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1.  Physicomechanical Characterization and Optimization of EDTA–mPEG and Avicel®–EDTA–mPEG In Situ Melt Dispersion Mini-Pellets 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;14(3):935-949.
The purpose of this study was to develop a physicomechanically customizable oral metal chelatory in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet entity which could be utilized within a binary drug delivery system. Avicel® RC/CL type R-591 was included within the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations to determine the physicomechanical effect this compound would have on the mini-pellet formulations. The physicomechanical properties of the hot melt in situ mini-pellet formulations were mathematically fitting to regression curves. Physicomechanical adjustment of the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations could be mathematically predicted with the derived regression curve equations. The addition of Avicel® RC/CL type R-591 increased the physicomechanical properties such as matrix hardness and increased total disintegration of the in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet formulations. The utilization of a physicomechanically customizable oral metal chelatory in situ hot melt dispersion mini-pellet entity within a binary drug delivery system would to achieve a synergistically enhance the activity of a drug-carrying entity or a permeation enhancing entity within a single drug delivery unit. The experimental results indicated that weights of the pellets that achieved optimal hardness ranged between 35 and 45 mg. The melt–dispersion formulations disintegrated within shorter time periods and maintained higher ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentrations whereas melt–dispersion formulations which included Avicel® had superior physicomechanical properties. Disintegration times ranged between 1,000 s for melt–dispersions containing EDTA and methyloxy polyethylene glycol 2000 (mPEG) only, to >6,000 s for melt–dispersions comprising EDTA, mPEG, and Avicel®.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12249-013-9979-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1208/s12249-013-9979-4
PMCID: PMC3755157  PMID: 23733514
chelation therapy; disintegration studies; mini-pellets; oral drug delivery; polymer melts; solid dosage forms; textual analysis
2.  A Review of Polymeric Refabrication Techniques to Modify Polymer Properties for Biomedical and Drug Delivery Applications 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;14(2):692-711.
Polymers are extensively used in the pharmaceutical and medical field because of their unique and phenomenal properties that they display. They are capable of demonstrating drug delivery properties that are smart and novel, such properties that are not achievable by employing the conventional excipients. Appropriately, polymeric refabrication remains at the forefront of process technology development in an endeavor to produce more useful pharmaceutical and medical products because of the multitudes of smart properties that can be attained through the alteration of polymers. Small alterations to a polymer by either addition, subtraction, self-reaction, or cross reaction with other entities have the capability of generating polymers with properties that are at the level to enable the creation of novel pharmaceutical and medical products. Properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, site targeting, and chronotherapeutics are no longer figures of imaginations but have become a reality through utilizing processes of polymer refabrication. This article has sought to review the different techniques that have been employed in polymeric refabrication to produce superior products in the pharmaceutical and medical disciplines. Techniques such as grafting, blending, interpenetrating polymers networks, and synthesis of polymer complexes will be viewed from a pharmaceutical and medical perspective along with their synthetic process required to attain these products. In addition to this, each process will be evaluated according to its salient features, impeding features, and the role they play in improving current medical devices and procedures.
doi:10.1208/s12249-013-9955-z
PMCID: PMC3665995  PMID: 23543606
alteration; blending; drugs; grafting; interpenetrating polymer networks; medicine; pharmaceutical; polymer complexes; polymer modification
3.  Design of an Interpolyelectrolyte Gastroretentive Matrix for the Site-Specific Zero-Order Delivery of Levodopa in Parkinson’s Disease 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;14(2):605-619.
