TCF7L2 rs7903146 is an important genetic factor predicting type 2 diabetes (T2DM) which has also been linked to higher cardiovascular risk. To date, there is little information about the additional impact of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) beyond glucose metabolism.
We studied whether rs7903146 influenced postprandial lipid metabolism in three different populations (healthy young men, metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and elderly persons). Eighty-eight healthy males were submitted to a single saturated fatty acid-rich test meal. Additionally, 110 middle-aged MetS patients and 20 healthy elderly persons (≥65 years) were submitted to three different dietary models followed by test meals. Minor allele homozygotes for rs7903146 showed a worse postprandial lipemia profile in young males, as seen by a lower HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 concentration during the postprandial lipemia and a trend towards higher triglycerides (TG), than the other genotypes. In healthy elderly persons, carriers of the minor allele showed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Apo B and TG in the fasting state, and a higher postprandial area under the curve for total cholesterol, Apo B, small-triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) cholesterol and small-(TRL) triglycerides. These results were accompanied by differential changes in adipokines. We did not observe any influence of rs7903146 on the postprandium of MetS patients.
Healthy young males and elderly persons who are carriers of the mutant allele for rs7903146 have an impaired postprandial lipid metabolism that may be mediated by an alteration in adipokine regulation, and may be related to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in these persons.
As the incidence of Malignant Melanoma (MM) reflects an interaction between skin colour and UV exposure, variations in genes implicated in pigmentation and tanning response to UV may be associated with susceptibility to MM. In this study, 363 SNPs in 65 gene regions belonging to the pigmentation pathway have been successfully genotyped using a SNP array. Five hundred and ninety MM cases and 507 controls were analyzed in a discovery phase I. Ten candidate SNPs based on a p-value threshold of 0.01 were identified. Two of them, rs35414 (SLC45A2) and rs2069398 (SILV/CKD2), were statistically significant after conservative Bonferroni correction. The best six SNPs were further tested in an independent Spanish series (624 MM cases and 789 controls). A novel SNP located on the SLC45A2 gene (rs35414) was found to be significantly associated with melanoma in both phase I and phase II (P<0.0001). None of the other five SNPs were replicated in this second phase of the study. However, three SNPs in TYR, SILV/CDK2 and ADAMTS20 genes (rs17793678, rs2069398 and rs1510521 respectively) had an overall p-value<0.05 when considering the whole DNA collection (1214 MM cases and 1296 controls). Both the SLC45A2 and the SILV/CDK2 variants behave as protective alleles, while the TYR and ADAMTS20 variants seem to function as risk alleles. Cumulative effects were detected when these four variants were considered together. Furthermore, individuals carrying two or more mutations in MC1R, a well-known low penetrance melanoma-predisposing gene, had a decreased MM risk if concurrently bearing the SLC45A2 protective variant. To our knowledge, this is the largest study on Spanish sporadic MM cases to date.
Appetite and energy expenditure are regulated in part by ghrelin and leptin produced in the gastric mucosa, which may be modified by H. pylori colonization. We prospectively evaluated the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in serum ghrelin and leptin levels, and body weight.
Veterans referred for upper GI endoscopy were evaluated at baseline and ≥8 weeks after endoscopy, and H. pylori status and body weight were ascertained. During the first visit in all subjects, and during subsequent visits in the initially H. pylori-positive subjects and controls, blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h after a standard high protein meal, and levels of eight hormones determined.
Of 92 enrolled subjects, 38 were H. pylori-negative, 44 H. pylori-positive, and 10 were indeterminate. Among 23 H. pylori-positive subjects who completed evaluation after treatment, 21 were eradicated, and 2 failed eradication. After a median of seven months following eradication, six hormones related to energy homeostasis showed no significant differences, but post-prandial acylated ghrelin levels were nearly six-fold higher than pre-eradication (p = 0.005), and median integrated leptin levels also increased (20%) significantly (p < 0.001). BMI significantly increased (5 ± 2%; p = 0.008) over 18 months in the initially H. pylori-positive individuals, but was not significantly changed in those who were H. pylori-negative or indeterminant at baseline.
