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1.  Dynamic modulation of the Kv2.1 channel by Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation 
Journal of Proteome Research  2011;11(2):1018-1026.
The voltage-gated K+ channel Kv2.1 is expressed as a highly phosphorylated protein in most central neurons, where it plays a key role in regulating neuronal membrane excitability. Previous studies have shown that Kv2.1 channel activity is upregulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation through an unknown mechanism. However, a systematic analysis of the molecular mechanism of Kv2.1 channel phosphorylation by Src is lacking. Here we show that tyrosine phosphorylation by Src plays a fundamental role in regulating Kv2.1-mediated K+ current enhancement. We found that the level of expression of the Kv2.1 protein is increased by Src kinase. Using mass spectrometric proteomic techniques, we identified two novel phosphotyrosine sites, Y686 and Y810, in the cytoplasmic domains of Kv2.1. We found that Src-dependent phosphorylation at these sites affects Kv2.1 through distinct regulatory mechanisms. Whereas phosphorylation at Y686 regulates Kv2.1 activity similarly to the known site Y124, phosphorylation at Y810 plays a significant role in regulating the intracellular trafficking of Kv2.1 channels. Our results show that these two novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites of Kv2.1 are crucial to regulating diverse aspects of Kv2.1 channel function, and provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms for the regulation of Src-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channels.
PMCID: PMC3272096  PMID: 22106938
delayed-rectifier Kv channel; Kv2.1; Src; tyrosine phosphorylation; mass spectrometry
2.  Calsyntenins Function as Synaptogenic Adhesion Molecules in Concert with Neurexins 
Cell reports  2014;6(6):1096-1109.
Multiple synaptic adhesion molecules govern synapse formation. Here, we propose calsyntenin-3/alcadein-β as a synapse organizer that specifically induces presynaptic differentiation in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Calsyntenin-3 (CST-3) was highly expressed during various postnatal periods of mouse brain development. The simultaneous knockdown of all three CSTs, but not CST-3 alone, decreased inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse densities in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the knockdown of CSTs specifically reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, the loss of CSTs induced a concomitant decrease in neuron soma size in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, α-neurexins (α-Nrxs) were affinity-purified as components of a CST-3 complex involved in CST-3-mediated presynaptic differentiation. However, CST-3 did not directly bind to Nrxs. Viewed together, these data suggest that the three CSTs redundantly regulate inhibitory synapse formation, inhibitory synapse function, and neuron development in concert with Nrxs.
PMCID: PMC4101519  PMID: 24613359
calsyntenin-3; neurexin; synapse function; synaptic adhesion
3.  Multi-site Phosphorylation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel α Subunits from Rat Brain 
Journal of proteome research  2010;9(4):1976-1984.
Reversible phosphorylation of ion channels underlies cellular plasticity in mammalian neurons. Voltage-gated sodium or Nav channels underlie action potential initiation and propagation, dendritic excitability, and many other aspects of neuronal excitability. Various protein kinases have been suggested to phosphorylate the primary α subunit of Nav channels, affecting diverse aspects of channel function. Previous studies of Nav α subunit phosphorylation have led to the identification of a small set of phosphorylation sites important in meditating aspects of Nav channel function. Here we use nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS) on Nav α subunits affinity-purified from rat brain with two distinct monoclonal antibodies to identify 15 phosphorylation sites on Nav1.2, 12 of which have not been previously reported. We also found 3 novel phosphorylation sites on Nav1.1. In general, commonly used phosphorylation site prediction algorithms did not accurately predict these novel in vivo phosphorylation sites. Our results demonstrate that specific Nav α subunits isolated from rat brain are highly phosphorylated, and suggest extensive modulation of Nav channel activity in mammalian brain. Identification of phosphorylation sites using monoclonal antibody-based immunopurification and mass spectrometry is an effective approach to define the phosphorylation status of Nav channels and important membrane proteins in mammalian brain.
PMCID: PMC2849892  PMID: 20131913
voltage-gated sodium channels; brain; phosphorylation; tandem mass spectrometry; immunopurification; monoclonal antibody; nanoflow liquid chromatography

Results 1-3 (3)