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1.  Trends in Inappropriate Drug Therapy Prescription in the Elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013: Assessment Using National Indicators 
Drugs & Aging  2014;31(5):379-386.
Background
Medication for elderly patients is often complex and problematic. Several criteria for classifying inappropriate prescribing exist. In 2010, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare published the document “Indicators of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly” as a guideline for improving prescribing for the elderly.
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess trends in the prescription of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 using national quality indicators for drug treatment.
Methods
Individual-based data on dispensed prescription drugs for the entire Swedish population aged ≥65 years during eight 3-month periods from 2006 to 2013 were accumulated. The data were extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Eight drug-specific quality indicators were monitored.
Results
For the entire population studied (n = 1,828,283 in 2013), six of the eight indicators showed an improvement according to the guidelines; the remaining two indicators (drugs with anticholinergic effects and excessive polypharmacy) remained relatively unchanged. For the subgroup aged 65–74 years, three indicators showed an improvement, four indicators remained relatively unchanged (e.g. propiomazine, and oxazepam) and one showed an undesirable trend (anticholinergic drugs) according to guidelines. For the older group (aged ≥75 years), all indicators except excessive polypharmacy showed improvement.
Conclusion
According to the quality indicators used, the extent of inappropriate drug therapy in the elderly decreased from 2006 to 2013 in Sweden. Thus, prescribers appear to be more likely to change their prescribing patterns for the elderly than previously assumed.
doi:10.1007/s40266-014-0165-5
PMCID: PMC3997827  PMID: 24687310
3.  Improving Interoperability in ePrescribing 
Background
The increased application of eServices in health care, in general, and ePrescribing (electronic prescribing) in particular, have brought quality and interoperability to the forefront. The application of standards has been put forward as one important factor in improving interoperability. However, less focus has been placed on other factors, such as stakeholders’ involvement and the measurement of interoperability. An information system (IS) can be regarded to comprise an instrument for technology-mediated work communication. In this study, interoperability refers to the interoperation in the ePrescribing process, involving people, systems, procedures and organizations. We have focused on the quality of the ePrescription message as one component of the interoperation in the ePrescribing process.
Objective
The objective was to analyze how combined efforts in improving interoperability with the introduction of the new national ePrescription format (NEF) have impacted interoperability in the ePrescribing process in Sweden, with the focus on the quality of the ePrescription message.
Methods
Consecutive sampling of electronic prescriptions in Sweden before and after the introduction of NEF was undertaken in April 2008 (pre-NEF) and April 2009 (post-NEF). Interoperability problems were identified and classified based on message format specifications and prescription rules.
Results
The introduction of NEF improved the interoperability of ePrescriptions substantially. In the pre-NEF sample, a total of 98.6% of the prescriptions had errors. In the post-NEF sample, only 0.9% of the prescriptions had errors. The mean number of errors was fewer for the erroneous prescriptions: 4.8 in pre-NEF compared to 1.0 in post-NEF.
Conclusions
We conclude that a systematic comprehensive work on interoperability, covering technical, semantical, professional, judicial and process aspects, involving the stakeholders, resulted in an improved interoperability of ePrescriptions.
doi:10.2196/ijmr.2089
PMCID: PMC3626130  PMID: 23612314
eHealth, Electronic prescribing, Electronic prescription, Information quality, Interoperability
4.  Awareness among nurses about reporting of adverse drug reactions in Sweden 
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate awareness among nurses regarding their new role as reporters of adverse drug reactions in Sweden and factors that may influence reporting by nurses.
Methods
In 2007, all nurses were included in the adverse drug reaction reporting scheme in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to 753 randomly selected nurses in September 2010.
Results
Of the 453 (60%) responding nurses, 265 (58%) were aware that nurses were included in the reporting of adverse drug reactions. Sixty-one nurses (14%) stated that they had reported an adverse drug reaction. Fifteen percent (n = 70) of the respondents had received training about reporting of adverse drug reactions. Almost one third of these (n = 21, 30%) had reported an adverse drug reaction on at least one occasion. Among nurses without training, a smaller proportion (n = 40, 11%, P < 0.05) had reported an adverse drug reaction on at least one occasion. The two factors considered most important by nurses for reporting were the severity of the adverse drug reaction and if the reaction was to a newly approved drug. A majority of the nurses (n = 397, 88%) were interested in a training course in pharmacology as part of their ongoing professional development. One third (32%) of all nurses stated that one reason for not reporting a suspected adverse drug reaction was that the physician responsible did not regard the reaction necessary to report.