Circulating meal-associated leptin and ghrelin levels and BMI changed significantly after H. pylori eradication, providing direct evidence that H. pylori colonization is involved in ghrelin and leptin regulation, with consequent effects on body morphometry.
With the ability to fully sequence tumor genomes/exomes, the quest for cancer driver genes can now be undertaken in an unbiased manner. However, obtaining a complete catalog of cancer genes is difficult due to the heterogeneous molecular nature of the disease and the limitations of available computational methods. Here we show that the combination of complementary methods allows identifying a comprehensive and reliable list of cancer driver genes. We provide a list of 291 high-confidence cancer driver genes acting on 3,205 tumors from 12 different cancer types. Among those genes, some have not been previously identified as cancer drivers and 16 have clear preference to sustain mutations in one specific tumor type. The novel driver candidates complement our current picture of the emergence of these diseases. In summary, the catalog of driver genes and the methodology presented here open new avenues to better understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis.
Immediate-early 3 (IE3) gene products are required to activate early (E)-stage gene expression of murine cytomegaloviruses (MCMV). The first early gene activated by IE3 is the M112-113 gene (also called E1), although a complete understanding of the activation mechanism is still lacking. In this paper, we identify a 10-bp cis-regulating motif upstream of the M112-113 TATA box as important for IE3 activation of M112-113 expression. Results from DNA affinity assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the association of IE3 with the M112-113 gene promoter was eliminated by deletion of the 10-bp DNA sequence, now named IE3AM (for IE3 activating motif). In addition, IE3 interacts with TATA box binding protein (TBP), a core protein of TFIID (transcription initiation) complexes. Finally, we created an IE3AM-deleted MCMV (MCMVdIE3AM) using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. The mutant virus can still replicate in NIH 3T3 cells but at a significantly lower level. The defectiveness of the MCMVdIE3AM infection can be rescued in an M112-113-complemented cell line. Our results suggest that the interactions of IE3 with IE3AM and with TBP stabilize the TFIID complex at the M112-113 promoter such that M112-113 gene expression can be activated and/or enhanced.
We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB.
Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays.
Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p<0.001). Median leptin levels decreased from 19.7 ng/ml at baseline to 6.9 ng/ml at 12 months post-surgery (p<0.001). In contrast, plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin, PP, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, gastrin, and pepsinogen I did not change in relation to surgery (p>0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months.
LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term.
Obesity; Weight loss; Bariatric surgery; Adjustable gastric banding; Ghrelin; Leptin; GIP; GLP-1
Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Klatskin tumor; Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma; Bile duct cancer
The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Western populations has steadily decreased. This has been suggested as one of the factors involved in the recent increase of asthma and allergy. Some studies have reported a negative association between H.pylori and asthma and allergy, but data are inconsistent and there are a few studies in children.
We investigated whether the prevalence of H.pylori was associated with asthma symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in childhood.
We determined IgG anti-H.pylori and CagA antibodies in serum of Dutch children, who took part in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Serum was collected from 545 children, aged 7–9 yrs (Dutch ethnicity 91.5%). Symptoms of asthma and atopy were assessed by yearly questionnaires. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used.
We found 9% H.pylori and 0.9% CagA seropositivity. Twelve (5.9%) children with reported wheezing ever were H.pylori positive, compared to 37 (10.9%) of the non-wheezers (p=0.05). No significant differences in H.pylori prevalence were found between children with or without allergic rhinitis (8.5% vs. 9.5%), atopic dermatitis (8.7% vs. 9.2%), and physician-diagnosed asthma (7.1% vs. 9.4%). Multivariate analysis showed no significant associations between H.pylori seropositivity and wheezing (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.25–1.06), allergic rhinitis (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.51–1.81), atopic dermatitis (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.56–1.98) or physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.37–2.08).
We found a borderline significantly lower H.pylori seropositivity in children with wheezing compared to non-wheezers, but no association between H.pylori serum-antibody status and allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, or asthma.
