Recently, rearranged during transfection (RET) fusions have been identified in approximately 1% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To know the prevalence of RET fusion genes in Korean NSCLCs, we examined the RET fusion genes in 156 surgically resected NSCLCs using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Two KIF5B-RET fusions and one CCDC6-RET fusion were identified. All three patients were females and never smokers with adenocarcinomas. RET fusion genes were mutually exclusive from EGFR, KRAS mutations and EML4-ALK fusion. RET fusion genes occur 1.9% (3 of 156) of surgically treated NSCLC patients in Koreans.
RET Fusion; KIF5B; CCDC6; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Korean
MicroRNA plays an important role in human diseases and cancer. We seek to investigate the expression status, clinical relevance, and functional role of microRNA in non-small cell lung cancer.
We performed miRNA expression profiling in matched lung adenocarcinoma and uninvolved lung using 56 pairs of fresh-frozen (FF) and 47 pairs of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from never smokers. The most differentially expressed miRNA genes were evaluated by Cox analysis and Log-Rank test. Among the best candidate, miR-708 was further examined for differential expression in two independent cohorts. Functional significance of miR-708 expression in lung cancer was examined by identifying its candidate mRNA target and through manipulating its expression levels in cultured cells.
Among the 20 miRNAs most differentially expressed between tested tumor and normal samples, high expression level of miR-708 in the tumors was most strongly associated with an increased risk of death after adjustments for all clinically significant factors including age, sex, and tumor stage (FF cohort: HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.35; P=.025 and FFPE cohort: HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.02-3.63; P=.042). The transcript for TMEM88 gene has a miR-708 binding site in its 3′ UTR and was significantly reduced in tumors high of miR-708. Forced miR-708 expression reduced TMEM88 transcript levels and increased the rate of cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in culture.
MicroRNA-708 acts as an oncogene contributing to tumor growth and disease progression by directly down regulating TMEM88, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in lung cancer.
NSCLC; adenocarcinoma; miR-708; never smoker; survival; TMEM88; Wnt signaling
Lung cancer in never-smokers ranks as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide, and the incidence of lung cancer in non-smoking Korean women appears to be steadily increasing. To identify the effect of genetic polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in non-smoking Korean women, we conducted a genome-wide association study of Korean female non-smokers with lung cancer. We analyzed 440,794 genotype data of 285 cases and 1,455 controls, and nineteen SNPs were associated with lung cancer development (P < 0.001). For external validation, nineteen SNPs were replicated in another sample set composed of 293 cases and 495 controls, and only rs10187911 on 2p16.3 was significantly associated with lung cancer development (dominant model, OR of TG or GG, 1.58, P = 0.025). We confirmed this SNP again in another replication set composed of 546 cases and 744 controls (recessive model, OR of GG, 1.32, P = 0.027). OR and P value in combined set were 1.37 and < 0.001 in additive model, 1.51 and < 0.001 in dominant model, and 1.54 and < 0.001 in recessive model. The effect of this SNP was found to be consistent only in adenocarcinoma patients (1.36 and < 0.001 in additive model, 1.49 and < 0.001 in dominant model, and 1.54 and < 0.001 in recessive model). Furthermore, after imputation with HapMap data, we found regional significance near rs10187911, and five SNPs showed P value less than that of rs10187911 (rs12478012, rs4377361, rs13005521, rs12475464, and rs7564130). Therefore, we concluded that a region on chromosome 2 is significantly associated with lung cancer risk in Korean non-smoking women.
Lung Neoplasms; Genome-Wide Association Study; Non-Smoking Women
Cells can resist and even recover from stress induced by acute hypoxia, whereas chronic hypoxia often leads to irreversible damage and eventually death. Although little is known about the response(s) to acute hypoxia in neuronal cells, alterations in ion channel activity could be preferential. This study aimed to elucidate which channel type is involved in the response to acute hypoxia in rat pheochromocytomal (PC12) cells as a neuronal cell model. Using perfusing solution saturated with 95% N2 and 5% CO2, induction of cell hypoxia was confirmed based on increased intracellular Ca2+ with diminished oxygen content in the perfusate. During acute hypoxia, one channel type with a conductance of about 30 pS (2.5 pA at -80 mV) was activated within the first 2~3 min following onset of hypoxia and was long-lived for more than 300 ms with high open probability (Po, up to 0.8). This channel was permeable to Na+ ions, but not to K+, Ca+, and Cl- ions, and was sensitively blocked by amiloride (200 nM). These characteristics and behaviors were quite similar to those of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ENaC channel was endogenously expressed in PC12 cells. Taken together, a 30-pS ENaC-like channel was activated in response to acute hypoxia in PC12 cells. This is the first evidence of an acute hypoxia-activated Na+ channel that can contribute to depolarization of the cell.
