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1.  Fatal Ifosfamide-Induced Metabolic Encephalopathy in Patients with Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Report of Two Cases 
Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity has been reported in approximately 10-30% of patients receiving intravenous infusions of ifosfamide. Encephalopathy is a rare but serious CNS adverse reaction in these patients, and although usually transient and reversible, may cause persistent neurological dysfunction or death. Clinical features range from fatigue and confusion to coma and death. Although methylene blue can be used to treat ifosfamide-induced neurotoxicity, including encephalopathy, its mechanism of action remains poorly defined. We describe here two patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who experienced fatal encephalopathy following ifosfamide/mesna treatment.
PMCID: PMC3253870  PMID: 22247713
Encephalopathy; Ovarian epithelial cancer; Ifosfamide; Mesna; Methylene blue
2.  Paratubal serous borderline tumor 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2011;22(4):295-298.
Although paratubal cysts are well-characterized incidental findings, paratubal serous borderline tumors are very rare, with only one case report in the literature. We describe here a 27-year-old, nulliparous, married woman with a paratubal serous borderline tumor. The patient presented with a huge pelvic mass accompanied by flank pain and underwent paratubal cystectomy and fertility-sparing surgical staging procedures. Thirteen months after surgery, she delivered a healthy baby at term. She is well, without evidence of disease, 20 months after surgery. Because paratubal serous borderline tumors are very rare, their optimal management must be extrapolated from their ovarian counterparts.
PMCID: PMC3254850  PMID: 22247808
Paratubal cyst; Paratubal serous borderline tumor
3.  Clinical Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Radical Hysterectomy for FIGO Stage IB-IIA Cervical Cancer: Comparison with Adjuvant RT/CCRT Using Inverse-Probability-of-Treatment Weighting 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0132298.
To evaluate the clinical role of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients.
Study Design
A cohort of 262 patients with cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy (RH) and adjuvant therapy at Asan Medical Center between 1992 and 2012 was enrolled. In this cohort, 85 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), and 177 received adjuvant radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (AR). Oncologic outcomes and adverse events in both treatment arms were compared using weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) to reduce the impact of treatment selection bias and potential confounding factors.
During a 46.8-month median follow-up duration, 39 patients (14.9%) had recurrences, and 18 patients (6.9%) died of disease. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence and death was not significantly different in patients in either treatment arm (p=0.62 and 0.12, respectively). Also, after IPTW matching, the HR for recurrence did not significantly differ between the arms (HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.68-3.62, p=0.29). Similarly, disease-free survival and overall survival were not significantly different between the arms (p=0.47 and 0.13, respectively). In addition, patients with AC had a much lower prevalence of long-term complications (lymphedema: n=8 (9.4%) vs. 46 (26.0%), p=0.03; ureteral stricture: n=0 vs. 9 (6.2%), p=0.05).
Patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer can benefit from AC after RH with fewer long-term complications and non-inferior therapeutic effect to AR. Chemotherapy may therefore be an alternative adjuvant treatment option for cervical cancer, particularly in younger patients.
PMCID: PMC4503636  PMID: 26176626
4.  Laparoendoscopic single-site versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for ovarian mature cystic teratoma 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2015;58(4):294-301.
To compare the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery in women with ovarian mature cystic teratoma.
A retrospective review of 303 women who underwent LESS (n=139) or conventional laparoscopic surgery (n=164) due to ovarian mature cystic teratoma was performed. Intra- and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.
There was no intergroup difference in age, body weight, height, body mass index, comorbidities, tumor size, bilaterality of tumor, or the type of surgery. However, more patients in the LESS group had a history of previous abdominal surgery (19.4% vs. 6.7%, P=0.001). Surgical outcomes including operating time (89 vs. 87.8 minutes, P=0.734), estimated blood loss (69.4 vs. 68.4 mL, P=0.842), transfusion requirement (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.336), perioperative hemoglobin level change (1.3 vs. 1.2 g/dL, P=0.593), postoperative hospital stay (2.0 vs. 2.1 days, P=0.119), and complication rate (1.4% vs. 1.8%, P=0.999) did not differ between LESS and conventional groups. Postoperative pain scores measured using a visual analogue scale were significantly lower in the LESS group at 8 hours (P=0.021), 16 hours (P=0.034), and 32 hours (P=0.004) after surgery, and 32 of 139 patients (23%) in the LESS group and 78 of 164 patients (47.6%) in the conventional group required at least one additional analgesic (P<0.001).