Conclusion
We found that more than half of the study population of nurses in Sweden were aware of their new role as reporters of adverse drug reactions, but few of the responding nurses had reported an adverse drug reaction. Given that training seems to be associated with high reporting frequency, we suggest more training in pharmacovigilance for nurses.
doi:10.2147/DHPS.S31103
PMCID: PMC3402011  PMID: 22826643
adverse drug reporting systems; nurses; knowledge
5.  Non-adherence to drug therapy and drug acquisition costs in a national population - a patient-based register study 
Background
Patients' non-adherence to drug therapy is a major problem for society as it is associated with reduced health outcomes. Generally, approximately only 50% of patients with chronic disease in developed countries adhere to prescribed therapy, and the most common non-adherence refers to chronic under-use, i.e. patients use less medication than prescribed or prematurely stop the therapy. Patients' non-adherence leads to high additional costs for society in terms of poor health. Non-adherence is also related to the unnecessary sale of drugs. The aim of the present study was to estimate the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy in a national population.
Methods
We constructed a model of the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy based on patient register data of dispensed out-patient prescriptions in the entire Swedish population during a 12-month period. In the model, the total drug acquisition cost was successively adjusted for the assumed different rates of primary non-adherence (prescriptions not being filled by the patient), and secondary non-adherence (medication not being taken as prescribed) according to the patient's age, therapies, and the number of dispensed drugs per patient.
Results
With an assumption of a general primary non-adherence rate of 3%, and a general secondary non-adherence rate of 50%, for all types of drugs, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 11.2 billion (€ 1.2 billion), or 48.5% of total drug acquisition costs in Sweden 2006.
With the assumption of varying primary non-adherence rates for different age groups and different secondary non-adherence rates for varying types of drug therapies, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.3 billion (€ 1.0 billion), or 40.2% of the total drug acquisition costs.
When the assumption of varying primary and secondary non-adherence rates for a different number of dispensed drugs per patient was added to the model, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.9 billion (€ 1.1 billion), or 42.6% of the total drug acquisition costs.
Conclusions
Our estimate indicates that drug acquisition costs related to non-adherence represent a substantial proportion of the economic resources in the health care sector. A low rate of primary non-adherence, combined with a high rate of secondary non-adherence, contributes to a large degree of unnecessary medical spending. Thus, efforts of different types of interventions are needed to improve secondary adherence.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-326
PMCID: PMC3248911  PMID: 22123025
6.  3D Visualization as a Communicative Aid in Pharmaceutical Advice-Giving over Distance 
Background
Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.
Objective
To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.
Methods
We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies’ call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.
Results
In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P < .001), and efficiency (P < .001). Participants in both studies said that they would welcome this type of service as an alternative to the telephone and to face-to-face interaction when a physical meeting is not possible or not convenient. However, although AssistancePlus was considered as easy to use as the telephone, they would choose AssistancePlus over the telephone only when the complexity of the question demanded the higher level of expressiveness it offers. For simpler questions, a simpler service was preferred.
Conclusions
3D visualization paired with video conferencing can be useful for advice-giving over distance, specifically for issues that require a higher level of communicative expressiveness than the telephone can offer. 3D-supported advice-giving can increase the range of issues that can be handled over distance and thus improve access to product information.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1437
PMCID: PMC3222187  PMID: 21771714
Pharmaceutical instruction; 3D visualization; distance communication
7.  Increasing polypharmacy - an individual-based study of the Swedish population 2005-2008 
Background
An increase in the use of drugs and polypharmacy have been displayed over time in spite of the fact that polypharmacy represents a well known risk factor as regards patients' health due to the adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and low adherence to drug therapy arising from polypharmacy. For policymakers, as well as for clinicians, it is important to follow the developing trends in drug use and polypharmacy over time. We wanted to study if the prevalence of polypharmacy in an entire national population has changed during a 4-year period.
Methods
By applying individual-based data on dispensed drugs, we have studied all dispensed prescribed drugs for the entire Swedish population during four 3-month periods 2005-2008. Five or more (DP ≥5) and ten or more (DP ≥10) dispensed drugs during the 3-month period was applied as the cut-offs indicating the existence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy respectively.