Helicobacter pylori; children; asthma; wheezing; atopy; disappearing microbiota hypothesis
Previous evidence supports the important role that oxidative stress (OxS) plays in metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related manifestations. We determined the relationship between the number of MetS components and the degree of OxS in MetS patients. In this comparative cross-sectional study from the LIPGENE cohort, a total of 91 MetS patients (43 men and 48 women; aged between 45 and 68 years) were divided into four groups based on the number of MetS components: subjects with 2, 3, 4 and 5 MetS components (n=20, 31, 28 and 12, respectively). We measured ischemic reactive hyperemia (IRH), plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), total nitrite, lipid peroxidation products (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) plasma activities. sVCAM-1, H2O2 and LPO levels were lower in subjects with 2 or 3 MetS components than subjects with 4 or 5 MetS components. IRH and total nitrite levels were higher in subjects with 2 or 3 MetS components than subjects with 4 or 5 MetS components. SOD and GPx activities were lower in subjects with 2 MetS components than subjects with 4 or 5 MetS components. Waist circumference, weight, age, homeostatic model assessment-β, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly correlated with SOD activity. MetS subjects with more MetS components may have a higher OxS level. Furthermore, association between SOD activity and MetS components may indicate that this variable could be the most relevant OxS biomarker in patients suffering from MetS and could be used as a predictive tool to determine the degree of the underlying OxS in MetS.
cardiovascular risk factors; endothelial dysfunction; LIPGENE study; metabolic syndrome; oxidative stress; redox state
Glucocorticoids commonly cause drug-induced diabetes. This association is well recognized but available evidence does not answer clinically relevant issues in subjects without diabetes.
Thirty-five individuals without diabetes with a recent diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma on high-dose glucocorticoid therapy were studied. Close systematic monitoring of fasting and postprandial glycemia and fasting insulin determinations, HOMA-insulin resistance and HOMA β-cell function were performed. The primary objective was to define the incidence of secondary diabetes in patients treated with high-dose glucocorticoids. Secondary objectives were to specify the intensity, the moment it appears and the evolution of hyperglycemia, in addition to the risk factors, mechanisms and impact of continuous and cyclical glucocorticoids on the development of hyperglycemia.
Mean age of patients was 38.4 ± 18.7 years. The incidence of diabetes was 40.6% and was found after the first week; half the time it occurred between the second and fourth. Two-thirds spontaneously normalized by eight weeks. Continuous glucocorticoid administration had a higher incidence of fasting hyperglycemia (P = 0.003). Mean peak insulin levels were significantly higher in cases of diabetes.
High-dose prednisone for 2 to 3 months produced an elevated incidence of diabetes, usually with mild hyperglycemia occurring between the second and fourth week, normalizing spontaneously in all cases. Hyperglycemia was more frequent with continuous doses and occurred in cases with increased insulin resistance. The clinical and therapeutic characteristics of our participants, who were otherwise healthy, could represent the clinical setting of many patients with illness from other medical areas that might require high doses of GC for six to twelve weeks.
Diabetes; Secondary diabetes; Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes; Glucocorticoid; Hyperglycemia; Drug-induced diabetes
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is a powerful antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. We explored whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial oxidative DNA damage and whether supplementation with CoQ improves antioxidant capacity by modifying the activation/stabilization of p53 in elderly subjects. In this crossover study, 20 subjects were randomly assigned to receive three isocaloric diets during 4 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), (2) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). Levels of mRNAs were determined for p53, p21, p53R2, and mdm2. Protein levels of p53, phosphorylated p53 (Ser20), and monoubiquitinated p53 were also measured, both in cytoplasm and nucleus. The extent of DNA damage was measured as plasma 8-OHdG. SFA diet displayed higher postprandial 8-OHdG concentrations, p53 mRNA and monoubiquitinated p53, and lower postprandial Mdm2 mRNA levels compared with Med and Med+CoQ diets (p < 0.05). Moreover, Med+CoQ diet induced a postprandial decrease of cytoplasmatic p53, nuclear p-p53 (Ser20), and nuclear and cytoplasmatic monoubiquitinated p53 protein (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Med+CoQ diet improves oxidative DNA damage in elderly subjects and reduces processes of cellular oxidation. Our results suggest a starting point for the prevention of oxidative processes associated with aging.
