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1.  Physiological Levels of Glucose Induce Membrane Vesicle Secretion and Affect the Lipid and Protein Composition of Yersinia pestis Cell Surfaces 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(14):4509-4514.
Yersinia pestis grown with physiologic glucose increased cell autoaggregation and deposition of extracellular material, including membrane vesicles. Membranes were characterized, and glucose had significant effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles. These effects were independent of temperature and the biofilm-related locus pgm and were not observed in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00675-13
PMCID: PMC3697494  PMID: 23686263
2.  Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(18):6413-6422.
Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01211-12
PMCID: PMC3426692  PMID: 22752169
3.  Peptide Biomarkers as Evidence of Perchlorate Biodegradation▿ †  
Perchlorate is a known health hazard for humans, fish, and other species. Therefore, it is important to assess the response of an ecosystem exposed to perchlorate contamination. The data reported here show that a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach for the detection of perchlorate-reducing enzymes can be used to measure the ability of microorganisms to degrade perchlorate, including determining the current perchlorate degradation status. Signature peptides derived from chlorite dismutase (CD) and perchlorate reductase can be used as biomarkers of perchlorate presence and biodegradation. Four peptides each derived from CD and perchlorate reductase subunit A (PcrA) and seven peptides derived from perchlorate reductase subunit B (PcrB) were identified as signature biomarkers for perchlorate degradation, as these sequences are conserved in the majority of the pure and mixed perchlorate-degrading microbial cultures examined. However, chlorite dismutase signature biomarker peptides from Dechloromonas agitata CKB were found to be different from those in other cultures used and should also be included with selected CD biomarkers. The combination of these peptides derived from the two enzymes represents a promising perchlorate presence/biodegradation biomarker system. The biomarker peptides were detected at perchlorate concentrations as low as 0.1 mM and at different time points both in pure cultures and within perchlorate-reducing environmental enrichment consortia. The peptide biomarkers were also detected in the simultaneous presence of perchlorate and an alternate electron acceptor, nitrate. We believe that this technique can be useful for monitoring bioremediation processes for other anthropogenic environmental contaminants with known metabolic pathways.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01323-10
PMCID: PMC3028743  PMID: 21115710
4.  Optimized DNA-targeting using triplex forming C5-alkynyl functionalized LNA† 
Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) modified with C5-alkynyl functionalized LNA (locked nucleic acid) monomers display extraordinary thermal affinity toward double stranded DNA targets, excellent discrimination of Hoogsteen-mismatched targets, and high stability against 3′-exonucleases.
doi:10.1039/b917312a
PMCID: PMC2846108  PMID: 19885469
5.  Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of A Novel Class of Anticancer Agents: Anthracenylisoxazole Lexitropsin Conjugates 
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry  2008;17(4):1671-1680.
The synthesis and in vitro anti-tumor 60 cell lines screen of a novel series of anthracenyl isoxazole amides (AIMs)¥ (22–33) is described. The molecules consist of an isoxazole that pre-organizes a planar aromatic moiety and a simple amide and/or lexitropsin-oligopeptide. The new conjugate molecules were prepared via doubly activated amidation modification of Weinreb’s amide formation technique, using SmCl3 as an activating agent which produces improved yields for sterically hindered 3-aryl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic esters. The results of the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) 60 cell line screening assay show a distinct structure activity relationship (SAR), wherein a trend of the highest activity for molecules with one N-methylpyrrole peptide. Evidence consistent with a mechanism of action via the interaction of these compounds with G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, and a structural based rational for the observed selectivity of the AIMs for G4 over B-DNA is presented.
doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.12.056
PMCID: PMC2978248  PMID: 19167892
Anthracene; Antitumor; G-quadruplex; Isoxazole; Pyrrole
6.  Pyridine-2,6-Bis(Thiocarboxylic Acid) Produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri KC Reduces and Precipitates Selenium and Tellurium Oxyanions 
The siderophore of Pseudomonas stutzeri KC, pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc), is shown to detoxify selenium and tellurium oxyanions in bacterial cultures. A mechanism for pdtc's detoxification of tellurite and selenite is proposed. The mechanism is based upon determination using mass spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the chemical structures of compounds formed during initial reactions of tellurite and selenite with pdtc. Selenite and tellurite are reduced by pdtc or its hydrolysis product H2S, forming zero-valent pdtc selenides and pdtc tellurides that precipitate from solution. These insoluble compounds then hydrolyze, releasing nanometer-sized particles of elemental selenium or tellurium. Electron microscopy studies showed both extracellular precipitation and internal deposition of these metalloids by bacterial cells. The precipitates formed with synthetic pdtc were similar to those formed in pdtc-producing cultures of P. stutzeri KC. Culture filtrates of P. stutzeri KC containing pdtc were also active in removing selenite and precipitating elemental selenium and tellurium. The pdtc-producing wild-type strain KC conferred higher tolerance against selenite and tellurite toxicity than a pdtc-negative mutant strain, CTN1. These observations support the hypothesis that pdtc not only functions as a siderophore but also is involved in an initial line of defense against toxicity from various metals and metalloids.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.5.3119-3129.2006
PMCID: PMC1472348  PMID: 16672449
7.  Potassium ferrate [Fe(VI)] does not mediate self-sterilization of a surrogate mars soil 
BMC Microbiology  2003;3:4.