Results
During the period 2005-2008, the prevalence of polypharmacy (DP≥5) increased by 8.2% (from 0.102 to 0.111), and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy (DP≥10) increased by 15.7% (from 0.021 to 0.024).
In terms of age groups, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy increased as regards all ages with the exception of the age group 0-9 years. However, the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy displayed a clear age trend, with the largest increase for the groups 70 years and above. Furthermore, the increase in the prevalence of polypharmacy was, generally, approximately twice as high for men as for women. Finally, the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual increased by 3.6% (from 3.3 to 3.4) during the study period.
Conclusions
The prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, as well as the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual, increased year-by-year in Sweden 2005-2008.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-10-16
PMCID: PMC3014875  PMID: 21122160
8.  Physicians' attitudes towards ePrescribing – evaluation of a Swedish full-scale implementation 
Background
The penetration rate of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems in health care is increasing. However, many different EHR-systems are used with varying ePrescription designs and functionalities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate experienced ePrescribers' attitudes towards ePrescribing for suggesting improvements.
Methods
Physicians (n = 431) from seven out of the 21 Swedish health care regions, using one of the six most widely implemented EHR-systems with integrated electronic prescribing modules, were recruited from primary care centers and hospital clinics of internal medicine, orthopaedics and surgery. The physicians received a web survey that comprised eight questions on background data and 19 items covering attitudes towards ePrescribing. Forty-two percent (n = 199) of the physicians answered the questionnaire; 90% (n = 180) of the respondents met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis.
Results
A majority of the respondents regarded their EHR-system easy to use in general (81%), and for the prescribing of drugs (88%). Most respondents believed they were able to provide the patients better service by ePrescribing (92%), and regarded ePrescriptions to be time saving (91%) and to be safer (83%), compared to handwritten prescriptions. Some of the most frequently reported weaknesses were: not clearly displayed price of drugs (43%), complicated drug choice (21%), and the perception that it was possible to handle more than one patient at a time when ePrescribing (13%). Moreover, 62% reported a lack of receipt from the pharmacy after successful transmission of an ePrescription. Although a majority (73%) of the physicians reported that they were always or often checking the ePrescription a last time before transmitting, 25% declared that they were seldom or never doing a last check. The respondents suggested a number of improvements, among others, to simplify the drug choice and the cancellation of ePrescriptions.
Conclusion
The Swedish physicians in the group studied were generally satisfied with their specific EHR-system and with ePrescribing as such. However, identified weaknesses warrant improvements of the EHR-systems as well as of their implementation in the individual health care organisation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-9-37
PMCID: PMC2732618  PMID: 19664219
9.  Dispensed drugs and multiple medications in the Swedish population: an individual-based register study 
Background
Multiple medications is a well-known potential risk factor in terms of patient's health. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of dispensed drugs and multiple medications in an entire national population, by using individual based data on dispensed drugs.
Methods
Analyses of all dispensed out-patient prescriptions in 2006 from the Swedish prescribed drug register. As a cut-off for multiple medications, we applied five or more different drugs dispensed (DP ≥ 5) at Swedish pharmacies for a single individual during a 3-month, a 6-month, and a 12-month study period. For comparison, results were also calculated with certain drug groups excluded.
Results
6.2 million individuals received at least one dispensed drug (DP ≥ 1) during 12 months in 2006 corresponding to a prevalence of 67.4%; 75.6% for females and 59.3% for males. Individuals received on average 4.7 dispensed drugs per individual (median 3, Q1–Q3 2–6); females 5.0 (median 3, Q1–Q3 2–7), males 4.3 (median 3, Q1–Q3 1–6).
The prevalence of multiple medications (DP ≥ 5) was 24.4% for the entire population. The prevalence increased with age. For elderly 70–79, 80–89, and 90-years, the prevalence of DP ≥ 5 was 62.4, 75.1, and 77.7% in the respective age groups. 82.8% of all individuals with DP ≥ 1 and 64.9% of all individuals with DP ≥ 5 were < 70 years.
Multiple medications was more frequent for females (29.6%) than for males (19.2%). For individuals 10 to 39 years, DP ≥ 5 was twice as common among females compared to males. Sex hormones and modulators of the genital system excluded, reduced the relative risk (RR) for females vs. males for DP ≥ 5 from 1.5 to 1.4.
