Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease worldwide. However, nasal TB is quite rare, and the diagnosis of nasal TB requires a high index of suspicion. The most common symptoms of this unusual presentation are nasal obstruction and nasal discharge. We present a case of nasal TB with involvement of the hard palate presenting with a chronically progressive nasal deformity and ulceration of the hard palate. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and medication for TB was started and the lesions resolved. When a patient presents with chronic ulcerative lesions that do not respond to antibiotic treatment, TB should be included in the differential diagnosis. Biopsy of the lesion can aid in the confirmation of the diagnosis.
Tuberculosis; Chondritis; Nose; Deformity
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is the Staphylococcal infections in blood, one of the most common and fatal bacterial infectious diseases worldwide in adults as well as children or neonates. Recently, some studies have yielded inconsistent findings about the association between methicillin-resistance and mortality in patients with SAB. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in children or neonates with S. aureus bacteremia.
Materials and Methods
We searched using electronic databases such as Ovid-Medline, EMBASE-Medline, and Cochrane Library, as well as five local databases for published studies during the period of 1 January 2000 to 15 September 2011. Two reviewers independently selected articles in accordance with predetermined criteria and extracted prespecified data based on standardized forms. All cohort studies, which compared in-hospital mortality or SAB-related mortality in children and neonates with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection to those with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were included. We conducted meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model to obtain pooled estimates of effect.
Of 2,841 screened studies, seven cohort studies were finally selected for analysis. In children or neonates, MRSA bacteremia was associated with a higher mortality compared with MSSA bacteremia (pooled odds ratio [OR] 2.33, P = 0.0008, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42 to 3.82, I2 = 0%). Four studies reported SAB-related mortality, the pooled OR of these studies was 2.03 (P = 0.29, 95% CI 0.55 to 7.53, I2 = 0%). A significant increase in mortality associated with methicillin resistance was found in the subgroup analyses of the studies with only neonates (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.46 to 4.85, P = 0.001), prospectively design ones (OR: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.66 to 6.15, P = 0.0005,), the larger studies (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.62 to 5.16, P = 0.0003) and the higher quality studies (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.50 to 5.06, P = 0.001).
MRSA bacteremia is associated with increased mortality compared with MSSA bacteremia in children or neonates. Due to limited studies for mortality in children or neonates with SAB, further research is needed to evaluate the impact of methicillin resistance on mortality in those populations.
Staphylococcus aureus; Bacteremia; Methicillin Resistance; Mortality; Meta-analysis
We describe the first reported case of endocarditis due to Neisseria skkuensis. The organism from the blood cultures taken on admission day was identified initially as unidentified Gram-negative cocci by Vitek2. Finally, it was identified as Neisseria skkuensis by 16 rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Candida species are the leading causes of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients and are responsible for major economic burdens. The goals of this study were to estimate the costs directly associated with the treatment of candidemia and factors associated with increased costs, as well as the impact of first-line antifungal agents on the outcomes and costs. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 199 patients from four university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in Korea over 1 year. Only costs attributable to the treatment of candidemia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization during treatment. Risk factors for increased costs, treatment outcome, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were analyzed. Approximately 65% of the patients were treated with fluconazole, and 28% were treated with conventional amphotericin B. The overall treatment success rate was 52.8%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 47.9%. Hematologic malignancy, need for mechanical ventilation, and treatment failure of first-line antifungal agents were independent risk factors for mortality. The mean total cost for the treatment of candidemia was $4,743 per patient. Intensive care unit stay at candidemia onset and antifungal switch to second-line agents were independent risk factors for increased costs. The LOS was also significantly longer in patients who switched antifungal agents to second-line drugs. Antifungal switch to second-line agents for any reasons was the only modifiable risk factor of increased costs and LOS. Choosing an appropriate first-line antifungal agent is crucial for better outcomes and reduced hospital costs of candidemia.
