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1.  Effect of Temperature and Gas Velocity on the Dry-Heat Destruction Rate of Bacterial Spores1 
Applied Microbiology  1968;16(2):343-348.
Spores of Bacillus subtilis were dried in vacuo for use in dry-heat thermal destruction tests. Survivor curve tests were conducted in a specifically designed dry-heat oven. This oven provided accurate temperature control and permitted air or nitrogen to be passed over the spores during the lethal treatment. Experiments were carried out at various flow rates of the two gases (air and nitrogen) and various temperatures, and the data were expressed as survivor curves from which the decimal reduction time (D value) was obtained. Linear regression analysis methods were used to compute the slope of the survivor curves. The results indicated that as the flow rate of gas is increased, the effect of temperature on the destruction rate of the spores is lessened, the z value becoming very large. It is believed that the higher flow rates of dry gas cause greater dehydration of the spores and that spore moisture loss is one of the major factors in determining the dry-heat thermal destruction rate of bacterial spores.
PMCID: PMC547409  PMID: 4967069
2.  Dry-heat resistance of selected psychrophiles. 
The dry-heat resistance characteristics of spores of psychrophilic organisms isolated from soil samples from the Viking spacecraft assembly areas at Cape Kennedy Space Flight Center, Cape Canaveral, Fla., were studied. Spore suspensions were produced, and dry-heat D values were determined for the microorganisms that demonstrated growth or survival under a simulated Martian environment. The dry-heat tests were carried out by using the planchet-boat-hot plate system at 110 and 125 degrees C with an ambient relative humidity of 50% at 22 degrees C. The spores evaluated had a relatively low resistance to dry heat. D(110 degrees C) values ranged from 7.5 to 122 min, whereas the D(123 degrees C) values ranged from less than 1.0 to 9.8 min.
PMCID: PMC242613  PMID: 410367
3.  Effect of combined heat and radiation on microbial destruction. 
A series of experiments at several levels of relative humidity and radiation dose rates was carried out using spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger to evaluate the effect of heat alone, radiation alone, and a combination of heat and radiation. Combined heat and radiation treatment of microorganisms yields a destruction rate greater than the additive rates of the independence agents. The synergistic mechanism shows a proportional dependency on radiation dose rate an Arrhenius dependency on temperature, and a dependency on relative humidity. Maximum synergism occurs under conditions where heat and radiation individually destroy microorganisms at approximately equal rates. Larger synergistic advantage is possible at low relative humidities rather than at high relative humidities.
PMCID: PMC170844  PMID: 406843
4.  Dry-Heat Destruction of Bacillus subtilis Spores on Surfaces: Effect of Humidity in an Open System 
Applied Microbiology  1970;20(5):805-809.
Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were tested for dry-heat resistance on stainless-steel strips hung in an oven. Heat resistance was dependent on the relative humidity before and during treatment, which in turn affected the water content of the spores. Higher humidities increased the heat resistance of the spores. D-values ranged from 16.1 min for spores conditioned at <2% relative humidity (RH) and treated at 0.34% RH to 37.6 min for spores conditioned at 89% RH and treated at 1.1% RH. The y-intercept of the regression line ranged from 6.94 × 104 for spores conditioned and treated at the low humidities to 2.00 × 105 for spores conditioned at 89% RH and treated at 0.34% RH. For a constant value of N0, the y-intercept appears to be lowered by low-humidity conditions. The statistic log y0/log N0 is used to measure the downward displacement of the regression line. Values obtained in this experiment range from 0.90 for spores conditioned at <2% RH and treated at 0.34% RH to 1.04 for spores conditioned at <2% RH and treated at 1.1% RH. A combination of linear regression and analysis of variance methods was used for data analysis. The former estimates D-values and y-intercepts, whereas the latter is sensitive to differences between treatments.
PMCID: PMC377052  PMID: 4991926
5.  Effect of Various Gas Atmospheres on Destruction of Microorganisms in Dry Heat1 
Applied Microbiology  1967;15(1):120-124.
