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1.  Sharing Insulin Pens: Are You Putting Patients at Risk? 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(11):e188-e189.
doi:10.2337/dc13-1522
PMCID: PMC3816894  PMID: 24159184
3.  Assisted Monitoring of Blood Glucose: Special Safety Needs for a New Paradigm in Testing Glucose 
PMCID: PMC2956804  PMID: 20920422
assisted monitoring of blood glucose; bloodborne infection; diabetes; glucose; hepatitis; monitor; self monitoring of blood glucose
4.  Eliminating the Blood: Ongoing Outbreaks of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Need for Innovative Glucose Monitoring Technologies 
Background
As part of routine diabetes care, capillary blood is typically sampled using a finger-stick device and then tested using a handheld blood glucose meter. In settings where multiple persons require assistance with blood glucose monitoring, opportunities for bloodborne pathogen transmission may exist.
Methods
Reports of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection outbreaks in the United States that have been attributed to blood glucose monitoring practices were reviewed and summarized.
Results
Since 1990, state and local health departments investigated 18 HBV infection outbreaks, 15 (83%) in the past 10 years, that were associated with the improper use of blood glucose monitoring equipment. At least 147 persons acquired HBV infection during these outbreaks, 6 (4.1%) of whom died from complications of acute HBV infection. Outbreaks appear to have become more frequent in the past decade, primarily affecting long-term care residents with diabetes. Each outbreak was attributed to glucose monitoring practices that exposed HBV-susceptible persons to blood-contaminated equipment that was previously used on HBV-infected persons. The predominant unsafe practices were the use of spring-loaded finger-stick devices on multiple persons and the sharing of blood glucose testing meters without cleaning and disinfection between uses.
Conclusion
Hepatitis B virus infection outbreaks associated with blood glucose monitoring have occurred with increasing regularity in the Unites States and may represent a growing but under-recognized problem. Advances in technology, such as the development of blood glucose testing meters that can withstand frequent disinfection and noninvasive glucose monitoring methods, will likely prove useful in improving patient safety.
PMCID: PMC2771515  PMID: 20144359
bloodborne virus; blood glucose monitoring; diabetes; hepatitis B virus; prevention; transmission
5.  National Trends and Disparities in the Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 1998–2003 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2008;5(3):A74.
Introduction
Previous studies indicate that the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States is increasing. These reports, however, have contained limited information on population groups other than whites and blacks.
Methods
We assessed recent incidence rates and trends for hepatocellular carcinoma by using newly available national data from cancer registries participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Data from registries in 38 states and the District of Columbia met our criteria; these data covered 83% of the U.S. population. We computed age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percentages of change from 1998 through 2003.
Results
The registries that we used reported 48,048 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (3.4 cases per 100,000 population per year) for the study period. Whites accounted for three-fourths of cases. The incidence rate for blacks was 1.7 times higher than that for whites, and the rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders was 4 times higher than that for whites. Hispanics had 2.5 times the risk of non-Hispanics. Among Asian/Pacific Islander subgroups, rates were highest for people of Vietnamese and Korean origin. For all races/ethnicities combined, the annual percentages of change were 4.8% for males and 4.3% for females (P < .05). The annual percentage of change was highest for people aged 45–59 years (9.0%, P < .05). The annual percentage of change for Asians/Pacific Islanders was statistically unchanged.
Conclusion
We document rising incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States during a time when the overall incidence of cancer has stabilized. Efforts to collect representative etiologic data on new hepatocellular carcinoma cases are needed to enable better characterization of trends and to guide the planning and evaluation of prevention programs.
PMCID: PMC2483571  PMID: 18558024
6.  Pseudomonas putida Septicemia in a Special Care Nursery Due to Contaminated Flush Solutions Prepared in a Hospital Pharmacy 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(10):5316-5318.
Pseudomonas putida bloodstream infections were reported in two preterm neonates from a special care nursery. An unopened container of preservative-free heparin flush, compounded several weeks earlier in the hospital pharmacy and from the same batch that was administered to the patients, grew P. putida with a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern identical to that of the patients' isolates. Intrinsic contamination was ruled out by the absence of similar reports from other hospitals and by sterility testing of unopened stock solutions. We investigated the in vitro persistence of P. putida in heparinized saline: even under refrigerated conditions, inocula of 102 and 103 CFU/ml exhibited growth at 21 and 35 days, respectively. These findings highlight the need for compliance with current standards of aseptic technique and quality assurance during the preparation of compounded sterile products.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.10.5316-5318.2005
PMCID: PMC1248510  PMID: 16208007
7.  Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002 
BMC Public Health  2005;5:56.
Background
Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted.
Methods
We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines.
Results
Among the general population sample (n = 500), the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85%) of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60) reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60), 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53%) of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Knowledge of HIV transmission through "dirty" syringes among the general population was also high (95%).
Conclusion
Our data suggest that Cambodia has one of the world's highest rates of overall injection usage, despite general awareness of associated infection risks. Although there was little evidence of reuse of needles and syringes, support is needed for interventions to address injection overuse, healthcare worker safety and appropriate waste disposal.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-5-56
PMCID: PMC1173117  PMID: 15929800
8.  SARS Surveillance during Emergency Public Health Response, United States, March–July 2003 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(2):185-194.