Acute hypoxia; Amiloride; Epithelial Na+ channel; PC12 Cells; Rats
Reported herein is an adult case of Fisher syndrome (FS) that occurred as a complication during the course of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A 38-yr-old man who had been treated with antibiotics for serologically proven M. pneumoniae pneumonia presented with a sudden onset of diplopia, ataxic gait, and areflexia. A thorough evaluation including brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, a nerve conduction study, and detection of serum anti-ganglioside GQ1b antibody titers led to the diagnosis of FS. Antibiotic treatment of the underlying M. pneumoniae pneumonia was maintained without additional immunomodulatory agents. A complete and spontaneous resolution of neurologic abnormalities was observed within 1 month, accompanied by resolution of lung lesions.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Fisher Syndrome; Anti-GQ1b Antibody
A genome-wide association study has identified the 15q25 region as being associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Caucasians. This study intended as a confirmatory assessment of this association in a Korean population. The rs6495309C > T polymorphism in the promoter of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit 3 (CHRNA3) gene was investigated in a case-control study that consisted of 406 patients with COPD and 394 healthy control subjects. The rs6495309 CT or TT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the rs6495309 CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.95, P = 0.023). The effect of the rs6495309C > T on the risk of COPD was more evident in moderate to very severe COPD than in mild COPD under a dominant model for the variant T allele (P = 0.024 for homogeneity). The CHRNA3 rs6495309C > T polymorphism on chromosome 15q25 is associated with the risk of COPD in a Korean population.
CHRNA3; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Polymorphism
The purpose of this study was to propose finite element (FE) modeling methods for predicting stress distributions on teeth and mandible under chewing action.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For FE model generation, CT images of skull were translated into 3D FE models, and static analysis was performed considering linear material behaviors and nonlinear geometrical effect. To find out proper boundary and loading conditions, parametric studies were performed with various areas and directions of restraints and loading. The loading directions are prescribed to be same as direction of masseter muscle, which was referred from anatomy chart and CT image. From the analysis, strain and stress distributions of teeth and mandible were obtained and compared with experimental data for model validation.
As a result of FE analysis, the optimized boundary condition was chosen such that 8 teeth were fixed in all directions and condyloid process was fixed in all directions except for forward and backward directions. Also, fixing a part of mandible in a lateral direction, where medial pterygoid muscle was attached, gave the more proper analytical results. Loading was prescribed in a same direction as masseter muscle. The tendency of strain distributions between the teeth predicted from the proposed model were compared with experimental results and showed good agreements.
This study proposes cost efficient FE modeling method for predicting stress distributions on teeth and mandible under chewing action. The proposed modeling method is validated with experimental data and can further be used to evaluate structural safety of dental prosthesis.
Mandible; Stress distribution; Mastication; Finite element analysis
There is a need for new anti-asthmatic medications with fewer side effects. NDC-052, an extract of the medicinal herb Magnoliae flos, which has a long history of clinical use, was recently found to have anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, we evaluated the effects of NDC-052 as an add-on therapy in patients with mild to moderate asthma using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS).
In a non-comparative, multi-center trial, 148 patients taking ICS received NDC-052 for eight weeks. We evaluated their forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), morning and evening peak expiratory flow rate (AM and PM PEFR), AM/PM asthma symptom scores, visual analogue symptom (VAS) scores, night-time wakening, frequency of short-acting β2-agonist usage, and adverse events.
After eight weeks, both AM and PM PEFRs were significantly improved. Asthma symptom scores, VAS scores, the frequency of nights without awakening, and the frequency of β2-agonist use were also reduced. Most of the adverse drug reactions were mild and resolved spontaneously.
The addition of NDC-052 to ICS had a beneficial effect on asthma control in patients with mild to moderate asthma, with good tolerability and fewer side effects. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of NDC-052 in patients with severe and/or refractory asthma.
