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1.  Integration Deficiencies Associated with Continuous Limb Movement Sequences in Parkinson’s Disease 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2009;15(9):682-687.
The present study examined the extent to which Parkinson’s disease (PD) influences integration of continuous limb movement sequences. Eight patients with idiopathic PD and 8 age-matched normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive sequential aiming movements to specified targets under three accuracy constraints: 1) low accuracy (W=7 cm) - minimal accuracy constraint, 2) high accuracy (W=0.64 cm) - maximum accuracy constraint, and 3) mixed accuracy constraint - one target of high accuracy and another target of low accuracy. The characteristic of sequential movements in the low accuracy condition was mostly cyclical, whereas in the high accuracy condition it was discrete in both groups. When the accuracy constraint was mixed, the sequential movements were executed by assembling discrete and cyclical movements in both groups, suggesting that for PD patients the capability to combine discrete and cyclical movements to meet a task requirement appears to be intact. However, such functional linkage was not as pronounced as was in normal subjects. Close examination of movement from the mixed accuracy condition revealed marked movement hesitations in the vicinity of the large target in PD patients, resulting in a bias towards discrete movement. These results suggest that PD patients may have deficits in ongoing planning and organizing processes during movement execution when the tasks require to assemble various accuracy requirements into more complex movement sequences.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.04.001
PMCID: PMC2783725  PMID: 19401272
Parkinson’s disease; Movement control; Dynamics of end-effector’s motion; Harmonicity; Energy dissipation
2.  Force Development during Target-Directed Isometric Force Production in Parkinson’s Disease 
Neuroscience letters  2006;412(2):173-178.
Performing various daily activities requires precise application and control of forces, which has been well addressed in neurologically healthy individuals. Recent experiments have demonstrated that in young, normal subjects generating rapid force pulses over various force amplitudes was accomplished by linearly increasing the rate of force development while keeping time to peak force approximately constant (i.e., a pulse-height control strategy). Using Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients the present study examined whether PD patients use a pulse height control strategy during rapid and accurate isometric force production. Subjects were instructed to produce force pulses to three different target amplitudes (15%, 35%, & 55% of their maximal voluntary contractions) at their preferred speed and as fast as possible. When the task was performed as fast as possible, PD patients differed from controls by producing reduced rates of force development and prolonged times to peak force as a function of force amplitude. During performance of the task at preferred speed, which leaves the rate of force production unconstrained, PD patients did not show improved regulation of time to peak force in scaling different force amplitudes compared to controls. These results suggest that PD patients have a difficulty in utilizing a pulse-height control strategy and that such impairments are not dependent on speed.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.11.009
PMCID: PMC1913196  PMID: 17123726
Parkinson’s disease; Isometric force production; Force-rate control; Pulse-height control strategy; Speed constraint
3.  Intracranial Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma : Case Report and Literature Review 
Intracranial extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is extremely rare, with only seven patients previously reported. We present a case report of a 21-year-old woman admitted for weakness in her right extremities and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and a well-enhanced large mass around her left thalamus. A left parietal craniotomy and a cortisectomy at the superior parietal lobule were performed. Total surgical resection was also performed, and pathology results confirmed an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor, and the patient underwent radiotherapy. After six months of radiotherapy, the patient's headache and weakness had improved to grade IV. This malignant tumor showed high rates of recurrence in previous reports. We here report another occurrence of this highly malignant and rare tumor in a patient treated using total surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.246
PMCID: PMC3483328  PMID: 23115670
Brain neoplasms; Chondrosarcoma; Choroid plexus
4.  Midline-Splitting Open Door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers : Comparison between Two Different Shaped Spacers 
Objective
Although hydroxyapatite (HA) spacer has been used for laminoplasty, there have been no reports on factors associated with fusion and on the effects of HA shape.
Methods
During January 2004 and January 2010, 45 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy underwent midline-splitting open door laminoplasty with winged (33 cases) and wingless (12 cases) HAs by a single surgeon. Minimal and mean follow up times were 12 and 28.1 months, respectively. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome measurement. Cervical X-rays were taken preoperatively, immediately post-operatively, and after 3, 6, and 12 months and computed tomography scans were performed preoperatively, immediately post-operatively and after 12 months. Cervical lordosis, canal dimension, fusion between lamina and HA, and affecting factors of fusion were analyzed.
Results
All surgeries were performed on 142 levels, 99 in the winged and 43 in the wingless HA groups. JOA scores of the winged group changed from 10.4±2.94 to 13.3±2.35 and scores of the wingless group changed from 10.8±2.87 to 13.8±3.05. There was no significant difference on lordotic and canal dimensional change between two groups. Post-operative 12 month fusion rate between lamina and HA was significantly lower in the winged group (18.2 vs. 48.8% p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, male gender, and wingless type HA were significantly associated with fusion.