LESS was feasible and showed comparable surgical outcomes with conventional laparoscopic surgery for women with ovarian mature cystic teratoma. LESS was associated with less postoperative pain and required less analgesia.
PMCID: PMC4515479  PMID: 26217600
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery; Laparoscopes; Mature cystic teratoma; Ovary; Single-port
5.  Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2014 
The Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2014 on gynecologic oncology was held in Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea on the 23rd to 24th August 2014. A total of 179 participants from 17 countries participated in the workshop, and the up-to-date findings on the management of gynecologic cancers were presented and discussed. This meeting focused on the new trends in the management of cervical cancer, fertility-sparing management of gynecologic cancers, surgical management of gynecologic cancers, and recent advances in translational research on gynecologic cancers.
PMCID: PMC4302288  PMID: 25609163
Endometrial Neoplasms; Fertility Preservation; Laparoscopy; Ovarian Neoplasms; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
6.  Feasibility and Safety of Laparoscopic Surgery for Obese Korean Women with Endometrial Cancer: Long-Term Results at a Single Institution 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(11):1536-1543.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility of and survival outcome after laparoscopy in obese Korean women with endometrial cancer which has recently been increasing. We reviewed the medical records of the patients treated at our medical institution between 1999 and 2012. The patients were divided into three groups, non-obese (Body Mass Index [BMI]<25.0), overweight (BMI 25-27.99), and obese (BMI≥28.0). These patient groups were compared in terms of their clinical characteristics, treatment methods, as well as surgical and survival outcomes. In total, 55 of the 278 eligible patients were obese women. There were no differences in the three groups in terms of the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, their cancer stage, histologic type, type of adjuvant treatment administered, intra-, post-operative, and long-term complications, operative time, number of removed lymph nodes, blood loss, and duration of hospitalization (P=0.067, 0.435, 0.757, 0.739, 0.458, 0.173, 0.076, 0.124, 0.770, 0.739, and 0.831, respectively). The Disease-Free Survival (DFS) times were 139.1 vs. 121.6 vs. 135.5 months (P=0.313), and the Overall Survival (OS) times were 145.2 vs. 124.8 vs. 139.5 months (P=0.436) for each group, respectively. Obese women with endometrial cancer can, therefore, be as safely managed using laparoscopy as women with normal BMIs.
PMCID: PMC4234922  PMID: 25408586
Endometrial Neoplasms; Obesity; Laparoscopy; Surgical Outcome; Survival Outcome
7.  Impact of body mass index on the prognosis of Korean women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: A cohort study 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(2):115-120.
To analyze how pretreatment body mass index relates to known endometrial cancer prognostic factors and how it impacts the disease-free survival and cause-specific survival of Korean women with endometrial cancer.
The patients were divided into the non-obese (<25 kg/m2) and obese groups (≥25 kg/m2) according to their pretreatment body mass index. The 25 kg/m2 body mass index cut-off was based on the World Health Organization criteria for Asian people. The two groups were compared in terms of their clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes.
A total of 213 consecutive patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus met the eligibility criteria of this study and were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 105 patients had a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2 (non-obese group) and 108 patients had a body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2 (obese group). The two groups did not differ in terms of age, menopause, parity, height, FIGO (International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) stage, tumor grade, tumor size, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, cytology, and lymph node metastasis. Body mass index was not a significant factor for disease-free and cause-specific survival in univariate analysis, and after adjusting for all prognostic factors that were significant in univariate analysis, it did not associate significantly with disease-free and cause-specific survival.