Asthma; Drugs; Chinese herbal; Magnolin; Magnoliae
Telomerase play a key role in the maintenance of telomere length and chromosome integrity. We have evaluated the association between telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer in peripheral blood. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by a PCR-designed telomeric repeat amplification protocol in 63 lung cancer patients and 190 healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Telomerase activity was significantly lower in the lung cancer patients than in controls (mean ± standard deviation; 1.32 ± 1.65 vs 2.60 ± 3.09, P < 1 × 10-4). When telomerase activity was categorized into quartiles based on telomerase activity in the controls, the risk of lung cancer increased as telomerase activity reduced (Ptrend = 1 × 10-4). Moreover, when the subjects were categorized based on the median value of telomerase activity, subjects with low telomerase activity were at a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to subjects with high telomerase activity (adjusted odds ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.60-5.82, P = 7 × 10-4). These findings suggest that telomerase activity may affect telomere maintenance, thereby contributing to susceptibility to lung cancer.
Lung Cancer; Telomerase Activity; Susceptibility
A fusion gene between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been identified in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Although a few studies have evaluated EML4-ALK fusion genes in Korean NSCLCs, the prevalence of different EML4-ALK fusion variants has yet to be clearly assessed. Herein, we have examined the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLCs. EML4-ALK fusion genes have been detected in 10 (6.0%) of 167 patients of NSCLCs and in 9 (7.4%) of 121 patients of adenocarcinoma. Of the 10 patients with fusion genes identified, 8 (80%) were E13;A20 (variant 1) and 2 (20%) were E6;A20, with an additional 33-bp sequence derived from intron 6 of EML4 (variant 3b). These results indicate that the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLC may differ from those in other ethnic populations. Herein, we describe for the first time the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion variants of Korean patients with NSCLCs.
ALK; EML4; Carcinoma; Non-Small-Cell Lung
Apoptosis plays an essential role in the elimination of mutated or transformed cells from the body. Therefore, polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes may lead to an alteration in apoptotic capacity, thereby affecting the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer. We investigated the relationship between potentially functional polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes and TP53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 apoptosis-related genes were genotyped by a sequenome mass spectrometry-based genotyping assay in 173 NSCLCs and the associations with TP53 mutations in the entire coding exons (exons 2-11), including splicing sites of the gene, were analyzed. None of the 27 polymorphisms was significantly associated with the occurrence of TP53 mutations. This suggests that apoptosis-related genes may not play an important role in the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer.
Lung Neoplasms; Apoptosis; TP53 Mutation; Polymorphism, Genetic
microRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in cancer development and progression by regulating the expression of proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Our previous study using microarrays demonstrated that miR-99b was downregulated in patients with lung cancer. To assess whether or not miR-99b has a functional role in lung cancer, we determined the expression of miR-99b and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which is a predicted target of miR-99b in public algorithms in human lung cancer tissues. miR-99b was downregulated and FGFR3 was upregulated in lung cancer patients. We demonstrated that the overexpression of miR-99b induced a reduction in FGFR3 expression and confirmed the target specificity between miR-99b and the FGFR3 3′-untranslated region by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, the growth rate in miR-99b precursor-treated cells was lower compared to the negative controls. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99b may be a tumor suppressor through the downregulation of FGFR3. miR-99b may be a potent tumor suppressor and may be a potential therapeutic tool for patients with lung cancer.
microRNA; lung cancer; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3; tumor-suppressor
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay in inpatients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with pulmonary infiltrates who required a differential diagnosis with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).
The patients with pulmonary infiltrates who received a QuantiFERON (QFT) test in the ED were included as an inpatient group and were divided into TB and non-TB group based on the final diagnosis. Patients with pulmonary TB who were tested in the outpatient department served as a control group.
In total, 377 QFT tests were analyzed. Of the 284 inpatient QFT tests, 29.6% had an indeterminate result (35.2% in the 196 patients with non-TB and 17.0% in the 88 patients with TB). In contrast, only 1.1% of the 93 outpatients with TB returned an indeterminate result (p < 0.001). The indeterminate QFT results in the inpatient group were independently associated with lymphocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and high C-reactive protein levels. Non-positive QFT results in inpatients with TB were associated with lymphocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, while non-positive QFT results in outpatients with TB were associated with high erythrocyte sedimentation rates and radiographically more severe diseases.
QFT tests in ED-based inpatients with pulmonary infiltrate return indeterminate results relatively frequently. In addition, inpatients and outpatients with pulmonary TB may differ in terms of the risk factors on non-positive QFT results.
The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden.
We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju.
The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel.
We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields.