The heat resistance of dry bacterial spores was tested in various gases at temperatures ranging from 121.1 to 160 C (250 to 320 F). Spores of Clostridium sporogenes (PA 3679) were heated in air, carbon dioxide, and helium; spores of Bacillus subtilis 5230 were heated in these gases and also in oxygen and in nitrogen. The surrounding gas influenced the heat resistance, but the differences among gases were small. D values were about 7 min at 148.9 C (300 F); z values were about 18.3 C (33 F) for B. subtilis, and about 21.7 C (39 F) for C. sporogenes. The resistance of B. subtilis in carbon dioxide was about the same as in air, but lower than in all other gases; resistance in helium and nitrogen was about the same, and was higher than in all other gases. C. sporogenes had the least resistance in air; the resistance was about the same in carbon dioxide and helium. For B. subtilis, the gases in order of increasing heat resistance were carbon dioxide, air, oxygen, helium, and nitrogen, and for C. sporogenes, air, carbon dioxide, and helium. Neither oxygen content nor molecular weight of the gas appeared to have a marked influence on dry-heat resistance of the spores, whereas the more inert gases seemed to yield larger D values.
PMCID: PMC546855  PMID: 4961931
6.  Effect of Soybean Casein Digest Agar Lot on Number of Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores Recovered † 
In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus stearothermophilus spores are affected by various environmental factors that influence the performance of the spores as biological indicators. One environmental factor is the recovery medium. The effect of different lots of commercial soybean casein digest agar on the number of colony-forming units per plate was examined in two series of experiments: (i) several lots of medium from two manufacturers were compared in single experiments, and (ii) paired media experiments with four lots of medium were carried out and yielded three-point survivor curves. The results demonstrate that commercial soybean casein digest agar is variable on a lot-to-lot basis. The variation was lowest when recovering unheated or minimally heated spores and increased greatly with the severity of heating.
PMCID: PMC243995  PMID: 16345822
7.  Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment. 
Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts.
PMCID: PMC242666  PMID: 335970
8.  Effect of storage time and temperature on the survival of Clostridium botulinum spores in acid media. 
Clostridium-botulinum type A and type B spores were stored in tomato juice (pH 4.2) and citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 4.2) at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C for 180 days. The spore count was determined at different intervals over the 180-day storage period. There was no significant decrease in the number of type A spores in either the tomato juice or citric acid-phosphate buffer stored for 180 days at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. The number of type B spores did not decrease when storage was at 4 degrees C, but there was an approximately 30% decrease in the number of spores after 180 days of storage at 22 and 32 degrees C.
PMCID: PMC242583  PMID: 18990
10.  Effect of environmental conditions during heating on commercial spore strip performance. 
Commercial biological indicator spore strips in glassine envelopes, produced by three manufacturers, were evaluated by fraction-negative procedures after being heated at 121.0 +/- 0.05 degrees C. Only one type of spore strip met the manufacturer's specifications. The strips of one manufacturer were further evaluated by fraction-negative and survivor curve-plate count procedures after being heated under several conditions (enclosed in glassine envelopes, in trypticase soy broth plus 0.0015% bromocresol purple, in Trypticase soy broth alone in Water for Injection, directly); Trypticase soy broth plus bromocresol purple and tryptic soy agar, respectively, were used as recovery media. The heating condition affected the D-value of the spore strip. Recovery procedures also had an effect; in all cases, the D-values obtained from the survivor curve tests were larger than those obtained from fraction-negative tests carried out under the same conditions. To determine if the differences in D-values between the two evaluation procedures were caused by the recovery media, we evaluated, by both methods, one type of spore strip heated directly and in glassine envelopes, using tryptic soy agar plus bromocresol purple and Trypticase soy broth plus 1.5% agar, respectively, as the recovery media. The survivor curve results showed that for both enclosed and unenclosed spore strips, there was a marked difference between the two recovery media; however, there was no difference when fraction-negative tests were used.
PMCID: PMC241960  PMID: 7125646
11.  Recovery Patterns of Spores of Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in Various Subculture Media after Heat Treatment1 
Applied Microbiology  1967;15(2):266-276.
A comparative study was made of the heat resistance of spores of putrefactive anaerobe 3679 grown in two different sporulation media and of the recovery pattern of these spores in several subculturing media after treatment with moist and dry heat. The heat resistance of the spores was characterized in the form of D and z values. The D values were determined by the modified Schmidt method. The z values were established by the graphic method. The results revealed significant differences in D and z values, depending on the type of heat and sporulation and subculture media. Spores grown in beef heart infusion showed higher heat resistance than those grown in Trypticase. Among the seven subculture media used, the largest number of spores was recovered in beef infusion. The magnitude of the D values at 121.1 C obtained with spores heated in moist heat decreased, depending on the subculture medium used, in the following order: beef infusion, pea infusion, yeast extract, liver infusion, Eugonbroth, Trypticase, synthetic medium. With spores subjected to dry heat, D values at 148.9 C decreased with the subculture medium in the following order: beef infusion, yeast extract, pea infusion and liver infusion, Trypticase, Eugonbroth, synthetic medium. The z values obtained with spores subjected to dry heat were approximately double those obtained with moist heat. Their relative magnitude varied slightly, depending on the type of subculture medium used. However, the relative magnitudes of the D values and z values with reference to the subculture media used were different with moist heat from those obtained with dry heat. Two theories are discussed as possible explanations for the logarithmic order of death of bacterial spores. The results obtained in these experiments, together with the findings of other workers, are most compatible with the theory that heat treatment of spores results in an increased rate of random injury to the genetic material of the spores.