Aging; Coenzyme Q10; p53; Oxidative stress; DNA damage
Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precancerous lesions including intestinal metaplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis on the basis of standard biopsy review. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on oral health behaviors. A comprehensive clinical oral health examination was performed on a subset of 91 patients to evaluate for periodontal disease and dental caries experience. A total of 41 (31%) cases of gastric precancerous lesions were identified. Compared with non-cases, cases were significantly more likely to not floss their teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–7.64], adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, educational attainment and Helicobacter pylori status in serum. Among participants who completed the oral examination, cases (n = 28) were more likely to have a higher percentage of sites with gingival bleeding than non-cases [OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37–5.05 for a standard deviation increase in bleeding sites (equivalent to 19.7%)], independent of potential confounders. Our findings demonstrate that specific oral health conditions and behaviors such as gingival bleeding and tooth flossing are associated with gastric precancerous lesions.
Pandemic type A (H1N1) influenza arose in early 2009, probably in Mexico and the United States, and reappeared in North America in September for seven more months. An amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA), D222G, has been reported in a significant proportion of patients with a severe and fatal outcome. We studied the prevalence of HA222 substitutions in patients in Mexico during the second wave and its association with clinical outcome and pathogenicity in a mouse model.
The nucleotide sequences of hemagglutinin (HA) from viruses collected from 77 patients were determined including 50 severe and fatal cases and 27 ambulatory cases. Deep sequencing was done on 5 samples from severe or fatal cases in order to determine the quasispecies proportion. Weight loss and mortality due to infection with cultured influenza viruses were analyzed in a mouse model.
Viruses from 14 out of 50 hospitalized patients (28%) had a non aspartic acid residue at the HA 222 position (nD222), while all 27 ambulatory patients had D222 (p = 0.0014). G222 was detected as sole species or in coexistence with N222 and D222 in 12 patients with severe disease including 8 who died. N222 in coexistence with D222 was detected in 1 patient who died and co-occurrence of A222 and V222, together with D222, was detected in another patient who died. The patients with a nD222 residue had higher mortality (71.4%), compared to the group with only D222 (22.2%, p = 0.0008). Four of the 14 viruses from hospitalized patients were cultured and intranasally infected into mice. Two viruses with G222 were lethal while a third virus, with G222, caused only mild illness in mice similar to the fourth virus that contained D222.
We confirm the elevated incidence of HA222 (H1N1)pdm09 variants in severe disease and mortality. Both clinical and mouse infection data support the idea that nD222 mutations contribute to increased severity of disease but additional determinants in disease outcome may be present.
We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87–2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67–1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83–2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13–5.56) among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD≥3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43–1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03–0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.
Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.
Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial cellular oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) lowers postprandial oxidative stress in an elderly population. In this randomized crossover study, 20 participants were assigned to receive three isocaloric diets for periods of 4 week each: (1) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), (2) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). After a 12-h fast, the volunteers consumed a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets. CoQ, lipid peroxides (LPO), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), protein carbonyl (PC), total nitrite, nitrotyrosine plasma levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and ischemic reactive hyperaemia (IRH) were determined. Med diet produced a lower postprandial GPx activity and a lower decrease in total nitrite level compared to the SFA diet. Med and Med+CoQ diets induced a higher postprandial increase in IRH and a lower postprandial LPO, oxLDL, and nitrotyrosine plasma levels than the SFA diet. Moreover, the Med+CoQ diet produced a lower postprandial decrease in total nitrite and a greater decrease in PC levels compared to the other two diets and lower SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the SFA diet.