The prevalence of DP ≥ 1 increased from 45.1 to 56.2 and 67.4%, respectively, when the study period was 3, 6, and 12 respectively months and the corresponding prevalence of DP ≥ 5 was 11.3, 17.2, and 24.4% respectively.
Conclusion
The prevalence of dispensed drugs and multiple medications were extensive in all age groups and were higher for females than for males. Multiple medications should be regarded as a risk in terms of potential drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in all age groups.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-9-11
PMCID: PMC2696422  PMID: 19473486
10.  Assessment of ePrescription quality: an observational study at three mail-order pharmacies 
Background
The introduction of electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP) or ePrescriptions in ambulatory health care has been suggested to have a positive impact on the prescribing and dispensing processes. Thereby, implying that ePrescribing can improve safety, quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. In December 2007, 68% of all new prescriptions were transferred electronically in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of ePrescriptions by comparing the proportions of ePrescriptions and non-electronic prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact (correction, completion or change) with the prescriber at the time of dispensing.
Methods
A direct observational study was performed at three Swedish mail-order pharmacies which were known to dispense a large proportion of ePrescriptions (38–75%). Data were gathered on all ePrescriptions dispensed at these pharmacies over a three week period in February 2006. All clarification contacts with prescribers were included in the study and were classified and assessed in comparison with all drug prescriptions dispensed at the same pharmacies over the specified period.
Results
Of the 31225 prescriptions dispensed during the study period, clarification contacts were made for 2.0% (147/7532) of new ePrescriptions and 1.2% (79/6833) of new non-electronic prescriptions. This represented a relative risk (RR) of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3–2.2) for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions. The increased RR was mainly due to 'Dosage and directions for use', which had an RR of 7.6 (95% CI 2.8–20.4) when compared to other clarification contacts. In all, 89.5% of the suggested pharmacist interventions were accepted by the prescriber, 77.7% (192/247) as suggested and an additional 11.7% (29/247) after a modification during contact with the prescriber.
Conclusion
The increased proportion of prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions indicates the need for an increased focus on quality aspects in ePrescribing deployment. ETP technology should be developed towards a two-way communication between the prescriber and the pharmacist with automated checks of missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. This would enhance safety and quality for the patient and also improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness within the health care system.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-9-8
PMCID: PMC2654447  PMID: 19171038
11.  Individuals Appreciate Having Their Medication Record on the Web: A Survey of Attitudes to a National Pharmacy Register 
Background
Many patients receive health care in different settings. Thus, a limitation of clinical care may be inaccurate medication lists, since data exchange between settings is often lacking and patients do not regularly self-report on changes in their medication. Health care professionals and patients are both interested in utilizing electronic health information. However, opinion is divided as to who should take responsibility for maintaining personal health records. In Sweden, the government has passed a law to enforce and fund a national register of dispensed medications. The register comprises all individuals with dispensed medications (6.4 million individuals, September 2006) and can be accessed by the individual online via “My dispensed medications”. The individual has the right to restrict the accessibility of the information in health care settings.
Objective
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the users’ attitudes towards their access to “My dispensed medications” as part of a new interactive Internet service on prescribed medications.
Method
A password-protected Web survey was conducted among a first group of users of “My dispensed medications”. Data was anonymously collected and analyzed with regard to the usefulness and design of the Web site, the respondents’ willingness to discuss their “My dispensed medications” with others, their reasons for access, and their source of information about the service.
Results
During the study period (January-March, 2007), all 7860 unique site visitors were invited to answer the survey. Invitations were accepted by 2663 individuals, and 1716 responded to the online survey yielding a view rate of 21.8% (1716/7860) and a completion rate of 64.4% (1716/2663). The completeness rate for each question was in the range of 94.9% (1629/1716) to 99.5% (1707/1716). In general, the respondents’ expectations of the usefulness of “My dispensed medications” were high (total median grade 5; Inter Quartile Range [IQR] 3, on a scale 1-6). They were also positive about the design of the Web site (total median grade 5; IQR 1, on a scale 1-6). The high grades were not dependent on age or number of drugs. A majority of the respondents, 60.4% (1037/1716), had learned about “My dispensed medications” from pharmacies. 70.4% (1208/1716) of all respondents said they visited “My dispensed medications” to get control or an overview of their drugs. Getting control was a more common (P < .001) answer for the elderly (age 75 or above), whereas curiosity was more common (P < .001) for the younger age group (18-44 years).
