 435 to fibronectin was unaffected by 1.5 mmol/L perillyl alcohol. 0.4 mmol/L perillyl alcohol inhibited the growth of MDA-MB 435 cells. All migration-inhibiting concentrations of perillyl alcohol for MDA-MB 435 cells proved to be toxic. These results suggest that subtoxic doses of perillyl alcohol may have prophylactic potential in the treatment of breast cancer.
This review will briefly describe integrin function, address why
integrins are attractive targets for chemotherapeutic drug design, and discuss some ongoing studies aimed at inhibiting integrin activity. Integrins are cell surface heterodimeric receptors. They modulate many cellular processes including: growth, death (apoptosis), adhesion, migration, and invasion by activating several signaling pathways. Many potential chemotherapeutic agents target integrins directly (eg, polypeptides, monoclonal antibodies, adenovirus vectors). These agents may be clinically useful in controlling the metastatic spread of cancer.