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is characterized by persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, an unusual pattern of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies, detection of the EBV genome in affected tissues or peripheral blood, and chronic illness that cannot be attributed to any other known disease. This is the first reported Korean case of an immunocompetent adult with CAEBV-associated interstitial pneumonitis. A 28-year-old female was admitted with a fever that persisted for 3 weeks. She had multiple lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels. Serology for antibodies was positive and chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. Histopathology of the lung tissue showed lymphocyte infiltration, and EBV DNA was detected in those lymphocytes using in situ hybridization with an EBV-encoded RNA probe. After 1 month of hospitalization, she improved without specific treatment.
Epstein-Barr virus infection; Immunocompetence; Lung diseases; Interstitial pneumonitis
We describe here the first case of a concurrent brain abscess caused by Norcardia spp. and semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. After one year of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgical drainage of the brain abscess, the nocardia brain abscess and pulmonary aspergillosis have resolved.
Brain nocardiosis; Semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; Immunocompetent
Candidaemia associated with intravascular catheter-associated infections is of great concern due to the resulting high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic lock technique (ALT) was previously introduced to treat catheter-associated bacterial infections without removal of catheter. So far, the efficacy of ALT against Candida infections has not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated in vitro activity of ALT against Candida biofilms formed by C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis using five antifungal agents (caspofungin, amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole). The effectiveness of antifungal treatment was assayed by monitoring viable cell counts after exposure to 1 mg/mL solutions of each antibiotic. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole eliminated detectable viability in the biofilms of all Candida species within 7, 10, and 14 days, respectively, while caspofungin and amphotericin B did not completely kill fungi in C. albicans and C. glabrata biofilms within 14 days. For C. tropicalis biofilm, caspofungin lock achieved eradication more rapidly than amphotericin B and three azoles. Our study suggests that azoles may be useful ALT agents in the treatment of catheter-related candidemia.
Candida; Biofilms; Antibiotic Lock Technique
Nocardia farcinica is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. Even though several species of Nocardia have been reported as causative pathogens of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI), CRBSI caused by N. farcinica has not been reported. A 70-yr-old man with a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) for home parenteral nutrition was admitted with fever for two days. Norcardia species was isolated from the blood through CVC and peripheral bloods and identified to N. farcinica by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses. This report emphasizes the rapid and correct identification of causative agents in infectious diseases in the selection of antimicrobial agents and the consideration of catheter removal.
Nocardia farcinica; Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection (CRBSI); rpoB
The increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become of great concern in both hospital and community settings. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, blood isolates in our Emergency Department (ED) were collected. All patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) who presented to the ED from January 2000 to August 2005 were included, and a retrospective study was performed. A total of 231 patients with SAB were enrolled (median age, 59 yr; M:F, 125:106). Among these patients, methicillin-resistant strains accounted for 27.3% (63 patients). Catheter-related infection was the most frequent primary site of SAB (39.0%), followed by skin and soft tissue infection (16.5%). In multivariate analysis, recent surgery (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.48-7.85), recent hospitalization (2.17; 1.06-4.62), and older age (≥61 yr) (2.39; 1.25-4.57) were independently associated with the acquisition of methicillin-resistant strains. When antimicrobial therapy is considered for the treatment of a patient with suspected SAB, clinicians should consider obtaining cultures and modifying empirical therapy to provide MRSA coverage for patients with risk factors: older age, recent hospitalization, and recent surgery.
Staphylococcus aureus; Community-acquired Infections; Methicillin Resistance; Risk Factors
We report a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from Ochrobactrum anthropi. O. anthropi is recognized as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to most previously described cases, the patient reported here had no indwelling catheter. To our knowledge, no case of O. anthropi spontaneous bacterial peritonitis has been reported in the medical literature until now.