This study focused on developing a gastroretentive drug delivery system employing a triple-mechanism interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) matrix comprising high density, swelling, and bioadhesiveness for the enhanced site-specific zero-order delivery of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. An IPEC was synthesized and directly compressed into a levodopa-loaded matrix employing pharmaceutical technology and evaluated with respect to its physicochemical and physicomechanical properties and in vitro drug release. The IPEC-based matrix displayed superior mechanical properties in terms of matrix hardness (34–39 N/mm) and matrix resilience (44–47%) when different normality’s of solvent and blending ratios were employed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the IPEC. The formulations exhibited pH and density dependence with desirable gastro-adhesion with Peak Force of Adhesion ranging between 0.15 and 0.21 N/mm, densities from 1.43 to 1.54 g/cm3 and swellability values of 177–234%. The IPEC-based gastroretentive matrix was capable of providing site-specific levodopa release with zero-order kinetics corroborated by detailed mathematical and molecular modeling studies. Overall, results from this study have shown that the IPEC-based matrix has the potential to improve the absorption and subsequent bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs, such as levodopa with constant and sustained drug delivery.
doi:10.1208/s12249-013-9945-1
PMCID: PMC3666024  PMID: 23494468
gastroretention; interpolyelectrolyte complex; levodopa; narrow absorption window drugs; Parkinson’s disease
4.  Overview of the role of nanotechnological innovations in the detection and treatment of solid tumors 
Nanotechnology, although still in its infantile stages, has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease progression and success of therapy for numerous diseases and conditions, not least of which is cancer. As it is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, early cancer detection, as well as safe and efficacious therapeutic intervention, will be indispensable in improving the prognosis related to cancers and overall survival rate, as well as health-related quality of life of patients diagnosed with cancer. The development of a relatively new field of nanomedicine, which combines various domains and technologies including nanotechnology, medicine, biology, pharmacology, mathematics, physics, and chemistry, has yielded different approaches to addressing these challenges. Of particular relevance in cancer, nanosystems have shown appreciable success in the realm of diagnosis and treatment. Characteristics attributable to these systems on account of the nanoscale size range allow for individualization of therapy, passive targeting, the attachment of targeting moieties for more specific targeting, minimally invasive procedures, and real-time imaging and monitoring of in vivo processes. Furthermore, incorporation into nanosystems may have the potential to reintroduce into clinical practice drugs that are no longer used because of various shortfalls, as well as aid in the registration of new, potent drugs with suboptimal pharmacokinetic profiles. Research into the development of nanosystems for cancer diagnosis and therapy is thus a rapidly emerging and viable field of study.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S50941
PMCID: PMC3904834  PMID: 24489467
nanosystems; targeted drug delivery; nanotheranostics; antineoplastic drugs; poor aqueous solubility; solid tumors
5.  Prolonged Delivery of Ciprofloxacin and Diclofenac Sodium from a Polymeric Fibre Device for the Treatment of Peridontal Disease 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:460936.
In vitro analysis of drug release and antimicrobial activity of the coblended crosslinked polymeric fibre device (PFD) were investigated. The fibre loaded with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium was comprised of alginate and glycerol crosslinked with barium cations. The pH dependent drug release was evident with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium diffusing from the fibre at pH 4.0 compared to pH 6.8, where the fibre swelled and eroded resulting in zero-order drug release. Agar diffusion studies followed by minimum inhibitory assays were conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of the device against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial activity of the PFD was confirmed in both test assays against all test pathogens. The MIC ranges at pH 4.0 for E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. mutans were 0.5–0.8, 0.4–1.1, and 0.7–2.1 μg/mL, respectively. At pH 6.8, similar efficacies (0.3–0.5 μg/mL for E. coli and E. faecalis and 0.6–1.0 μg/mL for S. mutans) were observed. The effect of varying the plasticizer and crosslinking ion concentration on drug release profile of the fibers was further elucidated and conceptualized using molecular mechanics energy relationships (MMER) and by exploring the spatial disposition of geometrically minimized molecular conformations.