Conclusion
Clinical outcome was similar in patients receiving winged and wingless HA, but the wingless type was associated with a higher rate of fusion between HA and lamina at 12 months post-operatively.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.1.27
PMCID: PMC3440499  PMID: 22993674
Cervcial myelopathy; Fusion rate; Hydroxyapatite; Laminoplasty; Midline splitting; Shape
5.  Efficacy of Decompression and Fixation for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Analysis of Factors Prognostic for Survival and Postoperative Ambulation 
Objective
The goals of surgical intervention for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) are prolonging survival and improving quality of life. Non-ambulatory paraplegic patients, either at presentation or after treatment, have a much shorter life expectancy than ambulatory patients. We therefore analyzed prognostic factors for survival and postoperative ambulation in patients surgically treated for MSCC.
Methods
We assessed 103 patients with surgically treated MSCC who presented with lower extremity weakness between January 2001 and December 2008. Factors prognostic for overall survival (OS) and postoperative ambulation, including surgical method, age, sex, primary tumor site, metastatic spinal site, surgical levels, Tokuhashi score, and treatment with chemo- or radiation therapy, were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
Median OS was significantly longer in the postoperatively ambulatory group [11.0 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9.29-12.71 months] than in the non-ambulatory group (5.0 months; 95% CI, 1.80-8.20 months) (p=0.035). When we compared median OS in patients with high (9-11) and low (0-8) Tokuhashi scores, they were significantly longer in the former (15.0 months; 95% CI, 9.29-20.71 months vs. 9.0 months; 95% CI, 7.48-10.52 months; p=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative ambulation with or without aid [odds ratio (OR) 5.35; 95% CI 1.57-18.17; p=0.007] and hip flexion power greater than grade III (OR 6.23; 95% CI, 1.29-7.35; p=0.038) were prognostic of postoperative ambulation.
Conclusion
We found that postoperative ambulation and preoperative high Tokuhashi score were significantly associated with longer patient survival. In addition, preoperative hip flexion power greater than grade III was critical for postoperative ambulation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.434
PMCID: PMC3259463  PMID: 22259690
Spinal metastasis; Survival; Ambulation; Cord compression; Hip flexion; Prognostic factor
6.  Radiographic Analysis of Instrumented Posterolateral Fusion Mass Using Mixture of Local Autologous Bone and b-TCP (PolyBone®) in a Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery 
Objective
Although iliac crest autograft is the gold standard for lumbar fusion, the morbidity of donor site leads us to find an alternatives to replace autologous bone graft. Ceramic-based synthetic bone grafts such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and b-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) provide scaffolds similar to those of autologous bone, are plentiful and inexpensive, and are not associated with donor morbidity. The present report describes the use of Polybone® (Kyungwon Medical, Korea), a beta-tricalcium phosphate, for lumbar posterolateral fusion and assesses clinical and radiological efficacy as a graft material.
Methods
This study retrospectively analyzed data from 32 patients (11 men, 21 women) who underwent posterolateral fusion (PLF) using PolyBone® from January to August, 2008. Back and leg pain were assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and clinical outcome was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Serial radiological X-ray follow up were done at 1, 3, 6 12 month. A computed tomography (CT) scan was done in 12 month. Radiological fusion was assessed using simple anterior-posterior (AP) X-rays and computed tomography (CT). The changes of radiodensity of fusion mass showed on the X-ray image were analyzed into 4 stages to assess PLF status.
Results
The mean NRS scores for leg pain and back pain decreased over 12 months postoperatively, from 8.0 to 1.0 and from 6.7 to 1.7, respectively. The mean ODI score also decreased from 60.5 to 17.7. X-rays and CT showed that 25 cases had stage IV fusion bridges at 12 months postoperatively (83.3% success). The radiodensity of fusion mass on X-ray AP image significantly changed at 1 and 6 months.
Conclusion
The present results indicate that the use of a mixture of local autologous bone and PolyBone® results in fusion rates comparable to those using autologous bone and has the advantage of reduced morbidity. In addition, the graft radiodensity ratio significantly changed at postoperative 1 and 6 months, possibly reflecting the inflammatory response and stabilization.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.267
PMCID: PMC3115146  PMID: 21716898
Postero-Lateral fusion; PolyBone®; Radiodensity
7.  Sparganosis in the Lumbar Spine : Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature 
Sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection affecting various organs, including the central nervous system, especially the lumbar epidural space. This report describes the identification of disease and different strategies of treatments with preoperative information. A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of urinary incontinence and impotence. He had a history of ingesting raw frogs 40 years ago. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an intramedullary nodular mass at conus medullaris and severe inflammation in the cauda equina. A 51-year-old woman was admitted with acute pain in the left inguinal area. We observed a lesion which seemed to be a tumor of the lumbar epidural space on MR imaging. She also had a history of ingesting inadequately cooked snakes 10 years ago. In the first patient, mass removal was attempted through laminectomy and parasite infection was identified during intra-operative frozen biopsy. Total removal could not be performed because of severe arachnoiditis and adhesion. We therefore decided to terminate the operation and final histology confirmed dead sparganum infection. We also concluded further surgical trial for total removal of the dead worm and inflammatory grannulation totally. However, after seeing another physician at different hospital, he was operated again which resulted in worsening of pain and neurological deficit. In the second patient, we totally removed dorsal epidural mass. Final histology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed living sparganum infection and her pain disappeared. Although the treatment of choice is surgical resection of living sparganum with inflammation, the attempt to remove dead worm and adhesive granulation tissue may cause unwanted complications to the patients. Therefore, the result of preoperative ELISA, as well as the information from image and history, must be considered as important factors to decide whether a surgery is necessary or not.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.241
PMCID: PMC3098431  PMID: 21607186
Sparganosis; Sparganosis in the lumbar vertebrae; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
8.  Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unilateral Facetectomy and Interbody Fusion Using Expandable Cages for Lumbosacral Foraminal Stenosis 
Objective
Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis requires an understanding of the anatomy of the lumbosacral area in individual patients. Unilateral facetectomy has been used to completely decompress entrapment of the L5 nerve root, followed in some patients by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with stand-alone cages.