In conclusion, Med diet reduces postprandial oxidative stress by reducing processes of cellular oxidation and increases the action of the antioxidant system in elderly persons and the administration of CoQ further improves this redox balance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9199-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Aging; Mediterranean diet; Coenzyme Q10; Oxidative stress; Postprandial phase
Helicobacter pylori is a persistent colonizer of the human gastric mucosa, which can lead to the development peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinomas. However, H. pylori can asymptomatically colonize a host for years. One factor that has been hypothesized to contribute to such persistence is the production of Lewis (Le) antigens in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the bacterial outer membrane as a form of molecular mimicry, since humans also express these antigens on their gastric mucosa. Humans and H. pylori both are polymorphic for Le expression, which is driven in H. pylori by variation at the Le synthesis loci. In this report we sought to characterize Le genotypic and phenotypic variation in geographically diverse H. pylori isolates.
Materials and Methods
From patients undergoing endoscopy in 29 countries, we determined Le phenotypes of 78 H. pylori strains, and performed genotyping of the galT and β-(1,3)galT loci in 113 H. pylori strains.
Le antigen phenotyping revealed a significant (p <0.0001) association between type 1 (Lea and Leb) expression and strains of East-Asian origin. Genotyping revealed a significant correlation between strain origin and the size of the promoter region upstream of the Le synthesis gene, galT (p <0.0001).
These results indicate that the heterogeneity of human Le phenotypes are reflected in their H. pylori colonizing strains, and suggest new loci that can be studied to assess variation of Le expression.
In 1999, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) using antiretrovirals was introduced in the Dominican Republic (DR). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced for immunosuppressed persons in 2004 and for pMTCT in 2008. To assess progress towards MTCT elimination, data from requisitions for HIV nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of HIV infection in perinatally exposed infants born in the DR from 1999 to 2011 were analyzed. The MTCT rate was 142/1,274 (11.1%) in 1999–2008 and 12/302 (4.0%) in 2009–2011 (P < .001), with a rate of 154/1,576 (9.8%) for both periods combined. This decline was associated with significant increases in the proportions of women who received prenatal HAART (from 12.3% to 67.9%) and infants who received exclusive formula feeding (from 76.3% to 86.1%) and declines in proportions of women who received no prenatal antiretrovirals (from 31.9% to 12.2%) or received only single-dose nevirapine (from 39.5% to 19.5%). In 2007, over 95% of DR pregnant women received prenatal care, HIV testing, and professionally attended delivery. However, only 58% of women in underserved sugarcane plantation communities (2007) and 76% in HIV sentinel surveillance hospitals (2003–2005) received their HIV test results. HIV-MTCT elimination is feasible but persistent lack of access to critical pMTCT measures must be addressed.
A key interest in clinical diagnosis and pharmaceutical industry is to have a repertoire of noninvasive biomarkers to—individually or in combination—be able to infer or predict the degree of liver injury caused by pathological conditions or drugs. Metabolomics—a comprehensive study of global metabolites—has become a highly sensitive and powerful tool for biomarker discovery thanks to recent technological advances. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOF MS/MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to investigate sera from galactosamine-treated rats to find potential biomarkers for acute liver injury. Hepatic damage was quantified by determining serum transaminase activity and in situ liver histological lesions. Principal component analysis in combination with coefficient of correlation analysis was used for biomarker selection and identification. According to the data, serum levels of several metabolites including glucose, amino acids, and membrane lipids were significantly modified, some of them showing a high correlation with the degree of liver damage determined by histological examination of the livers. In conclusion, this study supports that UPLC-MS/MS based serum metabolomics in experimental animal models could be a powerful approach to search for biomarkers for drug- or disease-induced liver injury.
Galactosamine; Hepatotoxicity; Acute-liver injury; DILI; Biomarkers; Serum metabolic profiling; UPLC-MS/MS metabolomics
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined over recent decades in developed countries. The increasing prevalence with age is largely due to a birth-cohort effect. We previously observed a decline in H. pylori prevalence in 6- to 8-year old Dutch children from 19% in 1978 to 9% in 1993. Knowledge about birth-cohort-related H. pylori prevalence is relevant as a predictor for the future incidence of H. pylori-associated conditions.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the birth-cohort effect of H. pylori observed between 1978 and 1993 continued in subsequent years.
Anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies were determined in serum samples obtained in 2005/2006 from 545 Dutch children aged 7–9 years who participated in the PIAMA birth cohort. The H. pylori and CagA antibodies were determined by ELISAs that have been extensively validated in children, with a 94% sensitivity for Hp colonization and a 92.5% sensitivity for colonization with a cagA-positive strain.
Of the 545 children (M/F 300/245), most (91.5%) were of Dutch descent. The H. pylori positivity rate was 9% (95% CI 6.6–11.4%). The prevalence of CagA antibodies was 0.9% (95% CI 0.1–1.6%). No significant differences were demonstrated in H. pylori and cagA prevalence in relation to gender or ethnicity.
The prevalence of H. pylori in childhood has remained stable in the Netherlands from 1993 to 2005, suggesting a stabilization of the previously decreasing trend in subsequent birth cohorts. This finding may reflect stabilization in determinants such as family size, housing, and hygienic conditions (or offset by day care). If confirmed in other populations in developed countries, it implies that colonization with H. pylori will remain common in the coming decades. Remarkably however, the rate of colonization with cagA+ H. pylori strains has become very low, consistent with prior observations that cagA+ strains are disappearing in Western countries.
Helicobacter pylori infection; epidemiology; cagA; birth cohort effect
Bone xanthomas are rare and are usually are associated with endocrine or metabolic diseases, mainly lipid disorders. In the absence of systemic diseases, the lesion is called a primary xanthoma. Primary mandibular xanthomas are extremely rare. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical and radiographic findings of a primary mandibular xanthoma, discussing the epidemiological features, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis. A 25-year-old man was referred for evaluation of a left mandibular lesion detected in a routine radiographic exam. Radiographically, there was a diffuse, unilocular and radiolucent lesion, with irregular margins located adjacent to the surface from the distal root of the left mandibular third molar. The lesion was excised under local anaesthesia. Microscopically, there were several cells with a foamy and granular cytoplasm and central small, round nuclei, similar to xanthomatous macrophages. No lipid disorders were diagnosed. According to these features, the diagnosis of primary mandibular xanthoma was established. In conclusion, xanthomas of the jaws are rare and all seem to be primary and occur exclusively in the mandible.
jaws; mandible; xanthoma
The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei). Helicobacter spp. DNA was widely distributed in gastric and oral samples from both captive and wild cetaceans. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two Helicobacter sequence clusters, one closely related to H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales in North America. The second related cluster was to sequences obtained from dolphins in Australia and to gastric non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters, and may represent a novel taxonomic group. Dental plaque sequences from four dolphins formed a third cluster within the Campylobacter genus that likely represents a novel species isolated from marine mammals. Identification of identical Helicobacter spp. DNA sequences from dental plaque, saliva and gastric fluids from the same hosts, suggests that the oral cavity may be involved in transmission. These results demonstrate that Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are commonly distributed in marine mammals, and identify taxonomic clusters that may represent novel species.
Helicobacter; Campylobacter; marine mammals; cetaceans; gastritis
Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys.
Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed.
An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans.
Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to study effects of these two important human mucosal bacteria on a population.
Helicobacter pylori; Campylobacter jejuni; Rhesus macaques; Antibodies; Sero-prevalence; CagA
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported as causal agents of nosocomial infection worldwide. Resistance patterns vary internationally, and even locally, from one institution to the other. We investigated the clinical isolates positive for ESBL-producing bacteria in our institution, a tertiary care hospital in Madrid (Spain), during a 2-year period (2007–2008).
Clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study.
Advanced age, diabetes, use of catheters, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic treatment were some of the risk factors found among patients. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, and urinary tract the most common site of isolation. Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and General Surgery presented the highest number of isolates. There were no outbreaks during the study period. Antibiotic patterns showed high resistance rates to quinolones in all isolates. There was 100% sensitivity to carbapenems.
Carbapenems continue to be the treatment of choice for ESBL-producing bacteria. Infection control measures are of great importance to avoid the spread of these nosocomial infections.
extended spectrum beta-lactamases; ESBL; Enterobacteriaceae; institutional epidemiology; nosocomial infection; antimicrobial resistance