doi:10.1155/2013/460936
PMCID: PMC3845435  PMID: 24324962
6.  A Novel Multilayered Multidisk Oral Tablet for Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:569470.
A Multilayered Multidisk Tablet (MLMDT) comprising two drug-loaded disks enveloped by three drug-free barrier layers was developed for use in chronotherapeutic disorders, employing two model drugs, theophylline and diltiazem HCl. The MLMDT was designed to achieve two pulses of drug release separated by a lag phase. The polymer disk comprised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC) granulated using an aqueous dispersion of EC. The polymeric barrier layers constituted a combination of pectin/Avicel (PBL) (1st barrier layer) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) (HBL1 and HBL2) as the 2nd and 3rd barrier layers, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into the diltiazem-containing formulation for delayed drug release. Erosion and swelling studies confirmed the manner in which the drug was released with theophylline formulations exhibiting a maximum swelling of 97% and diltiazem containing formulations with a maximum swelling of 119%. FTIR spectra displayed no interactions between drugs and polymers. Molecular mechanics simulations were undertaken to predict the possible orientation of the polymer morphologies most likely affecting the MLMDT performance. The MLMDT provided two pulses of drug release, separated by a lag phase, and additionally it displayed desirable friability, hardness, and uniformity of mass indicating a stable formulation that may be a desirable candidate for chronotherapeutic drug delivery.
doi:10.1155/2013/569470
PMCID: PMC3762207  PMID: 24024200
7.  Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2013;13(6):7680-7713.
Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis) and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity). The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness.
doi:10.3390/s130607680
PMCID: PMC3715220  PMID: 23771157
biosensor; BioMEMS; biomarkers; closed loop system; illness management; implantable systems
8.  In vivo evaluation of a conjugated poly(lactide-ethylene glycol) nanoparticle depot formulation for prolonged insulin delivery in the diabetic rabbit model 
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polylactic acid (PLA)-based copolymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and investigated as a carrier for prolonged delivery of insulin via the parenteral route. Insulin loading was simultaneously achieved with particle synthesis using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, and the effect of varied PEG chain lengths on particle size and insulin loading efficiency was determined. The synthesized copolymer and nanoparticles were analyzed by standard polymer characterization techniques of gel permeation chromatography, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro insulin release studies performed under simulated conditions provided a near zero-order release pattern up to 10 days. In vivo animal studies were undertaken with varied insulin loads of nanoparticles administered subcutaneously to fed diabetic rabbits and, of all doses administered, nanoparticles containing 50 IU of insulin load per kg body weight controlled the blood glucose level within the physiologically normal range of 90–140 mg/dL, and had a prolonged effect for more than 7 days. Histopathological evaluation of tissue samples from the site of injection showed no signs of inflammation or aggregation, and established the nontoxic nature of the prepared copolymeric nanoparticles. Further, the reaction profiles for PLA-COOH and NH2-PEGDA-NH2 were elucidated using molecular mechanics energy relationships in vacuum and in a solvated system by exploring the spatial disposition of various concentrations of polymers with respect to each other. Incorporation of insulin within the polymeric matrix was modeled using Connolly molecular surfaces. The computational results corroborated the experimental and analytical data. The ability to control blood glucose levels effectively coupled with the nontoxic behavior of the nanoparticles indicates that these nanoparticles are a potential candidate for insulin delivery.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S38011
PMCID: PMC3575164  PMID: 23429428
parenteral delivery; insulin; nanoparticles; poly(lactide-ethylene glycol) diblock copolymer; molecular mechanics energy relationship
9.  Optimization of a Dual Mechanism Gastrofloatable and Gastroadhesive Delivery System for Narrow Absorption Window Drugs 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;13(1):1-15.