Methods
We assessed 34 patients with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis who were treated with unilateral facetectomy and PLIF using stand-alone cages in our center from January 2004 to September 2007. All the patients underwent follow-up X-rays, including a dynamic view, at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, and computed tomography (CT) at 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with the mean numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological outcomes were assessed with change of disc height, defined as the average of anterior, middle, and posterior height in plain X-rays. In addition, lumbosacral fusion was also assessed with dynamic X-ray and CT.
Results
Mean NRS score, which was 9.29 prior to surgery, was 1.5 at 18 months after surgery. The decrease in NRS was statistically significant. Excellent and good groups with regard to Odom's criteria were 31 cases (91%) and three cases (9%) were fair. Pre-operative mean ODI of 28.4 decreased to 14.2 at post-operative 24 months. In 30 patients, a bone bridge on CT scan was identified. The change in disc height was 8.11 mm, 10.02 mm and 9.63 mm preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and at 24 months after surgery, respectively.
Conclusion
In the treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis, unilateral facetectomy and interbody fusion using expandable stand-alone cages may be considered as one treatment option to maintain post-operative alignment and to obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.496
PMCID: PMC3053543  PMID: 21430975
Expandable cage; Foraminal stenosis; Lumbosacral spine
9.  Comparative Analysis of Cervical Arthroplasty Using Mobi-C® and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using the Solis® -Cage 
Objective
Although anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the standard treatment for degenerative cervical disc disease, concerns regarding adjacent level degeneration and loss of motion have suggested that arthroplasty may be a better alternative. We have compared clinical and radiological results in patients with cervical disc herniations treated with arthroplasty and ACDF.
Methods
We evaluated 53 patients treated for cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy, 21 of whom underwent arthroplasty and 32 of whom underwent ACDF. Clinical results included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for upper extremity radiculopathy, neck disability index (NDI), duration of hospital stay and convalescence time. All patients were assessed radiologically by measuring cervical lordosis, segmental lordosis and segmental range-of-movement (ROM) of operated and adjacent disc levels.
Results
Mean hospital stay (5.62 vs. 6.26 days, p<0.05) and interval between surgery and return to work (1.10 vs. 2.92 weeks, p<0.05) were significantly shorter in the arthroplasty than in the fusion group. Mean NDI and extremity VAS score improved after 12 months in both groups. Although it was not significant, segmental ROM of adjacent levels was higher in the fusion group than in the arthroplasty group. And, segmental motion of operated levels in arthroplasty group maintained more than preoperative value at last follow up.
Conclusion
Although clinical results were similar in the two groups, postoperative recovery was significantly shorter in the arthroplasty group. Although it was not significant, ROM of adjacent segments was less in the arthroplasty group. Motion of operated levels in arthroplasty group was preserved at last follow up.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.217
PMCID: PMC2588324  PMID: 19096680
Anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF); Arthroplasty; Cervical disc herniations; Artificial cervical disc; Mobi-C®; Solis cages®
10.  Lumbar Spinal Extradural Angiolipoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Angiolipomas in the lumbar spinal region are extremely rare. The present report describes the identification of such a tumor and its removal, and discusses the tumor characteristics and prognosis. A 74-year-old woman was presented with a 5-month history of lower back pain. Severe radiculopathy was experienced in the left leg for 5 days prior to the presentation, and there were no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance (MR) images showed an approximately 3.5 cm heterogeneously enhanced and elongated mass at the left L5-S1 level. A portion of the mass appeared with high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and with high signal intensity on T1 fat suppression enhancement images. Resection of the tumor was approached via an L5 and S1 laminectomy. A fibrous sticky yellowish hypervascular tumor was identified. Histological study revealed the tumor as an angiolipoma. Symptoms were relieved after tumor excision, and there were no neurological sequelae. Although extremely rare, lumbar epidural angiolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lumbar spinal epidural lesions. The prognosis after surgical management of this lesion is favorable.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.265
PMCID: PMC2588319  PMID: 19096690
Angiolipoma; Spinal neoplasm; Lumbar epidural tumor

Results 1-10 (10)