Ochrobactrum Anthropi; Peritonitis
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of vancomycin to those of teicoplanin for the treatment of adult patients with health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) bacteremia. A multicenter observational study was prospectively conducted in 15 teaching hospitals in Korea between February 2010 and July 2011. Adult patients (≥18 years old) with HA-MRSA bacteremia who were initially treated with vancomycin (VAN) (n = 134) or teicoplanin (TEC) (n = 56) were enrolled. Clinical and microbiological responses and drug-related adverse events were compared between the two treatment groups using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs were determined by Etest. The MRSA-related mortality, duration of fever, and duration of MRSA bacteremia in the treatment groups were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of drug-related adverse events. Among the 190 MRSA isolates, the VAN MICs ranged from 0.5 to 2 μg/ml (MIC50 and MIC90, 1.5 μg/ml), and the TEC MIC ranged from 0.5 to 8 μg/ml (MIC50, 3 μg/ml; MIC90, 6 μg/ml). In multivariate analyses, the antibiotic type (vancomycin or teicoplanin) was not associated with treatment outcomes. This study indicates that teicoplanin is an effective and safe alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of HA-MRSA bacteremia.
A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the trimerthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections.
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users in western countries, and it has a relatively good prognosis. Clinical features and prognosis of RIE occurring in non-drug users are not well known. We investigated the clinical findings of RIE in non-drug users. We retrospectively reviewed 345 cases diagnosed with IE. Cases with RIE or left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) defined by the vegetation site were included and cases having no vegetation or both-side vegetation were excluded. Clinical findings and in-hospital outcome of RIE were compared to those of LIE. Among the 245 cases, 39 (16%) cases had RIE and 206 (84%) cases had LIE. RIE patients were younger (40±19 yr vs 50±18 yr, P=0.004), and had a higher incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) (36% vs 13%, P<0.001) and central venous catheter (CVC) (21% vs 4%, P=0.001) compared to LIE patients. A large vegetation was more common in RIE (33% vs 9%, P<0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of RIE, while Streptococcus viridans were the most common cause of LIE. In-hospital mortality and cardiac surgery were not different between the two groups. CHD and use of CVC were common in non-drug users with RIE. The short-term clinical outcome of RIE is not different from that of LIE.
Endocarditis; Tricuspid Valve; Echocardiography
In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
To better understand extensively drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, we assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of 5 extensively drug-resistant pneumococcal isolates. We concluded that long-term care facility residents who had undergone tracheostomy might be reservoirs of these pneumococci; 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines should be considered for high-risk persons; and antimicrobial drugs should be used judiciously.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; extensively drug-resistant; bacteria; South Korea; antimicrobial drug resistance
The causative pathogens of and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies across countries. We evaluated the patterns of antibiotic prescriptions for adult CAP patients, and physician satisfaction with the form and content of the 2009 Korean CAP treatment guidelines.
Materials and Methods
We designed an online survey for clinical physicians who treat CAP (infectious disease specialists, pulmonologists, and other physicians). We e-mailed the online survey to physicians and gathered results from December 2011 to January 2012, and then analyzed their responses.
A total of 157 physicians responded to our survey: 61 (38.9%) infectious disease specialists, 33 (21.0%) pulmonologists, and 63 (40.1%) other physicians. Two-thirds (96/157, 61.2%) had positions in tertiary and secondary hospitals; the others (61, 38.8%) worked in primary clinics (hospitals and private clinics). One hundred and eight (68.8%) were aware of the Korean CAP clinical guidelines; of these, 98 (62.4%) applied the guidelines to their practice. Among physicians using them, 86.7% (85/98) reported the guidelines to be most useful for empirical selection of antibiotics, and 75.2% (118/157) said the guidelines were useful and satisfactory. Sixty-eight (43.3%) respondents indicated that they had not used aminoglycosides as an initial empirical CAP treatment, while 51 (32.5%) had combined aminoglycosides with other antibiotics to treat patients with CAP. Seventy-three (46.5%) physicians often combined macrolides with β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment of CAP, and 21 (13.4%) reported using macrolide monotherapy (which is not recommended in the 2009 Korean CAP treatment guidelines) for CAP patients. The most commonly used β-lactams were third-generation cephalosporins (72, 45.9%) and ampicillin/sulbactam or amoxicillin/clavulanate (28, 17.8%).
Some physicians remain unaware of the 2009 Korean treatment guidelines for CAP and do not use them in clinical practice. In addition, aminoglycoside combination therapy is frequently and inappropriately used in practice. In some cases, CAP is treated with macrolide monotherapy. Thus, the Korean CAP clinical guidelines must be more aggressively and continuously publicized.
