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1.  Randomized Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing Subcutaneous and Intravenous Palonosetron in Cancer Patients Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89747.
Background
Palonosetron is a potent second generation 5- hydroxytryptamine-3 selective antagonist which can be administered by either intravenous (IV) or oral routes, but subcutaneous (SC) administration of palonosetron has never been studied, even though it could have useful clinical applications. In this study, we evaluate the bioavailability of SC palonosetron.
Patients and Methods
Patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were randomized to receive SC or IV palonosetron, followed by the alternative route in a crossover manner, during the first two cycles of chemotherapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 minutes and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after palonosetron administration. Urine was collected during 12 hours following palonosetron. We compared pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0–24h, t1/2, and Cmax observed with each route of administration by analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results
From October 2009 to July 2010, 25 evaluable patients were included. AUC0–24h for IV and SC palonosetron were respectively 14.1 and 12.7 ng × h/ml (p = 0.160). Bioavalability of SC palonosetron was 118% (95% IC: 69–168). Cmax was lower with SC than with IV route and was reached 15 minutes following SC administration.
Conclusions
Palonosetron bioavailability was similar when administered by either SC or IV route. This new route of administration might be specially useful for outpatient management of emesis and for administration of oral chemotherapy.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01046240
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089747
PMCID: PMC3937332  PMID: 24587006
2.  Identification of Tissue microRNAs Predictive of Sunitinib Activity in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86263.
Purpose
To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC) and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance.
Methods
We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs) in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41). The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101). In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance.
Results
TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074). High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance.
Conclusions
We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086263
PMCID: PMC3901669  PMID: 24475095
3.  Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-Ras Mutation Status in Cytological Stained Smears of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Correlation with Clinical Outcomes 
The Oncologist  2011;16(6):877-885.
EGFR and K-ras mutation status was determined from tumor DNA extracted from cytological samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients, with results comparable with those from biopsy samples. Clinical outcomes of patients harboring mutations and their response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are also discussed.
Objective.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-ras mutations guide treatment selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although mutation status is routinely assessed in biopsies, cytological specimens are frequently the only samples available. We determined EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples.
Methods.
DNA was extracted from 150 consecutive samples, including 120 Papanicolau smears (80%), 10 cell blocks (7%), nine fresh samples (6%), six ThinPrep® tests (4%), and five body cavity fluids (3.3%). Papanicolau smears were analyzed when they had >50% malignant cells. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of exons 18–21 of EGFR and exon 2 of K-ras were performed. EGFR mutations were simultaneously determined in biopsies and cytological samples from 20 patients. Activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was assessed.
Results.
The cytological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 110 samples (73%) and nonadenocarcinoma in 40 (27%) samples. EGFR mutations were identified in 26 samples (17%) and K-ras mutations were identified in 18 (12%) samples. EGFR and K-ras mutations were mutually exclusive. In EGFR-mutated cases, DNA was obtained from stained smears in 24 cases (92%), pleural fluid in one case (4%), and cell block in one case (4%). The response rate to EGFR TKIs in patients harboring mutations was 75%. The mutation status was identical in patients who had both biopsies and cytological samples analyzed.
Conclusion.
Assessment of EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples is feasible and comparable with biopsy results, making individualized treatment selection possible for NSCLC patients from whom tumor biopsies are not available.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0155
PMCID: PMC3228207  PMID: 21572125
Carcinoma; Non-small cell lung; Cytology; Papanicolau stained smears; Mutations; Epidermal growth factor receptor–neu receptor; Genes; Ras; Erlotinib; Gefitinib
4.  Cardiotrophin-1 determines liver engraftment of syngenic colon carcinoma cells through an immune system-mediated mechanism 
Oncoimmunology  2012;1(9):1527-1536.