Occupational cancer; Lung cancer; Surveillance; Occupational disease burden; Asbestos
Although TP53 mutations have been widely studied in lung cancer, the majority of studies have focused on exons 5-8 of the gene. In addition, TP53 mutations in Korean patients with lung cancers have not been investigated. We searched for mutations in the entire coding exons, including splice sites of the gene, in Korean patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mutations of the gene were determined by direct sequencing in 176 NSCLCs. Sixty-nine mutations (62 different mutations) were identified in 65 tumors. Of the 62 mutations, 12 were novel mutations. TP53 mutations were more frequent in males, ever-smokers and squamous cell carcinomas than in females, never-smokers and adenocarcinomas, respectively (all comparisons, P<0.001). Missense mutations were most common (52.2%), but frameshift, nonsense, and splice-site mutations were frequently observed at frequencies of 18.8%, 15.9% and 10.1%, respectively. Of the 69 mutations, 9 (13.0%) were found in the oligomerization domain. In addition, the proportion of mutations in the oligomerization domain was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas (23.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.01). Our study provides clinical and molecular characteristics of TP53 mutations in Korean patients with NSCLCs.
Lung Neoplasms; Mutation; Genes, p53
In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, data of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are lacking as studied by computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography and indirect CT venography (CTPA-CTV). A prospective observational study was performed for 363 Korean patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially proximal DVT and PE. The incidence of VTE was 16.3% (n=59). Of them, 8 patients (2.2%) were symptomatic. The rate of VTE was the highest in patients who underwent total knee replacement (40.4%), followed by hip fracture surgery (16.4%), and total hip replacement (8.7%; P<0.001). The incidence of PE was 6.6% (n=24). Of them, 4 patients (1.1%) were symptomatic. Forty-one patients (11.3%) were in the proximal DVT or PE group. Based on multivariate analysis, total knee replacement and age ≥65 yr were significant risk factors for proximal DVT or PE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.1; P=0.025; and OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.4; P=0.046, respectively). Taken together, the overall incidence of PE was 6.6% and rate of symptomatic PE rate was 1.1%. Knee joint replacement and age ≥65 yr were significant risk factors for proximal DVT or PE.
Orthopedics; Venous Thromboembolism; Pulmonary Embolism; Computed Tomography
A number of genome-wide linkage analyses have identified the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region as most likely to contain the genes that contribute to the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was hypothesized that the SERPINE2 gene, which is one of the genes located at the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region, may act as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for COPD. To test this hypothesis, the association of four SERPINE2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs16865421A>G, rs7583463A>C, rs729631C>G, and rs6734100C>G) with the risk of COPD was investigated in a case-control study of 311 COPD patients and 386 controls. The SNP rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD in a dominant model for the polymorphic allele (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.45-0.97, P=0.03). In haplotype analysis, the GACC haplotype carrying the polymorphic allele at the rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the AACC haplotype (adjusted OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.38-0.89, P=0.01), and this effect was evident in younger individuals (adjusted OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.14-0.64, P=0.002). This study suggests that the SERPINE2 gene contributes to the susceptibility to COPD.
Serpine2; Polymorphism; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has many adverse effects including cardiovascular (CV) risk. Diclofenac among the nonselective NSAIDs has the highest CV risk such as congestive heart failure, which resulted commonly from the impaired cardiac pumping due to a disrupted excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. We investigated the effects of diclofenac on the L-type calcium channels which are essential to the E-C coupling at the level of single ventricular myocytes isolated from neonatal rat heart, using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Only diclofenac of three NSAIDs, including naproxen and ibuprofen, significantly reduced inward whole cell currents. At concentrations higher than 3 µM, diclofenac inhibited reversibly the Na+ current and did irreversibly the L-type Ca2+ channels-mediated inward current (IC50=12.89±0.43 µM) in a dose-dependent manner. However, nifedipine, a well-known L-type channel blocker, effectively inhibited the L-type Ca2+ currents but not the Na+ current. Our finding may explain that diclofenac causes the CV risk by the inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channel, leading to the impairment of E-C coupling in cardiac myocytes.