In order to overcome poor bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs, a gastrosphere system comprising two mechanisms of gastric retention, namely buoyancy and gastroadhesion, has been investigated in this study employing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), alginate, pectin, and a model drug metformin hydrochloride. Fifteen formulations were obtained using a Box–Behnken statistical design. The gastrosphere yield was above 80% in all cases; however, due to the high water solubility of metformin, drug entrapment efficacy was between 18% and 54%. Mean dissolution time and gastroadhesive strength were used as the formulation responses in order to optimize the formulation. Furthermore, the molecular mechanics force field simulations were performed to corroborate the experimental findings. Drug release profiles revealed three different release kinetics, namely, burst, first-order and zero-order release. Varying gastroadhesive results were obtained, and were highly sensitive to changes in polymer concentrations. FTIR revealed that strong bonds of PAA and PLGA were retained within the gastrosphere. Surface area and porosity analysis provided supporting evidence that the lyophilization process resulted in a significant increase in the porosity. Analysis of the surface morphology by SEM revealed that air pockets were spread over the entire surface of the gastrosphere, providing a visual proof of the high porosity and hence low density of the gastrosphere. The spatial disposition and energetic profile of the sterically constrained and geometrically optimized multi-polymeric complex of alginate, pectin, PAA, and PLGA corroborated the experimental results in terms of in vitro drug release and gastroadhesive strength of the fabricated gastrospheres.
doi:10.1208/s12249-011-9711-1
PMCID: PMC3299464  PMID: 22048877
Box–Behnken design; gastroretentive drug delivery; molecular mechanics simulations; narrow absorption window drugs; polymeric gastrosphere synthesis
10.  Composite Polylactic-Methacrylic Acid Copolymer Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Methotrexate 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2012;2012:579629.
The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid)-methacrylic acid copolymeric nanoparticles with the potential to serve as nanocarrier systems for methotrexate (MTX) used in the chemotherapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique employing a 3-Factor Box-Behnken experimental design strategy. Analysis of particle size, absolute zeta potential, polydispersity (Pdl), morphology, drug-loading capacity (DLC), structural transitions through FTIR spectroscopy, and drug release kinetics was undertaken. Molecular modelling elucidated the mechanisms of the experimental findings. Nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 211.0 to 378.3 nm and a recovery range of 36.8–86.2 mg (Pdl ≤ 0.5) were synthesized. DLC values were initially low (12 ± 0.5%) but were finally optimized to 98 ± 0.3%. FTIR studies elucidated the comixing of MTX within the nanoparticles. An initial burst release (50% of MTX released in 24 hours) was obtained which was followed by a prolonged release phase of MTX over 84 hours. SEM images revealed near-spherical nanoparticles, while TEM micrographs revealed the presence of MTX within the nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were formed as corroborated by the chemometric modelling studies undertaken.
doi:10.1155/2012/579629
PMCID: PMC3418700  PMID: 22919501
11.  A Composite Polyelectrolytic Matrix for Controlled Oral Drug Delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;12(1):227-238.
The purpose of this study was to formulate drug-loaded polyelectrolyte matrices constituting blends of pectin, chitosan (CHT) and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAAm) for controlling the premature solvation of the polymers and modulating drug release. The model drug employed was the highly water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine HCl (DPH). Polyelectrolyte complex formation was validated by infrared spectroscopy. Matrices were characterized by textural profiling, porositometry and SEM. Drug release studies were performed under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using USP apparatus 3. FTIR spectra revealed distinctive peaks indicating the presence of –COO− symmetrical stretching (1,425–1,390 cm−1) and -NH3+ deformation (1,535 cm−1) with evidence of electrostatic interaction between the cationic CHT and anionic HPAAm corroborated by molecular mechanics simulations of the complexes. Pectin–HPAAm matrices showed electrostatic attraction due to residual –NH2 and –COO− groups of HPAAm and pectin, respectively. Textural profiling demonstrated that CHT-HPAAm matrices were most resilient at 6.1% and pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices were the least (3.9%). Matrix hardness and deformation energy followed similar behavior. Pectin–CHT–HPAAm and CHT–HPAAm matrices produced type IV isotherms with H3 hysteresis and mesopores (22.46 nm) while pectin–HPAAm matrices were atypical with hysteresis at a low P/P0 and pore sizes of 5.15 nm and a large surface area. At t2 h, no DPH was released from CHT–HPAAm matrices, whereas 28.2% and 82.2% was released from pectin–HPAAm and pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices, respectively. At t4 h, complete DPH release was achieved from pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices in contrast to only 35% from CHT–HPAAm matrices. This revealed the release-modulating capability of each matrix signifying their applicability in controlled oral drug delivery applications.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9576-8
PMCID: PMC3066358  PMID: 21225384
composite polyelectrolytes; controlled oral drug delivery; hydrolyzed polyacylamide; matrix characterization; polysaccharides
12.  Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery 
Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.