Conclusion
We found that users of the provider-based personal medication record “My dispensed medications” appreciated the access to their record. Since we found that the respondents liked the design of the Web site and perceived that the information was easy to understand, the study provided no reason for system changes. However, a need for more information about the register, and to extend its use, was recognized.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1022
PMCID: PMC2629371  PMID: 19000978
Medical informatics; drug information services; patient access to records; pharmacy; confidentiality; informed consent; Internet; Sweden
12.  The Use of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Among Personnel and Students in Health Care: A Review 
Background
Health care personnel need access to updated information anywhere and at any time, and a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) has the potential to meet these requirements. A PDA is a mobile tool which has been employed widely for various purposes in health care practice, and the level of its use is expected to increase. Loaded with suitable functions and software applications, a PDA might qualify as the tool that personnel and students in health care need. In Sweden today, despite its leadership role in mobile technologies, PDAs are not commonly used, and there is a lack of suitable functions and software applications.
Objective
The aim of the present review was to obtain an overview of existing research on the use of PDAs among personnel and students in health care.
Methods
The literature search included original peer-reviewed research articles written in English and published from 1996 to 2008. All study designs were considered for inclusion. We excluded reviews and studies focusing on the use of PDAs in classroom situations. From March 2006 to the last update in May 2008, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, IngentaConnect, and a local search engine (ELIN@Kalmar). We conducted a content analysis, using Nielsen’s Model of System Acceptability as a theoretical framework in structuring and presenting the results.
Results
From the 900 references initially screened, 172 articles were selected and critically assessed until 48 articles remained. The majority originated in North-America (USA: n=24, Canada: n=11). The categories which emerged from our content analysis coincided to a certain extent to Nielsen’s Model of System Acceptability (social and practical acceptability), including usefulness (utility and usability) subcategories such as learnability, efficiency, errors, and satisfaction. The studies showed that health care personnel and students used PDAs in patient care with varied frequency. Most of the users were physicians. There is some evidence that the use of a PDA in health care settings might improve decision-making, reduce the numbers of medical errors, and enhance learning for both students and professionals, but the evidence is not strong, with most studies being descriptive, and only 6 randomized controlled trials. Several special software programs have been created and tested for PDAs, and a wide range of situations for their use have been reported for different patient groups. Drug and medical information were commonly accessed by PDA users, and the PDA was often viewed as the preferred tool when compared to paper-based documents. Some users regarded the PDA easy to operate, while others found it difficult in the beginning.
Conclusions
This overview of the use of PDAs revealed a positive attitude towards the PDA, which was regarded as a feasible and convenient tool. The possibility of immediate access to medical information has the potential to improve patient care. The PDA seems to be a valuable tool for personnel and students in health care, but there is a need for further intervention studies, randomized controlled trials, action research, and studies with various health care groups in order to identify its appropriate functions and software applications.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1038
PMCID: PMC2629360  PMID: 18957381
Informatics; medical informatics; computers, handheld; health personnel; students, health occupations; personal digital assistant
13.  Reasons for Consulting a Doctor on the Internet: Web Survey of Users of an Ask the Doctor Service 
Background
In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters.
Objective
To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet.
Methods
Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) and 2586 (71%) women, was conducted. We excluded 186 queries from users. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to the question "Why did you choose to ask a question at Infomedica's 'Ask the Doctor' service?"
Results
1223 surveys were completed (response rate 34%). Of the participants in the survey 322 (26%) were male and 901 (74%) female. As major reasons for choosing to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet participants indicated: convenience (52%), anonymity (36%), "doctors too busy" (21%), difficult to find time to visit a doctor (16%), difficulty to get an appointment (13%), feeling uncomfortable when seeing a doctor (9%), and not being able to afford a doctors' visit (3%). Further motives elicited through a qualitative analysis of free-text answers were: seeking a second opinion, discontent with previous doctors and a wish for a primary evaluation of a medical problem, asking embarrassing or sensitive questions, seeking information on behalf of relatives, preferring written communication, and (from responses by expatriates, travelers, and others) living far away from regular health care.
Conclusions
We found that an Internet based Ask the Doctor service is primarily consulted because it is convenient, but it may also be of value for individuals with needs that regular health care services have not been able to meet.
doi:10.2196/jmir.5.4.e26
PMCID: PMC1550573  PMID: 14713654
Internet; remote consultation; physician-patient relations; access to information; information services; anonyms and pseudonyms

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