In Korean women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, a high pretreatment body mass index did not associate with other prognostic factors and had little impact on the disease-free survival and cause-specific survival of these women.
PMCID: PMC3965694  PMID: 24678484
Body mass index; Endometrial neoplasms; Obesity; Prognosis
8.  Reproductive outcomes after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer 
The objective of this study was to estimate the reproductive outcome of young women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing laparoscopic radical trachelectomy (LRT).
We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent LRT. Clinicopathological data were obtained from patient medical records, and reproductive outcome data were obtained from patient medical records and telephone interviews.
Fifty-five patients who underwent successful LRT were included in this study. The median age of patients was 32 years (range, 22 to 40 years), and the median follow-up time after LRT was 37 months (range, 3 to 105 months). Menstruation resumed in all patients after LRT, with fifty patients (90.9%) and five patients (9.1%) reporting regular and irregular menstruation, respectively. Six patients (10.9%) presented with cervical stenosis, which was manifested by regular but decreased menstrual flow and newly-developed dysmenorrhea. These patients underwent cervical cannulation and dilatation. Eighteen patients (32.7%) attempted to conceive, with six out of 18 patients receiving fertility treatments. Fourteen pregnancies (i.e., four missed abortions, six preterm births and four full-term births) occurred in 10 patients after LRT. Nine out of 10 patients gave birth to 10 healthy babies. The pregnancy rate after LRT was 55.6% (10/18). The spontaneous abortion rate and live birth rate were 28.6% (4/14) and 71.4% (10/14), respectively. The preterm birth rate was 60% (6/10).
Pregnancy and live birth rates after LRT were promising; however, the preterm birth rate was relatively high. Cervical stenosis also occurred in a small percentage of patients.
PMCID: PMC3893680  PMID: 24459575
Cervical cancer; Fertility; Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy; Pregnancy outcome; Reproductive outcome
9.  Comparison of outcomes between radical hysterectomy followed by tailored adjuvant therapy versus primary chemoradiation therapy in IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2012;23(4):226-234.
To compare survival outcomes and treatment-related morbidities between radical hysterectomy (RH) and primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with bulky early-stage cervical cancer.
We selected 215 patients with stage IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer (tumor diameter > 4 cm on magnetic resonance imaging) who underwent RH followed by tailored adjuvant therapy (n=147) or primary CRT (n=68) at two tertiary referral centers between 2001 and 2010.
About twenty nine percent of patients were cured by RH alone and these patients experienced the best survival outcomes with the lowest morbidity rates. After the median follow-up times of 40 months, 27 RH (18.4%) and 20 CRT (29.4%) patients had recurrence (p=0.068) and 23 (15.6%) and 17 (25%) patients died of disease (p=0.101). The 5-year progression-free survival were 77% and 66% (p=0.047), and the 5-year overall survival were 78% and 67% (p=0.048) after RH and primary CRT, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients who received primary CRT was at higher risk for tumor recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.14; p=0.008) and death (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.53 to 5.98; p=0.001) than those who received RH. Grade 3-4, early (17% vs. 30.9%, p=0.021) and late (1.4% vs. 8.8%, p=0.007) complications were significantly less frequent after RH than primary CRT.
Thirty percent of patients were cured by RH alone. A treatment outcome was better in this retrospective study in terms of morbidity and survival. Randomized trials are needed to confirm this result.
PMCID: PMC3469857  PMID: 23094125
Bulky early-stage cervical cancer; Chemoradiation therapy; Radical hysterectomy; Stage IB2; Stage IIA2
10.  The relationship between cisplatin resistance and histone deacetylase isoform overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2012;23(3):182-189.
To investigate the relationship between cisplatin resistance and histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoform overexpression in ovarian cancer cell lines.