doi:10.3390/ijms13010018
PMCID: PMC3269670  PMID: 22312236
controlled drug delivery; geometrically altered devices; multilayered tablets; polymeric materials; release modules assemblage
13.  Novel High-Viscosity Polyacrylamidated Chitosan for Neural Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of Anisotropic Neurodurable Scaffold via Molecular Disposition of Persulfate-Mediated Polymer Slicing and Complexation 
Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS) mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%), grafting ratio (GR = 263%), intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g) and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da) compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT)—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness, superior hydrophilicity as well as surface charge due to the acrylic chains. Additionally, these results suggested that the porous PAAm-g-CHT scaffold may act as a potential neural cell carrier.
doi:10.3390/ijms131113966
PMCID: PMC3509560  PMID: 23203044
neural tissue engineering; polymer composite; polyacrylamidated chitosan; potassium persulphate; polymer grafting; neurodurable scaffold; molecular modeling and simulation
14.  Investigation of the Physicochemical and Physicomechanical Properties of a Novel Intravaginal Bioadhesive Polymeric Device in the Pig Model 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(2):793-808.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the bioadhesivity, in vitro drug release, and permeation of an intravaginal bioadhesive polymeric device (IBPD) loaded with 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Modified polyamide 6,10, poly(lactic-coglycolic acid), polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylcellulose were blended with model drugs AZT and PSS as well as radio-opaque barium sulfate (BaSO4) and then compressed into caplet devices on a tableting press. One set of devices was coated with 2% w/v pentaerythritol polyacrylic acid (APE-PAA) while another remained uncoated. Thermal analysis was performed on the constituent polymers as well the IBPD. The changes in micro-environmental pH within the simulated human vaginal fluid due to the presence of the IBPD were assessed over a period of 30 days. Textural profile analysis indicated that the bioadhesivity of the APE-PAA-coated devices (3.699 ± 0.464 N; 0.0098 ± 0.0004 J) was higher than that of the uncoated devices (1.198 ± 0.150 N; 0.0019 ± 0.0001 J). In addition, BaSO4-facilitated X-ray imaging revealed that the IBPD adhered to pig vaginal tissue over the experimental period of 30 days. Controlled drug release kinetics was obtained over 72 days. During a 24-h permeation study, an increase in drug flux for both AZT (0.84 mg cm−2 h−1) and PSS (0.72 mg cm−2 h−1) was realized up to 12 h and thereafter a steady-state was achieved. The diffusion and dissolution dynamics were mechanistically deduced based on a chemometric and molecular structure modeling approach. Overall, results suggested that the IBPD may be sufficiently bioadhesive with desirable physicochemical and physicomechanical stability for use as a prolonged intravaginal drug delivery device.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9439-3
PMCID: PMC2902328  PMID: 20446071
bioadhesivity; controlled release; intravaginal drug delivery; microbicidal polymeric device; physicochemical and physicomechanical characterization
15.  A Review of Multi-Responsive Membranous Systems for Rate-Modulated Drug Delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(1):441-459.
