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1.  Patterns of mortality after prolonged follow-up of a randomised controlled trial using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to maintain chemotherapy dose intensity in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;99(2):253-258.
The effect of utilising granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to maintain chemotherapy dose intensity in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) on long-term mortality patterns has not been formally evaluated. We analysed prolonged follow-up data from the first randomised controlled trial investigating this approach. Data on 10-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), freedom from progression (FFP) and incidence of second malignancies were collected for 80 patients with aggressive subtypes of NHL, who had been randomised to receive either VAPEC-B chemotherapy or VAPEC-B+G-CSF. Median follow-up was 15.7 years for surviving patients. No significant differences were found in PFS or OS. However, 10-year FFP was better in the G-CSF arm (68 vs 47%, P=0.037). Eleven deaths from causes unrelated to NHL or its treatment occurred in the G-CSF arm compared to five in controls. More deaths occurred from second malignancies (4 vs 2) and cardiovascular causes (5 vs 0) in the G-CSF arm. Although this pharmacovigilance study has insufficient statistical power to draw conclusions and is limited by the lack of data on smoking history and other cardiovascular risk factors, these unique long-term outcome data generate hypotheses that warrant further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2480980  PMID: 18594529
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; mortality pattern; dose intensity; pharmacovigilance; second malignancy
3.  Long-term follow-up of patients treated with radiotherapy alone for early-stage histologically aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2004;90(6):1151-1155.
PMCID: PMC2409646  PMID: 15026794
aggressive lymphoma; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; old age; radiotherapy
4.  Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) following high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical benefits at no extra cost. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(8):1294-1299.
In order to evaluate the potential clinical and economic benefits of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim) following peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) rescue after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT), 23 consecutive patients aged less than 60 years with poor-prognosis, high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were entered into a prospective randomized trial between May 1993 and September 1995. Patients were randomized to receive either PBPC alone (n = 12) or PBPC+G-CSF (n = 11) after HDCT with busulphan and cyclophosphamide. G-CSF (300 microg day[-1]) was given from day +5 until recovery of granulocyte count to greater than 1.0 x 10(9) l(-1) for 2 consecutive days. The mean time to achieve a granulocyte count > 0.5 x 10(9) l(-1) was significantly shorter in the G-CSF arm (9.7 vs 13.2 days; P<0.0001) as was the median duration of hospital stay (12 vs 15 days; P = 0.001). In addition the recovery periods (range 9-12 vs 11-17 days to achieve a count of 1.0 x 10(9) l[-1]) and hospital stays (range 11-14 vs 13-22 days) were significantly less variable in patients receiving G-CSF in whom the values clustered around the median. There were no statistically significant differences between the study arms in terms of days of fever, documented episodes of bacteraemia, antimicrobial drug usage and platelet/red cell transfusion requirements. Taking into account the costs of total occupied-bed days, drugs, growth factor usage and haematological support, the mean expenditure per inpatient stay was pound sterling 6500 (range pound sterling 5465-pound sterling 8101) in the G-CSF group compared with pound sterling 8316 (range pound sterling 5953-pound sterling 15,801) in the group not receiving G-CSF, with an observed mean saving of 1816 per patient (or 22% of the total cost) in the G-CSF group. This study suggests that after HDCT and PBPC rescue, the use of G-CSF leads to more rapid haematological recovery periods and is associated with a more predictable and shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, and despite the additional costs for G-CSF, these clinical benefits are not translated into increased health care expenditure.
PMCID: PMC2150159  PMID: 9579836
5.  A study of ovarian cancer patients treated with dose-intensive chemotherapy supported with peripheral blood progenitor cells mobilised by filgrastim and cyclophosphamide. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(11):1821-1827.
We have shown that large numbers of haemopoietic progenitor cells are mobilised into the blood after filgrastim [granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)] alone and filgrastim following cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with ovarian cancer. These cells may be used to provide safe and effective haemopoietic rescue following dose-intensive chemotherapy. Using filgrastim alone (10 micrograms kg-1), the apheresis harvest contained a median CFU-GM count of 45 x 10(4) kg-1 and 2 x 10(6) kg-1 CD34+ cells. Treatment with filgrastim (5 micrograms kg-1) following cyclophosphamide (3 g m-2) resulted in a harvest containing 66 x 10(4) kg-1 CFU-GM and 2.4 x 10(6) kg-1 CD34+ cells. There was no statistically significant difference between these two mobilising regimens. We have also demonstrated that dose-intensive carboplatin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy can be delivered safely to patients with ovarian cancer when supported by peripheral blood progenitor cells and filgrastim. Carboplatin (AUC 7.5) and cyclophosphamide (900 mg m-2) given at 3 weekly intervals with progenitor cell and growth factor support was well tolerated in terms of haematological and systemic side-effects. Double the dose intensity of chemotherapy was delivered compared with our standard dose regimen when the treatment was given at 3 weekly intervals. Median dose intensity could be further escalated to 2.33 compared with our standard regimen by decreasing the interval between treatment cycles to 2 weeks. However, at this dose intensity less than a third of patients received their planned treatment on time. All the delays were due to thrombocytopenia.
PMCID: PMC2077231  PMID: 8956800

Results 1-5 (5)