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Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied statistics (1)
Huang, Y. (2)
Pepe, M. S. (2)
Year of Publication
Semiparametric methods for evaluating the covariate-specific predictiveness of continuous markers in matched case-control studies
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied statistics
To assess the value of a continuous marker in predicting the risk of a disease, a graphical tool called the predictiveness curve has been proposed. It characterizes the marker’s predictiveness, or capacity to risk stratify the population by displaying the distribution of risk endowed by the marker. Methods for making inference about the curve and for comparing curves in a general population have been developed. However, knowledge about a marker’s performance in the general population only is not enough. Since a marker’s effect on the risk model and its distribution can both differ across subpopulations, its predictiveness may vary when applied to different subpopulations. Moreover, information about the predictiveness of a marker conditional on baseline covariates is valuable for individual decision making about having the marker measured or not. Therefore, to fully realize the usefulness of a risk prediction marker, it is important to study its performance conditional on covariates. In this article, we propose semiparametric methods for estimating covariate-specific predictiveness curves for a continuous marker. Unmatched and matched case-control study designs are accommodated. We illustrate application of the methodology by evaluating serum creatinine as a predictor of risk of renal artery stenosis.
A parametric ROC model based approach for evaluating the predictiveness of continuous markers in case-control studies
The predictiveness curve shows the population distribution of risk endowed by a marker or risk prediction model. It provides a means for assessing the model’s capacity for stratifying the population according to risk. Methods for making inference about the predictiveness curve have been developed using cross-sectional or cohort data. Here we consider inference based on case-control studies which are far more common in practice. We investigate the relationship between the ROC curve and the predictiveness curve. Insights about their relationship provide alternative ROC interpretations for the predictiveness curve and for a previously proposed summary index of it. Next the relationship motivates ROC based methods for estimating the predictiveness curve. An important advantage of these methods over previously proposed methods is that they are rank invariant. In addition they provide a way of combining information across populations that have similar ROC curves but varying prevalence of the outcome. We apply the methods to PSA, a marker for predicting risk of prostate cancer.
biomarker; classification; predictiveness curve; risk prediction; ROC curve; total gain
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