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author:("petrovic, M.")
1.  Clinical and Serological Follow-Up of Patients with Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Slovenia 
An evaluation of the clinical outcome and the duration of the antibody response of patients with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) was undertaken in Slovenia. Adult patients with a febrile illness occurring within 6 weeks of a tick bite were classified as having probable or confirmed HGE based on the outcome of serological or PCR testing. Thirty patients (median age, 44 years) were enrolled, and clinical evaluations and serum collection were undertaken at initial presentation and at 14 days, 6 to 8 weeks, and 3 to 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, and reciprocal titers of ≥128 were interpreted as positive. Patients presented a median of 4 days after the onset of fever and were febrile for a median of 7.5 days; four (13.3%) received doxycycline. Seroconversion was observed in 3 of 30 (10.0%) patients, and 25 (83.3%) showed >4-fold change in antibody titer. PCR results were positive in 2 of 3 (66.7%) seronegative patients but in none of 27 seropositive patients at the first presentation. IFA antibody titers of ≥128 were found in 14 of 29 (48.3%), 17 of 30 (56.7%), 13 of 30 (43.4%), and 12 of 30 (40.0%) patients 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after presentation, respectively. Patients reporting additional tick bites during the study had significantly higher antibody titers at most time points during follow-up. No long-term clinical consequences were found during follow-up.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.8.5.899-903.2001
PMCID: PMC96168  PMID: 11527800
2.  Identity of Ehrlichial DNA Sequences Derived from Ixodes ricinus Ticks with Those Obtained from Patients with Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Slovenia 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(1):209-210.
Adult Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected near Ljubljana, Slovenia, were tested for the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) by using PCR assays based on the 16S rRNA gene. Three (3.2%) of 93 ticks were found to contain granulocytic ehrlichiae. Nucleotide sequences of portions of the bacterial groESL heat shock operon amplified from these ticks were identical or nearly (99.8%) identical to those previously determined for human patients with HGE from Slovenia, providing additional evidence that the ticks were infected with the HGE agent. This study identified I. ricinus as the likely vector for these ehrlichial pathogens of humans in this part of Europe.
PMCID: PMC84210  PMID: 9854093
3.  Human disease in Europe caused by a granulocytic Ehrlichia species. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(6):1556-1559.
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) was recently described in North America. It is caused by an Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia phagocytophila and Ehrlichia equi, recognized to infect mostly ruminants and horses, respectively. The vector in North America is the tick Ixodes scapularis, which is also the vector of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. Previous serologic studies in patients with a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis indicate that HGE may exist in Europe. We report the first documented case of HGE in Europe. The diagnosis was established by seroconversion to E. equi and the HGE agent and by PCR with sequence analysis of the gene encoding the HGE agent 16S rRNA. Interestingly, the patient presented with a self-limited but moderately severe illness. Thus, European physicians need to be aware that HGE exists in Europe and that the diagnosis should be considered in febrile patients with tick bites in areas where Lyme disease is endemic.
PMCID: PMC229786  PMID: 9163481

Results 1-3 (3)