Expression of four HDAC isoforms (HDAC 1, 2, 3, and 4) in two ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR3, exposed to various concentrations of cisplatin was examined by western blot analyses. Cells were transfected with plasmid DNA of each HDAC. The overexpression of protein and mRNA of each HDAC was confirmed by western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. The cell viability of the SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells transfected with HDAC plasmid DNA was measured using the cell counting kit-8 assay after treatment with cisplatin.
The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells can be determined 15-24 hours after treatment with 15 µg/mL cisplatin. The expression level of acetylated histone 3 protein in SKOV3 cells increased after exposure to cisplatin. Compared with control cells at 24 hours after cisplatin exposure, the viability of SKOV3 cells overexpressing HDAC 1 and 3 increased by 15% and 13% (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, OVCAR3 cells that overexpressed HDAC 2 and 4 exhibited increased cell viability by 23% and 20% (p<0.05), respectively, compared with control cells 24 hours after exposure to cisplatin.
In SKOV3 and OVCAR3 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, the correlation between HDAC overexpression and cisplatin resistance was confirmed. However, the specific HDAC isoform associated with resistance to cisplatin varied depending on the ovarian cancer cell line. These results may suggest that each HDAC isoform conveys cisplatin resistance via different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3395014  PMID: 22808361
Cisplatin resistance; Epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines; Histone deacetylase
11.  The effect of combined treatment with cisplatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors on HeLa cells 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2010;21(4):262-268.
To investigate the combined effects of cisplatin and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or sirtinol on HeLa cells and assess the mechanism underlying HDAC inhibitor-cisplatin synergy.
The antineoplastic actions of cisplatin, SAHA and sirtinol, alone and in combination, were evaluated using the tetrazolium dye-based MTT cell proliferation assay, DAPI nuclear staining and cytotoxicity analysis.
Exposure to cisplatin, SAHA or sirtinol alone induced a dose-dependent reduction in HeLa cell viability. Combined treatment with cisplatin and SAHA or sirtinol was significantly more cytotoxic than cisplatin alone. Individually, cisplatin, SAHA and sirtinol activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis, but the effects of combined treatment were greater. Importantly, both HDAC inhibitors dose-dependently inhibited the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP).
The combination of cisplatin and SAHA or sirtinol had synergistic effect on the HeLa cell viability. This potentiation of cisplatin activity was associated with HDAC inhibitor-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-2 and XIAP. These may result from the relaxation of chromatin by these HDAC inhibitors that increase cisplatin sensitivity by enhancing the accessibility of DNA to cisplatin and transcriptional regulators.
PMCID: PMC3026306  PMID: 21278889
Cervical cancer; Apoptosis; Cisplatin; Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; Sirtinol
12.  Efficacy of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy guided by extreme drug resistance assay in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2009;20(2):96-100.
To evaluate the efficacy of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy guided by extreme drug resistance assay (EDRA) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Thirty-nine patients were enrolled, who were diagnosed as epithelial ovarian cancer, tubal cancer or primary peritoneal carcinoma and received both debulking surgery and EDRA in Asan Medical Center between August 2004 and August 2006. Another thirty-nine patients were enrolled, who did not receive EDRA as control. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 5 were administered as primary combination chemotherapy to both EDRA group and the control group. In the EDRA group, paclitaxel was replaced by docetaxel 75 mg/m2 if a patient showed extreme drug resistance (EDR) to paclitaxel and not to docetaxel. Carboplatin was replaced by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 if a patient showed EDR to carboplatin and not to cisplatin. If only one drug showed low drug resistance (LDR), it was allowed to add another drug which showed LDR such as gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2. CT scan was performed every three cycles and CA-125 was checked at each cycle.
There was no significant difference in overall response rate between EDRA group and the control group (84.5% vs. 71.8%, p=0.107). However, 93.8% of patients in EDRA group did not show EDR to at least one drug and its response rate was significantly higher than that of the control group (93.3% vs. 71.8%, p=0.023).
we could choose a combination of taxane and platinum which did not show EDR and could obtain a good response in the patients with ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC2705007  PMID: 19590720
Ovarian neoplasms; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocol; Drug resistance; neoplasm; Biologic assay
13.  Role of high risk-human papilloma virus test in the follow-up of patients who underwent conization of the cervix for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 
To examine whether the presence of high risk-human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) after conization of the cervix was a risk factor for persistence or recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and whether HR-HPV test could be a guideline for post-therapy surveillance.