Background
Martian soil is thought to be enriched with strong oxidants such as peroxides and/or iron in high oxidation states that might destroy biological materials. There is also a high flux of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of Mars. Thus, Mars may be inhospitable to life as we know it on Earth. We examined the hypothesis that if the soil of Mars contains ferrates [Fe(VI)], the strongest of the proposed oxidizing species, and also is exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation, it will be self-sterilizing.
Results
Under ambient conditions (25°C, oxygen and water present) K2FeO4 mixed into sand mineralized some reactive organic molecules to CO2, while less reactive compounds were not degraded. Dried endospores of Bacillus subtilis incubated in a Mars surrogate soil comprised of dry silica sand containing 20% by weight K2FeO4 and under conditions similar to those now on Mars (extreme desiccation, cold, and a CO2-dominated atmosphere) were resistant to killing by the ferrate-enriched sand. Similar results were observed with permanganate. Spores in oxidant-enriched sand exposed to high fluxes of UV light were protected from the sporocidal activity of the radiation below about 5 mm depths.
Conclusion
Based on our data and previously published descriptions of ancient but dormant life forms on Earth, we suggest that if entities resembling bacterial endospores were produced at some point by life forms on Mars, they might still be present and viable, given appropriate germination conditions. Endospores delivered to Mars on spacecraft would possibly survive and potentially compromise life detection experiments.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-3-4
PMCID: PMC153549  PMID: 12694634
8.  Measurement of microbial activity in soil by colorimetric observation of in situ dye reduction: an approach to detection of extraterrestrial life 
BMC Microbiology  2002;2:22.
Background
Detecting microbial life in extraterrestrial locations is a goal of space exploration because of ecological and health concerns about possible contamination of other planets with earthly organisms, and vice versa. Previously we suggested a method for life detection based on the fact that living entities require a continual input of energy accessed through coupled oxidations and reductions (an electron transport chain). We demonstrated using earthly soils that the identification of extracted components of electron transport chains is useful for remote detection of a chemical signature of life. The instrument package developed used supercritical carbon dioxide for soil extraction, followed by chromatography or electrophoresis to separate extracted compounds, with final detection by voltammetry and tandem mass-spectrometry.
Results
Here we used Earth-derived soils to develop a related life detection system based on direct observation of a biological redox signature. We measured the ability of soil microbial communities to reduce artificial electron acceptors. Living organisms in pure culture and those naturally found in soil were shown to reduce 2,3-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) and the tetrazolium dye 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT). Uninoculated or sterilized controls did not reduce the dyes. A soil from Antarctica that was determined by chemical signature and DNA analysis to be sterile also did not reduce the dyes.
Conclusion
Observation of dye reduction, supplemented with extraction and identification of only a few specific signature redox-active biochemicals such as porphyrins or quinones, provides a simplified means to detect a signature of life in the soils of other planets or their moons.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-2-22
PMCID: PMC119848  PMID: 12150716
9.  Optimization of Simultaneous Chemical and Biological Mineralization of Perchloroethylene† 
Optimization of the simultaneous chemical and biological mineralization of perchloroethylene (PCE) by modified Fenton’s reagent and Xanthobacter flavus was investigated by using a central composite rotatable experimental design. Concentrations of PCE, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous iron and the microbial cell number were set as variables. Percent mineralization of PCE to CO2 was investigated as a response. A second-order, quadratic response surface model was generated and fit the data adequately, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72. Analysis of the results showed that the PCE concentration had no significant effect within the tested boundaries of the model, while the other variables, hydrogen peroxide and iron concentrations and cell number, were significant at α = 0.05 for the mineralization of PCE. The 14C radiotracer studies showed that the simultaneous chemical and biological reactions increased the extent of mineralization of PCE by more than 10% over stand-alone Fenton reactions.
PMCID: PMC91416  PMID: 10347081
10.  De Novo Synthesis of 4,5-Dimethoxycatechol and 2,5-Dimethoxyhydroquinone by the Brown Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum† 
The new dimethoxycatechol 4,5-dimethoxy-1,2-benzenediol (DMC) and the new dimethoxyhydroquinone 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzenediol (DMH) were isolated from stationary cultures of the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum growing on a glucose mineral medium protected from light. The structure was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry through comparison to a synthetic standard. Further confirmation was obtained by forming a dimethoxyoxazole derivative by condensation of DMC with methylene chloride and through examination of methylated derivatives. DMC and DMH may serve as ferric chelators, oxygen-reducing agents, and redox-cycling molecules, which would include functioning as electron transport carriers to Fenton’s reactions. Thus, they appear to be important components of the brown rot decay system of the fungus.
PMCID: PMC91078  PMID: 9925599

Results 1-10 (10)