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1.  Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis specific Immunoglobulin G antibody levels among asymptomatic individuals aged 4 to 24 years: a descriptive cross sectional study from Sri Lanka 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2016;16:729.
Background
In Sri Lanka pertussis continues to circulate in the community and cases among adolescents and adults have been reported despite 95% coverage of the four dose pertussis vaccination during early childhood. Waning of immunity following natural infection or immunization may contribute to the persistent circulation. An adolescent booster dose is not included in the national immunization schedule of Sri Lanka, although this is routine practice in many countries. Therefore information on immunity to pertussis in the adolescent group is needed prior to considering vaccination schedule changes.
Methods
The quantitative determination of specific Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Bordetella pertussis toxin was done using a commercially available validated ELISA method. The antibody values were categorized into groups according to the interpretive criteria provided by the manufacturer. The values were <55 IU/mL, negative; 55–<60 IU/mL, borderline; 60–125 IU/mL, positive; >125, strongly positive respectively. Sera of 385 asymptomatic individuals aged 4 to 24 years admitted to surgical units of Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo and Colombo South Teaching Hospital were used for the study. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in analysis of results and p ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Details of epidemiological variables were collected using a questionnaire and correlation with significant levels of pertussis antibodies was determined.
Results
Median age of the study population was 12 years with 212 (55.1%) females. The median anti PT antibody level was 3.31 IU/mL and 352 (91%) had anti PT levels ≤55 IU/mL. Median of anti PT levels were 3.18 IU/mL for 4–7 years, 1.43 IU/mL (IQR 0.336–6.27) for 8–11 years, 4.28 IU/mL (IQR 0.978–13.39) for 12–15 years, 6.14 IU/mL for 16–19 years and 4.89 IU/mL for 20–24 years and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Females (p < 0.003) and those having a sibling aged ≥12 years (p = 0.017) had significantly higher anti PT levels.
Conclusions
The majority of the study population, especially 8 to 11 year age group had low anti PT IgG levels. The higher antibody titers in the 12–15 year age group seem to indicate infection in early adolescence. A booster dose of acellular pertussis vaccine need to be considered.
doi:10.1186/s12879-016-2068-z
PMCID: PMC5133742  PMID: 27905894
Pertussis; Sero-prevalence following childhood vaccination; Waning immunity; Adolescent booster dose
2.  Role Models and Teachers: medical students perception of teaching-learning methods in clinical settings, a qualitative study from Sri Lanka 
BMC Medical Education  2016;16:52.
Background
Medical education research in general, and those focusing on clinical settings in particular, have been a low priority in South Asia. This explorative study from 3 medical schools in Sri Lanka, a South Asian country, describes undergraduate medical students’ experiences during their final year clinical training with the aim of understanding the teaching-learning experiences.
Methods
Using qualitative methods we conducted an exploratory study. Twenty eight graduates from 3 medical schools participated in individual interviews. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis method.
Results
Emergent themes reveled 2 types of teaching-learning experiences, role modeling, and purposive teaching. In role modelling, students were expected to observe teachers while they conduct their clinical work, however, this method failed to create positive learning experiences. The clinical teachers who predominantly used this method appeared to be ‘figurative’ role models and were not perceived as modelling professional behaviors. In contrast, purposeful teaching allowed dedicated time for teacher-student interactions and teachers who created these learning experiences were more likely to be seen as ‘true’ role models. Students’ responses and reciprocations to these interactions were influenced by their perception of teachers’ behaviors, attitudes, and the type of teaching-learning situations created for them.
Conclusions
Making a distinction between role modeling and purposeful teaching is important for students in clinical training settings. Clinical teachers’ awareness of their own manifest professional characterizes, attitudes, and behaviors, could help create better teaching-learning experiences. Moreover, broader systemic reforms are needed to address the prevailing culture of teaching by humiliation and subordination.
doi:10.1186/s12909-016-0576-6
PMCID: PMC4746782  PMID: 26861676
Clinical teaching; Role modeling; Medical education; Asia; Sri Lanka
3.  Descriptive cross sectional study on prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with stress urinary incontinence 
BMC Women's Health  2014;14:78.
Background
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) leads to considerable physical and psychological morbidity. The highest prevalence reported was found in Caucasian Americans (range 23% -67%) and the lowest in Singaporean females (4.8%). The study assessed the prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with SUI in an Asian setting which may have different sociocultural implications.
Methods
400 consecutive women >20 years of age attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, for non-urinary conditions were studied over a 3 week period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. SUI was diagnosed on clinical history alone when leakage of urine occurred either with coughing, sneezing, walking or lifting heavy objects. The severity was graded using the Finnish Gynaecological Society’s Urinary Incontinence Severity Score (UISS). Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis.
Results
Ninety three (23.33%) had SUI and only 12 (12.9%) had sought treatment. The prevalence among women >50 years of age was 34.71% ( n = 121) compared to 18.28% (n = 279) in those ≤50 years. 25 (26.88%) had mild SUI, 66 (70.97%) moderate and 2 (2.15%) severe as per UISS. SUI was perceived as an illness by 210 (52.5%). SUI was significantly associated with pregnancy, parity, vaginal delivery, complicated labour, diabetes mellitus, chronic cough, constipation and faecal incontinence (p < 0.05).
Among those affected main reasons for not seeking medical advice included; being embarrassed (n = 27, 33.33%), not knowing that it is remediable (n = 23, 28.40%), perceiving SUI to be a normal consequence of childbirth (n = 19, 23.46%) and having to attend to needs of the family (n = 12, 14.81%). None who had been pregnant (n = 313) had received advice on postnatal pelvic floor exercises. SUI interfered with social activities (71;76.34%), sexual function (21; 22.58%) and resulted in despair (67; 72.09%). It was associated with clinically diagnosed candidiasis (50; 53.76%) and soreness in the perineal region (49; 52.69%).