The study retrospectively analyzed data from 243 patients who underwent LLETZ or CKC of the cervix due to CIN.
A positive HR-HPV test result which was performed between 3 and 6 months after procedure was a risk factor for persistent or recurrent cytological (p<0.001, odds ratio [OR]=22.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]=9.74-52.02) and pathological (p<0.001, OR=18.28, 95% CI=5.55-60.20) abnormalities.
HR-HPV positive patients between 3 and 6 months after procedure should undergo frequent and meticulous post-therapy surveillance, while HR-HPV negative patients do not require such high-level surveillance and could undergo routine surveillance.
PMCID: PMC2705005  PMID: 19590718
HR-HPV; Conization; CIN; Recurrence
14.  Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer classified solely by lymph node metastasis has a more favorable prognosis than other types of stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2008;19(4):223-228.
To verify whether it can be justified to classify patients to stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer based on nodal involvement only.
This study included all consecutive patients with stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent upfront cytoreductive surgery according to the FIGO guideline followed by platinum based chemotherapy from September 1989 to September 2006 at Asan Medical Center.
During the study period, a total of 272 patients met the inclusion criteria. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 213 patients, and complete cytoreduction was achieved in 85 patients. Median follow-up time was 37 months (range, 6-181 months). The 5-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rate of all patients were 23% and 57%, respectively. Forty-one patients were allocated to stage IIIC by positive nodes only. Patients with stage IIIC disease due to positive nodes only had significantly longer DFS and OS compared to other stage IIIC patients (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The DFS and OS of these patients was significantly better than those of other stage IIIC patients who achieved complete or optimal cytoreduction (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The outcome was even better than that of stage IIIA and IIIB patients (p<0.05 and p<0.05).
Patients with stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer due to positive nodes only had a more favorable prognosis compared to other stage IIIC patients. Therefore, reevaluation of the current FIGO staging system for stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer is required.
PMCID: PMC2676474  PMID: 19471577
Epithelial ovarian cancer; Stage IIIC; Lymph node metastasis; Prognosis
15.  Expression profile of histone deacetylases 1, 2 and 3 in ovarian cancer tissues 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2008;19(3):185-190.
To investigate the expression levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1, 2, and 3 in ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovarian tissues.
Randomly assigned each of six patients with serous, mucinous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were included. Another six patients with normal ovarian tissue were included for comparison. RT-PCR was performed to quantify the levels of HDACs1-3 mRNA in the cancer and normal tissues. Western blot analysis was performed to measure the expression levels of HDACs1-3 protein. The HDACs1-3 expression pattern was also topologically examined by immunohistochemistry.
Increased mRNA expressions of HDCA1, HDAC 2 and HDAC 3 were detected in 83%, 67% and 83% of 18 cancer tissue samples, compared to normal tissue samples. The relative densities of HDAC1 mRNA and HDAC3 mRNA in the serous, mucinous and endometrioid cancer tissues, and HDAC2 mRNA in serous cancer tissues were significantly higher than those of the normal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Overexpression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 proteins were detected in 94%, 72% and 83% of 18 cancer samples, respectively. The relative densities of HDAC1 protein and HDAC3 protein in serous, mucinous and endometrioid cancer, and HDAC2 protein in serous and mucinous cancer tissues were significantly higher than those of normal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Most cancer tissues expressed moderate to strong staining of HDACs1, 2 and 3 in immunohistochemistry. Staining of HDAC2 was weak in only one endometrioid cancer tissue.
HDACs1-3 are over expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and probably play a significant role in ovarian carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2676472  PMID: 19471575
HDAC1; HDAC2; HDAC3; Ovarian cancer

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