Pneumonia; Guidelines; Antibiotics
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication of surgery. While gastrointestinal surgery is relatively common in Korea, few studies have evaluated SSI in the context of gastric surgery. Thus, we performed a prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of SSI in Korean patients undergoing gastric surgery.
Materials and Methods
A prospective cohort study of 2,091 patients who underwent gastric surgery was performed in 10 hospitals with more than 500 beds (nine tertiary hospitals and one secondary hospital). Patients were recruited from an SSI surveillance program between June 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011 and followed up for 1 month after the operation. The criteria used to define SSI and a patient's risk index category were established according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We collected demographic data and potential perioperative risk factors including type and duration of the operation and physical status score in patients who developed SSIs based on a previous study protocol.
A total of 71 SSIs (3.3%) were identified, with hospital rates varying from 0.0 - 15.7%. The results of multivariate analyses indicated that prolonged operation time (P = 0.002), use of a razor for preoperative hair removal (P = 0.010), and absence of laminar flow in the operating room (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Longer operation times, razor use, and absence of laminar flow in operating rooms were independently associated with significant increased SSI risk after gastric surgery.
Surgical site infection; Risk factors; Gastric surgery
The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.
Pneumonia; Prognosis; Severity Index
Although pandemic community-associated (CA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST30 clone has successfully spread into many Asian countries, there has been no case in Korea. We report the first imported case of infection caused by this clone in a Korean traveler returning from the Philippines. A previously healthy 30-yr-old Korean woman developed a buttock carbuncle while traveling in the Philippines. After coming back to Korea, oral cephalosporin was given by a primary physician without any improvement. Abscess was drained and MRSA strain isolated from her carbuncle was molecularly characterized and it was confirmed as ST30-MRSA-IV. She was successfully treated with vancomycin and surgery. Frequent international travel and migration have increased the risk of international spread of CA-MRSA clones. The efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of CA-MRSA should be continued, and we should raise suspicion of CA-MRSA infection in travelers with skin infections returning from CA-MRSA-endemic countries.
Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin Resistance; Community-Acquired Infections; Carbuncle; Travel
Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) has emerged as a significant community-acquired pathogen, there is little epidemiological information regarding community-onset bacteremia due to ESBL-EC. A retrospective observational study from 2006 through 2011 was performed to evaluate the epidemiology of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-EC. In a six-year period, the proportion of ESBL-EC responsible for causing community-onset bacteremia had increased significantly, from 3.6% in 2006 to 14.3%, in 2011. Of the 97 clinically evaluable cases with ESBL-EC bacteremia, 32 (33.0%) were further classified as healthcare-associated infections. The most common site of infection was urinary tract infection (n=35, 36.1%), followed by biliary tract infections (n=29, 29.9%). Of the 103 ESBL-EC isolates, 43 (41.7%) produced CTX-M-14 and 36 (35.0%) produced CTX-M-15. In the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of 76 isolates with CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs, the most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST131 (n=15, 19.7%), followed by ST405 (n=12, 15.8%) and ST648 (n=8, 10.5%). No significant differences in clinical features were found in the ST131 group versus the other group. These findings suggest that epidemic ESBL-EC clones such as CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs and ST131 have disseminated in community-onset infections, even in bloodstream infections, which are the most serious type of infection.
Escherichia coli; Community-Acquired Infections; Cephalosporin Resistance; Bacteremia; Epidemiology
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens the successful treatment of pneumococcal infections. Here we report a case of bacteremic pneumonia caused by an extremely drug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonsusceptible to at least one agent in all classes but vancomycin and linezolid, posing an important new public health threat in our region.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and subsequent focal infections. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is problematic, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Any anatomical site can be affected by this pathogen via hematogenous seeding and may develop local infections. However, cervical lymphadenitis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species is rarely reported. Herein, we have reported a case of cervical lymphadenitis caused by group D non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with lymphoma.
Lymphadenitis; Salmonella; Lymphoma
Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin resistance; Community-acquired infections; Genotype