In response to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the United States established national surveillance using a sensitive case definition incorporating clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory criteria. Of 1,460 unexplained respiratory illnesses reported by state and local health departments to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from March 17 to July 30, 2003, a total of 398 (27%) met clinical and epidemiologic SARS case criteria. Of these, 72 (18%) were probable cases with radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Eight (2%) were laboratory-confirmed SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, 206 (52%) were SARS-CoV negative, and 184 (46%) had undetermined SARS-CoV status because of missing convalescent-phase serum specimens. Thirty-one percent (124/398) of case-patients were hospitalized; none died. Travel was the most common epidemiologic link (329/398, 83%), and mainland China was the affected area most commonly visited. One case of possible household transmission was reported, and no laboratory-confirmed infections occurred among healthcare workers. Successes and limitations of this emergency surveillance can guide preparations for future outbreaks of SARS or respiratory diseases of unknown etiology.
doi:10.3201/eid1002.030752
PMCID: PMC3322912  PMID: 15030681
severe acute respiratory syndrome; United States; surveillance; incidence; SARS virus; Coronaviridae; pneumonia; travel; respiratory tract infections
9.  Bioterrorism-related Inhalational Anthrax in an Elderly Woman, Connecticut, 2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2003;9(6):681-688.
On November 20, 2001, inhalational anthrax was confirmed in an elderly woman from rural Connecticut. To determine her exposure source, we conducted an extensive epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigation. Molecular subtyping showed that her isolate was indistinguishable from isolates associated with intentionally contaminated letters. No samples from her home or community yielded Bacillus anthracis, and she received no first-class letters from facilities known to have processed intentionally contaminated letters. Environmental sampling in the regional Connecticut postal facility yielded B. anthracis spores from 4 (31%) of 13 sorting machines. One extensively contaminated machine primarily processes bulk mail. A second machine that does final sorting of bulk mail for her zip code yielded B. anthracis on the column of bins for her carrier route. The evidence suggests she was exposed through a cross-contaminated bulk mail letter. Such cross-contamination of letters and postal facilities has implications for managing the response to future B. anthracis–contaminated mailings.
doi:10.3201/eid0906.020728
PMCID: PMC3000148  PMID: 12781007
Bacillus anthracis; inhalational anthrax; bioterrorism; postal facilities; research
10.  Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Postal Workers, Connecticut, 2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1133-1137.
After inhalational anthrax was diagnosed in a Connecticut woman on November 20, 2001, postexposure prophylaxis was recommended for postal workers at the regional mail facility serving the patient’s area. Although environmental testing at the facility yielded negative results, subsequent testing confirmed the presence of Bacillus anthracis. We distributed questionnaires to 100 randomly selected postal workers within 20 days of initial prophylaxis. Ninety-four workers obtained antibiotics, 68 of whom started postexposure prophylaxis and 21 discontinued. Postal workers who stopped or never started taking prophylaxis cited as reasons disbelief regarding anthrax exposure, problems with adverse events, and initial reports of negative cultures. Postal workers with adverse events reported predominant symptoms of gastrointestinal distress and headache. The influence of these concerns on adherence suggests that communication about risks of acquiring anthrax, education about adverse events, and careful management of adverse events are essential elements in increasing adherence.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020346
PMCID: PMC2730305  PMID: 12396928
Anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; prophylaxis; adverse effects; ciprofloxacin; doxycycline; patient noncompliance; Connecticut
11.  Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Involving Novel Genotypes in Wildlife from Lower New York State 
Cryptosporidium, an enteric parasite of humans and a wide range of other mammals, presents numerous challenges to the supply of safe drinking water. We performed a wildlife survey, focusing on white-tailed deer and small mammals, to assess whether they may serve as environmental sources of Cryptosporidium. A PCR-based approach that permitted genetic characterization via sequence analysis was applied to wildlife fecal samples (n = 111) collected from September 1996 to July 1998 from three areas in lower New York State. Southern analysis revealed 22 fecal samples containing Cryptosporidium small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA; these included 10 of 91 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) samples, 3 of 5 chipmunk (Tamias striatus) samples, 1 of 2 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) samples, 1 of 2 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) samples, 1 of 5 racoon (Procyon lotor) samples, and 6 of 6 muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) samples. All of the 15 SSU PCR products sequenced were characterized as Cryptosporidium parvum; two were identical to genotype 2 (bovine), whereas the remainder belonged to two novel SSU sequence groups, designated genotypes 3 and 4. Genotype 3 comprised four deer-derived sequences, whereas genotype 4 included nine sequences from deer, mouse, chipmunk, and muskrat samples. PCR analysis was performed on the SSU-positive fecal samples for three other Cryptosporidium loci (dihydrofolate reductase, polythreonine-rich protein, and beta-tubulin), and 8 of 10 cloned PCR products were consistent with C. parvum genotype 2. These data provide evidence that there is sylvatic transmission of C. parvum involving deer and other small mammals. This study affirmed the importance of wildlife as potential sources of Cryptosporidium in the catchments of public water supplies.
doi:10.1128/AEM.67.3.1154-1162.2001
PMCID: PMC92708  PMID: 11229905

Results 1-11 (11)