Membrane technology is broadly applied in the medical field. The ability of membranous systems to effectively control the movement of chemical entities is pivotal to their significant potential for use in both drug delivery and surgical/medical applications. An alteration in the physical properties of a polymer in response to a change in environmental conditions is a behavior that can be utilized to prepare ‘smart’ drug delivery systems. Stimuli-responsive or ‘smart’ polymers are polymers that upon exposure to small changes in the environment undergo rapid changes in their microstructure. A stimulus, such as a change in pH or temperature, thus serves as a trigger for the release of drug from membranous drug delivery systems that are formulated from stimuli-responsive polymers. This article has sought to review the use of stimuli-responsive polymers that have found application in membranous drug delivery systems. Polymers responsive to pH and temperature have been extensively addressed in this review since they are considered the most important stimuli that may be exploited for use in drug delivery, and biomedical applications such as in tissue engineering. In addition, dual-responsive and glucose-responsive membranes have been also addressed as membranes responsive to diverse stimuli.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9403-2
PMCID: PMC2850454  PMID: 20300895
Dual-responsive membranes; Glucose-responsive membranes; Membranous drug delivery systems; “On–off” gating mechanisms; pH; Stimuli-responsive polymers; Temperature
16.  A Review on Composite Liposomal Technologies for Specialized Drug Delivery 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2011;2011:939851.
The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications.
doi:10.1155/2011/939851
PMCID: PMC3065812  PMID: 21490759
17.  In Silico Theoretical Molecular Modeling for Alzheimer’s Disease: The Nicotine-Curcumin Paradigm in Neuroprotection and Neurotherapy 
The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP) into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer‘s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing static lattice atomistic simulations and array constructions. A combinatorial approach using isobolographic analysis was stochastically modeled employing Artificial Neural Networks and a Design of Experiments approach, namely an orthogonal Face-Centered Central Composite Design for small molecules, such as curcumin and glycosylated nornicotine exhibiting concentration-dependent behavior on modulating AβP aggregation and oligomerization. This work provides a mathematical and in silico approach that constitutes a new frontier in providing neuroscientists with a template for in vitro and in vivo experimentation. In future this could potentially allow neuroscientists to adopt this in silico approach for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the neuroprotection and neurotherapy of Alzheimer‘s disease. In addition, the neuroprotective entities identified in this study may also be valuable in this regard.
doi:10.3390/ijms12010694
PMCID: PMC3039975  PMID: 21340009
amyloid-β protein; Alzheimer‘s disease; molecular mechanics; artificial neural networks; curcumin; nicotine; isobolographic analysis; docking; central composite design; constraint optimization; ligand-protein complexes; synergism
18.  Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery 
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery.
doi:10.3390/ijms12096194
PMCID: PMC3189777  PMID: 22016653
nanotechnology; nanoparticles; nanocapsules; methacrylate copolymer; chitosan; oral drug delivery; bioavailability; crosslinking; molecular mechanics simulations
19.  Trends in the Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Therapeutics of Common Neurodegenerative Disorders 
The term neurodegenerative disorders, encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, sporadic and/or familial and are characterized by the persistent loss of neuronal subtypes. These disorders can disrupt molecular pathways, synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local circuits in specific brain regions, as well as higher-order neural networks. Abnormal network activities may result in a vicious cycle, further impairing the integrity and functions of neurons and synapses, for example, through aberrant excitation or inhibition. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Huntington’s disease. The molecular features of these disorders have been extensively researched and various unique neurotherapeutic interventions have been developed. However, there is an enormous coercion to integrate the existing knowledge in order to intensify the reliability with which neurodegenerative disorders can be diagnosed and treated. The objective of this review article is therefore to assimilate these disorders’ in terms of their neuropathology, neurogenetics, etiology, trends in pharmacological treatment, clinical management, and the use of innovative neurotherapeutic interventions.
doi:10.3390/ijms10062510
PMCID: PMC2705504  PMID: 19582217
Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; neuropathology; amyloid-β protein; Tau; Huntingtin; α-Synuclein; neurotherapeutics; drug delivery
20.  A Review of Current Intravaginal Drug Delivery Approaches Employed for the Prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(2):505-520.
