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1.  Urinary Incontinence and Physician's Attitude 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1559-1560.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1559
PMCID: PMC3835494  PMID: 24265515
2.  Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin for the Treatment of Non-neurogenic Voiding Dysfunction in Females: A 8-Week Prospective Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;25(1):117-122.
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of tamsulosin for women with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Women who had voiding dysfunctions for at least 3 months were included. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 yr, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥15, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ≥12 mL/sec and/or postvoid residuals (PVR) of ≥150 mL. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction or anatomical bladder outlet obstruction were excluded. All patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram as having no or mild obstruction (group A) or moderate or severe obstruction (group B). After 8 weeks of treatment, treatment outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated. One hundred and six patients were evaluable (70 in group A, 36 in group B). After treatments, mean IPSS, bother scores, Qmax, PVR, diurnal and nocturnal micturition frequencies and scored form of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF) were changed significantly. Eighty-nine patients (84%) reported that the treatment was beneficial. The proportion of patients reported that their bladder symptoms caused "moderate to many severe problems" were significantly decreased. No significant difference were observed between the groups in terms of IPSS, bother score, Qmax, PVR, micturition frequency, and BFLUTS-SF changes. Adverse effects related to medication were dizziness (n=3), de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (n=3), aggravation of underlying SUI (n=1), fatigue (n=1). Tamsulosin was found to be effective in female patients with voiding dysfunction regardless of obstruction grade.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.1.117
PMCID: PMC2800025  PMID: 20052356
Urination Disorders; Female; Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Outcomes Assessment
3.  A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Solifenacin Succinate in Patients with Urinary Frequency with or without Urgency 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112063.
Objectives
Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency.
Materials and Methods
This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), OAB Symptom Score (OABSS), and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW) questionnaire.
Results
Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9%) completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125). Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of −2.49±0.35 (mean ± standard error) and −2.63±0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was −1.14, which is smaller than the −0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well.
Conclusions
It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112063
PMCID: PMC4234319  PMID: 25401784
4.  A Case Report of Testicular Sparganosis Misdiagnosed as Testicular Tumor 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(7):1018-1020.
Sparganosis is a parasitic infestation of human by plerocercoid larvae. Sparganum is usually reported to be found in the subcutaneous tissues as well as other organs, including scrotum. However, testicular sparganosis is extremely rare, because of strong capsule of tunica albuginea. An urban-living 54-yr-old Korean man presented with left scrotal pain for 6 yr. Both testes look normal physically. Ultrasonography revealed poorly defined, heterogeneous mass with increased echogenicity in the left testis. This case was misdiagnosed as testicular tumor and underwent orchiectomy, but was diagnosed as testicular sparganosis by histopathology. Sparganosis should be included for differential diagnosis of testis tumor in countries where sparganosis is prevalent.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.1018
PMCID: PMC4101770  PMID: 25045238
Sparganosis; Testis
5.  Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Commercially Dried Vegetables 
We tested for residual pesticide levels in dried vegetables in Seoul, Korea. A total of 100 samples of 13 different types of agricultural products were analyzed by a gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphate detector (GC-NPD), an electron capture detector (GC-μECD), a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD), and a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). We used multi-analysis methods to analyze for 253 different pesticide types. Among the selected agricultural products, residual pesticides were detected in 11 samples, of which 2 samples (2.0%) exceeded the Korea Maximum Residue limits (MRLs). We detected pesticide residue in 6 of 9 analyzed dried pepper leaves and 1 sample exceeded the Korea MRLs. Data obtained were then used for estimating the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) range from 0.1% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for bifenthrin to 8.4% of the ADI for cadusafos. The most critical commodity is cadusafos in chwinamul, contributing 8.4% to the hazard index (HI). This results show that the detected pesticides could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring is recommended.
doi:10.3746/pnf.2013.18.2.145
PMCID: PMC3892501  PMID: 24471124
dried; vegetables; pesticide; risk assessment; hazard index
6.  Desmopressin is an Effective Treatment for Mixed Nocturia with Nocturnal Polyuria and Decreased Nocturnal Bladder Capacity 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(12):1792-1797.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.12.1792
PMCID: PMC2995235  PMID: 21165296
Urinary Bladder; Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; Hyponatremia; Nocturia; Nocturnal Polyuria
7.  Prevalence and Treatment Efficacy of Genitourinary Mycoplasmas in Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(9):625-630.
Purpose
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Results
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Conclusions
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.9.625
PMCID: PMC2941811  PMID: 20856647
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
8.  A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):435-439.
We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.435
PMCID: PMC2826739  PMID: 20191044
Cystitis; Immunization; Escherichia coli; OM-8930; Prevention and Control
9.  Urodynamic Effects of Propiverine on Detrusor Overactivity and Abdominal Straining during Voiding in Awake Rats with Intravesical Prostaglandin E2 Instillation 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(1):64-69.
Purpose
We investigated the effect of propiverine on cystometric parameters based on intraabdominal pressure (IAP) in awake rats in an overactive bladder (OAB) model induced by intravesical instillation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
Materials and Methods
Twenty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Polyethylene catheters were implanted into the bladder to record the intravesical pressure (IVP) and into the femoral artery to administer medication. A balloon-fitted catheter was positioned in the abdominal cavity to record the IAP. Awake cystometries were performed before and after intraarterial administration of propiverine 1 mg/kg (n=6), intravesical administration of 50µM PGE2 only (n=6), or intravesical PGE2 plus 1 mg/kg (n=4) or 3 mg/kg (n=6) of intraarterial propiverine. Cystometric pressure and volume parameters and variables related to detrusor overactivity (DO) were investigated.
Results
Rats administered intravesical PGE2 showed increased pressure parameters and decreased volume parameters comparable to the DO model, which was effectively prevented by propiverine (1 or 3 mg/kg). Typical DO shown during the filling phase was decreased by intraarterial propiverine (3 mg/kg) injection. After propiverine (3 mg/kg) injection, IAP was increased at the time of micturition pressure with or without threshold pressure (p<0.05, p<0.01) depending on the dose administered.
Conclusions
Propiverine improved pressure- and volume-related parameters in an OAB model. Furthermore, it also decreased the frequency of DO. However, higher concentrations of propiverine induced straining voiding.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.1.64
PMCID: PMC2855469  PMID: 20414414
Propiverine; Sprague-Dawley rats; Prostaglandins

Results 1-9 (9)