Conclusions
SUI is a common and neglected gynaecological problem with poor healthcare seeking behaviour. Community based education may help to minimize the occurrence and improve the quality of life of those affected.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-14-78
PMCID: PMC4094634  PMID: 24985068
Stress urinary incontinence; Prevalence; Risk factors; Health seeking behaviour
4.  The manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of rifampicin resistance of M. Tuberculosis in low resource settings 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:326.
Background
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of poverty that contributes significantly to ill-health in developing countries. Drug resistant TB is a major challenge to disease control. Early diagnosis and rapid determination of drug sensitivity is of paramount importance in eradication of TB. Although automated liquid culture based methods are available for rapid detection of drug resistance, the high cost of these tests prevent them from being used routinely in low resource settings. This study compares two phenotypic methods, the manual Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and the Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA) in liquid medium, with the agar proportion method (APM), the gold standard for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Methodology
Fourteen day old M. tuberculosis strains (n=373) grown on solid media were used for drug susceptibility testing by APM, NRA and the manual MGIT method. Rifampicin free and rifampicin incorporated (final concentration, 1 μg/ml) media were inoculated with the recommended concentrations of mycobacterial suspensions and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2. In the APM, the proportion of colonies in the drug containing medium was determined. In the NRA, the colour change in the medium was compared with a standard colour series after day 6 and day 12 of incubation. Growth in the MGIT was detected using the manual MGIT reader from day 2 onwards. The 2 methods were compared with the gold standard, APM to determine sensitivity and specificity and agreement between the methods was calculated using kappa statistics.
Results
Thirty one (31) rifampicin resistant isolates were identified. When compared with the APM, the sensitivity of detection of rifampicin resistance was 85% for the NRA and 93% for the manual MGIT and the specificity was 99% and 100% respectively. Both assays, NRA (κ=0.86) and manual MGIT method (κ= 0.94) were in excellent agreement with the APM. The mean turnaround time for manual MGIT method and NRA were 08 days and 10 days respectively.
Conclusion
The NRA in liquid medium and manual MGIT are useful alternatives to APM for drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis in low resource settings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-326
PMCID: PMC3538674  PMID: 23186045
Drug resistant tuberculosis; Determination of drug sensitivity; Manual MGIT; NRA in liquid medium; Agar proportion method
5.  Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study 
Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05658-11
PMCID: PMC3294909  PMID: 22232285
6.  DENGUE VIRAL INFECTIONS 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2010;55(1):68-78.
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.
doi:10.4103/0019-5154.60357
PMCID: PMC2856379  PMID: 20418983
Dengue; epidemiology; clinical features; treatment
7.  High Rate of Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone among Nontyphoid Salmonella Clinical Isolates in Asia▿  
This multinational study from Asia revealed that reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.125 to 1 μg/ml) in nontyphoid Salmonella isolates was common in Taiwan (48.1%) and Thailand (46.2%) and in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis (68.8%) and S. Virchow (75.0%) from all countries. Reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC, 2 to 8 μg/ml) remained uncommon in Asia, except in Taiwan (38.0%) or in S. Typhimurium (25.0%) from all countries.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01297-08
PMCID: PMC2687261  PMID: 19332677
8.  Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance 
Background
Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs) for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs.
Methods
SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a) self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b) peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs.
Results
The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the pre-training scores. The degree of improvement in the quality of feedback provided to students was more when compared to the improvement of role play. The acceptability of the training by the SPs was very satisfactory scoring an average of 7.6 out of 10. The majority of the SPs requested the new method of training to be included in their current training programme as a regular feature.
Conclusion
Use of structured self-reflective and peer-interactive, practice based methods of SP training is recommended to improve SP performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-37
PMCID: PMC2711071  PMID: 19563621
9.  Fever epidemic moves into Sri Lanka 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;333(7580):1220-1221.
doi:10.1136/bmj.39051.725729.3A
PMCID: PMC1693648  PMID: 17158394
10.  High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asia (an ANSORP Study) 
A total of 685 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumococcal diseases were collected from 14 centers in 11 Asian countries from January 2000 to June 2001. The in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution test. Among the isolates tested, 483 (52.4%) were not susceptible to penicillin, 23% were intermediate, and 29.4% were penicillin resistant (MICs ≥ 2 mg/liter). Isolates from Vietnam showed the highest prevalence of penicillin resistance (71.4%), followed by those from Korea (54.8%), Hong Kong (43.2%), and Taiwan (38.6%). The penicillin MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) were 4 mg/liter among isolates from Vietnam, Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was also very high in Vietnam (92.1%), Taiwan (86%), Korea (80.6%), Hong Kong (76.8%), and China (73.9%). The MIC90s of erythromycin were >32 mg/liter among isolates from Korea, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. Isolates from Hong Kong showed the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance (11.8%), followed by isolates from Sri Lanka (9.5%), the Philippines (9.1%), and Korea (6.5%). Multilocus sequence typing showed that the spread of the Taiwan19F clone and the Spain23F clone could be one of the major reasons for the rapid increases in antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in Asia. Data from the multinational surveillance study clearly documented distinctive increases in the prevalence rates and the levels of antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in many Asian countries, which are among the highest in the world published to date.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.6.2101-2107.2004
PMCID: PMC415617  PMID: 15155207

Results 1-10 (10)