The objective of this review is to describe the current status of several intravaginal anti-HIV microbicidal delivery systems these delivery systems and microbicidal compounds in the context of their stage within clinical trials and their potential cervicovaginal defence successes. The global Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic continues to spread at a rate of more than 15,000 new infections daily and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can predispose people to acquiring HIV infection. Male-to-female transmission is eight times more likely to occur than female-to-male transmission due to the anatomical structure of the vagina as well as socio-economic factors and the disempowerment of women that renders them unable to refuse unsafe sexual practices in some communities. The increased incidence of HIV in women has identified the urgent need for efficacious and safe intravaginal delivery of anti-HIV agents that can be used and controlled by women. To meet this challenge, several intravaginal anti-HIV microbicidal delivery systems are in the process of been developed. The outcomes of three main categories are discussed in this review: namely, dual-function polymeric systems, non-polymeric systems and nanotechnology-based systems. These delivery systems include formulations that modify the genital environment (e.g. polyacrylic acid gels and lactobacillus gels), surfactants (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate), polyanionic therapeutic polymers (e.g. carageenan and carbomer/lactic acid gels), proteins (e.g. cyanovirin-N, monoclonal antibodies and thromspondin-1 peptides), protease inhibitors and other molecules (e.g. dendrimer based-gels and the molecular condom). Intravaginal microbicide delivery systems are providing a new option for preventing the transmission of STIs and HIV.
doi:10.1208/s12249-008-9073-5
PMCID: PMC2976928  PMID: 18431651
HIV/STIs; intravaginal drug delivery systems; microbicides; nanostructures; polymers; prophylaxis
21.  Formulation and Evaluation of a Salted-out Isoniazid-loaded Nanosystem 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(1):174-181.
The purpose of this study was to develop a drug-loaded nanosystem that has the ability to achieve flexible yet rate-controlled release of model drug isoniazid (INH) employing either an aqueous or emulsion-based salting-out approach. Formulation conditions were aimed at reducing the polymeric size with subsequent rate-modulated INH release patterns from the polymeric nanosystem. The emulsion-based salted-out nanosystems had particle sizes ranging from 77–414 nm and a zeta potential of −24 mV. The dispersant dielectric constant was set at 78.5 and a conductivity of 3.99 mS/cm achieved. The reduced nanosystem size of the aqueous-based approach has demonstrated an intrinsically enhanced exposure of methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate to zinc sulphate which was employed as a crosslinking reagent. This resulted in robustly interconnected polymeric supports in which INH was efficiently embedded and subsequently released. The multi-layer perceptron data obtained showed that the aqueous and emulsion-based salting out approaches had Power (law) (MSE = 0.020) and Linear (MSE = 0.038) relationships, respectively. Drug release from the nanosystems occurred in two phases with an initial burst-release in aqueous-based nanosystems (30–100%) and significantly lower bursts observed in emulsion-based nanosystems (20–65%) within the first 2 h. This was followed by a gradual exponential release phase over the remaining 12 h. The nanosystems developed demonstrated the ability to control the release of INH depending on the formulation approach adopted.
doi:10.1208/s12249-007-9016-6
PMCID: PMC2976898  PMID: 18446479
crosslinking; drug release; methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate; nanoparticles; tuberculosis
22.  Studies on a novel doughnut-shaped minitablet for intraocular drug delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(4):305-311.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 independent formulation variables on the drug release from a novel doughnut-shaped minitablet (DSMT) in order to optimize formulations for intraocular drug delivery. Formulations were based on a 32 full-factorial design. The 2 independent variables were the concentration of Resomer (% wt/wt) and the type of Resomer grade (RG502, RG503, and RG504), respectively. The evaluated response was the drug release rate constant computed from a referenced marketed product and in vitro drug release data obtained at pH 7.4 in simulated vitreous humor. DSMT devices were prepared containing either of 2 model drugs, ganciclovir or foscarnet, using a Manesty F3 tableting press fitted with a novel central-rod, punch, and die setup. Dissolution data revealed biphasic drug release behavior with 55% to 60% drug released over 120 days. The inherent viscosity of the various Resomer grades and the concentration were significant to achieve optimum release rate constants. Using the resultant statistical relationships with the release rate constant as a response, the optimum formulation predicted for devices formulated with foscarnet was 70% wt/wt of Resomer RG504, while 92% wt/wt of Resomer RG503 was ideal for devices formulated with ganciclovir. The results of this study revealed that the full-factorial design was a suitable tool to predict an optimized formulation for prolonged intraocular drug delivery.