PMCID: PMC546890  PMID: 6029827
12.  Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in tomato juice containing Aspergillus gracilis. 
The ability of spores of one type A and one type B strain of Clostridium botulinum to grow and produce toxin in tomato juice was investigated. The type A strain grew at pH 4.9, but not at pH 4.8; the type B strain grew at pH 5.1, but not at pH 5.0. Aspergillus gracilis was inoculated along with C. botulinum spores into pH 4.2 tomato juice; in a nonhermetic unit, a pH gradient developed under the mycelial mat, resulting in C. botulinum growth and toxin production. In a hermetic unit, mold growth was reduced, and no pH gradient was detected; however, C. botulinum growth and low levels of toxin production (less than 10 50% lethal doses per ml) still occurred and were associated with the mycelial mat. The results of tests to find filterable or dialyzable growth factors were negative. It was demonstrated that for toxin production C. botulinum and the mold had to occupy the same environment.
PMCID: PMC243244  PMID: 36843
13.  Effect of phosphate buffer concentration on the heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in parenteral solutions. 
The effect of various quantities of Butterfield phosphate buffer added to four parenteral solutions on the survival of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores heated at 121 degrees C was determined. The effect of the addition of phosphate buffer on spore survival varied with the parenteral solution. Spore survival was increased or decreased, depending upon the composition of the parenteral solution and the buffer concentration. The results obtained in these experiments attest to the fact that environmental factors, including the type of ions present and ionic concentration, affect the heat destruction rate of B. stearothermophilus spores. Therefore, the sterilization requirements of a product such as a parenteral solution may be affected by small changes in formulation.
PMCID: PMC243069  PMID: 727778
14.  Thermal destruction of Clostridium botulinum spores suspended in tomato juice in aluminum thermal death time tubes. 
The heat destruction characteristics of Clostridium botulinum spores suspended in tomato juice and phosphate buffer were determined by the survivor curve method with aluminum thermal death time tubes. Two type A strains of C. botulinum and a type B strain were evaluated. Strains A16037 and B15580 were implicated in outbreaks of botulism involving home-canned tomato products. Strain A16037 had a higher heat resistance than either 62A or B15580. The mean thermal resistance (D-values) for A16037 in tomato juice (pH 4.2) were: 115.6 degrees C, 0.4 min; 110.0 degrees C, 1.6 min; and 104.4 degrees C, 6.0 min. The mean D-values for A16037 in Sorensen 0.067 M phosphate buffer (pH 7) were: 115.6 degrees C, 1.3 min; 110.0 degrees C, 4.4 min; and 104.4 degrees C, 17.6 min. At each test temperature, the D-values were approximately three times higher in buffer than in tomato juice. The z-value for C. botulinum A16037 spores in tomato juice was 9.4 degrees C, and in buffer the z-value was 9.9 degrees C. The use of aluminum thermal death time tubes in a miniature retort system makes it possible to determine survivor curves for C. botulinum spores at 121.1 degrees C. This is possible because the lag correction factor for the aluminum tubes is only about 0.2 min, making possible heating times as short as 0.5 min.
PMCID: PMC242582  PMID: 329760
15.  Effect of storage time and temperature and the variation among replicate tests (on different days) on the performance of spore disks and strips. 
Laboratory-prepared spore disks were stored for 96 weeks at 22 degrees C with 50% relative humidity (RH) and at 4 degrees C with less than 1% RH. At the same time commercial spore strips were stored for 64 weeks at 22 degrees C with 50% RH. The spore count per unit and the heat resistance were measured at the beginning of the experiment and after 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, and 96 weeks of storage. The laboratory-prepared spore disks stored at 4 degrees C with less than 1% RH showed less change in numbers of spores per disks and decrease in the survival time than did the disks stored at 22 degrees C with 50% RH. Both the laboratory-prepared spore disks and the commercial spore strips stored at 22 degrees C with 50% RH decreased in survival times with increased storage time. The relative change in the survival times with storage was less for the commercial spore strips than for the laboratory-prepared spore disks.
PMCID: PMC170045  PMID: 970944

Results 1-15 (15)