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1/CTF1) is a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines that stimulates STAT-3 phosphorylation in cells bearing the cognate receptor. We report that Ctf1−/− mice (hereby referred to as CT-1−/− mice) are resistant to the hepatic engraftment of MC38 colon carcinoma cells, while these cells engraft normally in the mouse subcutaneous tissue. Tumor intake in the liver could be enhanced by the systemic delivery of a recombinant adenovirus encoding CT-1, which also partly rescued the resistance of CT-1−/− mice to the hepatic engraftment of MC38 cells. Moreover, systemic treatment of wild-type (WT) mice with a novel antibody-neutralizing mouse CT-1 also reduced engraftment of this model. Conversely, experiments with Panc02 pancreatic cancer and B16-OVA melanoma cells in CT-1−/− mice revealed rates of hepatic engraftment similar to those observed in WT mice. The mechanism whereby CT-1 renders the liver permissive for MC38 metastasis involves T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, as shown by selective depletion experiments and in genetically deficient mice. However, no obvious changes in the number or cell killing capacity of liver lymphocytes in CT-1−/− animals could be substantiated. These findings demonstrate that the seed and soil concept to understand metastasis can be locally influenced by cytokines as well as by the cellular immune system.
doi:10.4161/onci.22504
PMCID: PMC3525608  PMID: 23264899
Cardiotrophin-1; intrahepatic lymphocytes; liver metastasis; tumor immunology
5.  Pathological vertebral fracture after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung metastases. Case report and literature review. 
Background
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a radiation technique used in patients with oligometastatic lung disease. Lung and chest wall toxicities have been described in the patients but pathological vertebral fracture is an adverse effect no reported in patients treated with SBRT for lung metastases.
Case presentation
A 68-year-old woman with the diagnosis of a recurrence of a single lung metastatic nodule of urothelial carcinoma after third line of chemotherapy. The patient received a hypo-fractionated course of SBRT.A 3D-conformal multifield technique was used with six coplanar and one non-coplanar statics beams. A total dose of 48 Gy in three fractions over six days was prescribed to the 95% of the CTV. Ten months after the SBRT procedure, a CT scan showed complete response of the metastatic disease without signs of radiation pneumonitis. However, rib and vertebral bone toxicities were observed with the fracture-collapse of the 7th and 8th vertebral bodies and a fracture of the 7th and 8th left ribs. We report a unique case of pathological vertebral fracture appearing ten months after SBRT for an asymptomatic growing lung metastases of urothelial carcinoma.
Conclusion
Though SBRT allows for minimization of normal tissue exposure to high radiation doses SBRT tolerance for vertebral bone tissue has been poorly evaluated in patients with lung tumors. Oncologists should be alert to the potential risk of fatal bone toxicity caused by this novel treatment. We recommend BMD testing in all woman over 65 years old with clinical risk factors that could contribute to low BMD. If low BMD is demonstrated, we should carefully restrict the maximum radiation dose in the vertebral body in order to avoid intermediate or low radiation dose to the whole vertebral body.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-50
PMCID: PMC3383543  PMID: 22455311
Stereotactic Body Radiation therapy; Adverse effects; Pathological vertebral fracture
6.  Carcinoma-Derived Interleukin-8 Disorients Dendritic Cell Migration Without Impairing T-Cell Stimulation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17922.
Background
Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) is readily produced by human malignant cells. Dendritic cells (DC) both produce IL-8 and express the IL-8 functional receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Most human colon carcinomas produce IL-8. IL-8 importance in malignancies has been ascribed to angiogeneis promotion.
Principal Findings
IL-8 effects on human monocyte-derived DC biology were explored upon DC exposure to recombinant IL-8 and with the help of an IL-8 neutralizing mAb. In vivo experiments were performed in immunodeficient mice xenografted with IL-8-producing human colon carcinomas and comparatively with cell lines that do not produce IL-8. Allogenic T lymphocyte stimulation by DC was explored under the influence of IL-8. DC and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured by transwell-migration assays. Sera from tumor-xenografted mice contained increasing concentrations of IL-8 as the tumors progress. IL-8 production by carcinoma cells can be modulated by low doses of cyclophosphamide at the transcription level. If human DC are injected into HT29 or CaCo2 xenografted tumors, DC are retained intratumorally in an IL-8-dependent fashion. However, IL-8 did not modify the ability of DC to stimulate T cells. Interestingly, pre-exposure of DC to IL-8 desensitizes such cells for IL-8-mediated in vitro or in vivo chemoattraction. Thereby DC become disoriented to subsequently follow IL-8 chemotactic gradients towards malignant or inflamed tissue.
Conclusions
IL-8 as produced by carcinoma cells changes DC migration cues, without directly interfering with DC-mediated T-cell stimulation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017922
PMCID: PMC3056721  PMID: 21423807

Results 1-6 (6)