doi:10.1208/pt0804118
PMCID: PMC2750704  PMID: 18181539
PLGA; kinetic modeling; controlled release; factorial design
23.  Box-Behnken experimental design in the development of a nasal drug delivery system of model drug hydroxyurea: Characterization of viscosity, in vitro drug release, droplet size, and dynamic surface tension 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(4):E573-E585.
The purpose of the research was to investigate the changes in physicochemical properties and their influence on nasal formulation performance using 5-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken experimental design on the combined responses of viscosity, droplet size distribution (DSD), and drug release. Gel formulations of hydroxyurea (HU) with surface-active polymers (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC] and polyethylene-oxide [PEO]) and ionic excipients (sodium chloride and calcium chloride) were prepared using Box-Behnken experimental design. The rheology and dynamic surface tension (DST) of the test formulations was investigated using LV-DV-III Brookfield rheometer and T60 SITA tensiometer, respectively. Droplet size analysis of nasal aerosols was determined by laser diffraction using the Malvern Spraytec with the InnovaSystems actuator. In vitro drug release studies were conducted on Franz diffusion cells. With PEO gel, calcium chloride increased the viscosity and DSD and retarded drug release, while sodium chloride decreased the viscosity, DST, and DSD and accelerated the release of HU. With HEC gel, the addition of the above salts resulted in less significant changes in viscosity, DSD, and DST, but both salts significantly increased the release of HU. Droplet size data obtained from a high viscosity nasal pump was dependent on type of polymer, polymer-excipient interactions, and solvent properties. The applications of Box-Behnken experimental design facilitated the prediction and identified major excipient influences on viscosity, DSD, and in vitro drug release.
doi:10.1208/pt060472
PMCID: PMC2750605  PMID: 16408859
hydroxyurea; viscosity; dynamic surface tension; Box-Behnken experimental design; nasal delivery
24.  Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):118.
Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-118
PMCID: PMC1592088  PMID: 16984627
25.  Experimental design for the formulation and optimization of novel cross-linked oilispheres developed for in vitro site-specific release ofMentha piperita oil 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2004;5(1):128-141.
A Plackett-Burman design was employed to develop and optimize a novel crosslinked calcium-aluminum-alginatepectinate oilisphere complex as a potential system for the in vitro site-specific release ofMentha piperita, an essential oil used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. The physicochemical and textural properties (dependent variables) of this complex were found to be highly sensitive to changes in the concentration of the polymers (0%–1.5% wt/vol), crosslinkers (0%–4% wt/vol) and crosslinking reaction times (0.5–6 hours) (independent variables). Particle size analysis indicated both unimodal and bimodal populations with the highest frequency of 2 mm oilispheres. Oil encapsulation ranged from 6 to 35 mg/100 mg oilispheres. Gravimetric changes of the crosslinked matrix indicated significant ion sequestration and loss in an exponential manner, while matrix erosion followed Higuchi's cube root law. Among the various measured responses, the total fracture energy was the most suitable optimization objective (R2 =0.88, Durbin-Watson Index=1.21%, Coefficient of Variation (CV)=33.21%). The Lagrangian technique produced no significant differences (P>.05) between the experimental and predicted total fracture energy values (0.0150 vs 0.0107 J). Artificial Neural Networks, as an alternative predictive tool of the total fracture energy, was highly accurate (final mean square error of optimal network epoch≈0.02). Fused-coated optimized oilispheres produced a 4-hour lag phase followed by zero-order kinetics (n>0.99), whereby analysis of release data indicated that diffusion (Fickian constantk1=0.74 vs relaxation constantk2=0.02) was the predominant release mechanism.
doi:10.1208/pt050118
PMCID: PMC2784852  PMID: 15198539

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