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1.  Type II hyperprolinaemia in a pedigree of Irish travellers (nomads). 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(12):1699-1707.
We describe a study of 312 subjects in 71 families near related to a proband with type II hyperprolinaemia. The subjects were Irish travellers (nomads) among whom consanguineous marriage and high fertility are common. Thirteen additional cases of type II hyperprolinaemia were discovered; all were offspring of consanguineous unions. A further 50 subjects were found to have mild hyperprolinaemia. We found a strong association between type II hyperprolinaemia and seizures during childhood but no significant association with mental handicap. Most adults with type II hyperprolinaemia enjoyed normal health and there was no evidence that maternal hyperprolinaemia compromised fetal development. The documented association between type II hyperprolinaemia and seizures may be related to the neuromodulatory or reducing-oxidising effects of proline and pyrroline-5-carboxylate, respectively, that has been shown in vitro. Alternatively, another genetic defect closely linked to the type II hyperprolinaemia allele could be the explanation.
PMCID: PMC1792896  PMID: 2624476
2.  Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in human erythrocytes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1981;67(4):1042-1046.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, which converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, has been identified in human erythrocytes. The level of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity in these cells is comparable to the activity levels of major erythrocyte enzymes. The physiologic function of the enzyme in erythrocytes cannot be related to its function in other tissues, i.e., producing proline for protein synthesis. We examined the kinetic properties of erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and compared them to the properties of the enzyme from proliferating cultured human fibroblasts. We found that the kinetic properties and regulation of the erythrocyte enzyme are distinctly different from those for human fibroblast pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. These characteristics are consistent with the interpretation that the function of the enzyme in human erythrocytes may be to generate oxidizing potential in the form of NADP+.
PMCID: PMC370662  PMID: 6894153
3.  Genetic evidence for a common enzyme catalyzing the second step in the degradation of proline and hydroxyproline. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1979;64(5):1365-1370.
The initial step in the degradation pathways of proline and hydroxyproline is catalyzed by proline oxidase and hydroxyproline oxidase, yielding delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate and delta 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate, respectively. The second step is the oxidation of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate and delta 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to gamma-hydroxy-glutamate. To determine if this second step in the degradation of proline and hydroxyproline is catalyzed by a common or by separate enzyme(s), we developed a radioisotopic assay for delta 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activity. We then compared delta1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activity with that of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in fibroblasts and leukocytes from type II hyperprolinemia patients, heterozygotes, and controls. We found that cells from type II hyperprolinemia patients were deficient in both dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, these activities were highly correlated over the range found in the normals, heterozygotes, and patients. We conclude from these data that a common delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of both delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate and delta 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate, and that this activity is deficient in type II hyperprolinemia.
PMCID: PMC371284  PMID: 500817
4.  Type II hyperprolinemia. Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase deficiency in cultured skin fibroblasts and circulating lymphocytes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1976;58(3):598-603.
Type II hyperprolinemia is an inherited abnormality in amino acid metabolism characterized by elevated plasma proline concentrations, iminoglycinuria, and the urinary excretion of delta1-pyrroline compounds. To define the enzymologic defect of this biochemical disorder, we developed a specific, sensitive radioisotopic assay for the proline degradative enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase. Using this assay, we have shown an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the cultured fibroblasts from three patients with type II hyperprolinemia. We confirmed this result on cultured cells by demonstrating a similar absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in extracts prepared from the peripheral leukocytes of these patients. Additionally, we found significantly decreased levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the leukocyte extracts from five obligate heterozygotes for type II hyperprolinemia. We also demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in three successive generations of a family. These results prove that an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase is the enzymologic defect in type II hyperprolinemia and that this defect is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.
PMCID: PMC333218  PMID: 956388

Results 1-4 (4)