Diclofenac; L-type Ca2+ current; Rat cardiac myocytes; NSAID
Single-channel recordings of TASK-1 and TASK-3, members of two-pore domain K+ channel family, have not yet been reported in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, even though their mRNA and activity in whole-cell currents have been detected in these neurons. Here, we report single-channel kinetics of the TASK-3-like K+ channel in DRG neurons and up-regulation of TASK-3 mRNA expression in tissues isolated from animals with spinal cord injury (SCI). In DRG neurons, the single-channel conductance of TASK-3-like K+ channel was 33.0±0.1 pS at -60 mV, and TASK-3 activity fell by 65±5% when the extracellular pH was changed from 7.3 to 6.3, indicating that the DRG K+ channel is similar to cloned TASK-3 channel. TASK-3 mRNA and protein levels in brain, spinal cord, and DRG were significantly higher in injured animals than in sham-operated ones. These results indicate that TASK-3 channels are expressed and functional in DRG neurons and the expression level is up-regulated following SCI, and suggest that TASK-3 channel could act as a potential background K+ channel under SCI-induced acidic condition.
Two-pore domain K+ channel; Dorsal root ganglion; Spinal cord injuries; Acidosis
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) leads to residual pleural opacity (RPO) in a significant proportion of cases. The aim of this study was to investigate which TPE patients would have RPO following the treatment. This study was performed prospectively for a total of 60 TPE patients, who underwent pleural fluid analysis on the initial visit and chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans before and after the administration of antituberculous medication. At the end of antituberculous medication, the incidence of RPO was 68.3% (41/60) on CT with a range of 2-50 mm. Compared with the non-RPO group, the RPO group had a longer symptom duration and lower pleural fluid glucose level. On initial CT, loculation, extrapleural fat proliferation, increased attenuation of extrapleural fat, and pleura-adjacent atelectasis were more frequent, and parietal pleura was thicker in the RPO group compared with the non-RPO group. By multivariate analysis, extrapleural fat proliferation, loculated effusion, and symptom duration were found to be predictors of RPO in TPE. In conclusion, RPO in TPE may be predicted by the clinico-radiologic parameters related to the chronicity of the effusion, such as symptom duration and extrapleural fat proliferation and loculated effusion on CT.
Computed Tomography; Pleural Effusion; Residual Thickening; Tuberculosis
Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor, we evaluated the potential association of two VEGF gene polymorphisms (-634G>C and 936C>T) with the susceptibility and the clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC). The VEGF genotypes were determined using fresh colorectal tissue from 465 patients who had undergone a surgical resection and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 413 healthy controls by PCR/DHPLC assay. For the -634G>C polymorphism, the -634 GC or CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; p=0.001) as a dominant model of C allele, whereas the 936 TT genotype correlated with advanced stage/ metastasis, a high serum level of CA19-9, and an higher grade in patients with CRC. In the haplotype analyses, haplotype -634C/936C and -634G/936T were associated with a decreased susceptibility of CRC (OR, 0.53 and 0.56; p<0.001, respectively). These observations imply that the VEGF gene polymorphisms may be associated with the susceptibility or clinicopathologic features of CRC. However, further studies of other VEGF sequence variants and their biological functions are needed to understand the role of the VEGF gene polymorphisms in the development and progression of CRC.
Angiogenesis; Colorectal Neoplasms; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; Polymorphism, Genetic
Organotypic slice cultures have been developed as an alternative to acute brain slices because the neuronal viability and synaptic connectivity in these cultures can be preserved well for a prolonged period of time. This study evaluated a stationary organotypic slice culture developed for the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rat. The results showed that the slice cultures maintain the typical shape of the nucleus, the immunocytochemical signals for oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone, and the electrophysiological properties of PVN neurons for up to 3 weeks in vitro. The PVN neurons in the culture expressed the green fluorescent protein gene that had been delivered by the adenoviral vectors. The results indicate that the cultured slices preserve the properties of the PVN neurons, and can be used in longterm studies on these neurons in vitro.
electrophysiology; green fluorescent protein; immunocytochemistry; organotypic slice culture; paraventricular nucleus
Ca2+ signaling is an important determining factor in many cellular processes, especially in cancer cell proliferation, motility and invasion. Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain cancer with its average survival time of less than a year, with the most prominent cellular feature being the ability of these cells to migrate to and invade the neighboring tissue. We hypothesized that disturbing the Ca2+ signaling pathway would decrease the propensity for these cells to migrate. Thus, we investigated the detailed Ca2+ signaling pathway of the glioblastoma cells in response to various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Here we report that caffeine, which is a well-known activator of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), paradoxically inhibits inositol-1, 4, 5-triphospate receptor(IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ increase by selectively targeting IP3R subtype 3(IP3R3), whose mRNA expression is significantly increased in glioblastoma cells. Consequently, by inhibiting IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ release, caffeine was found to inhibit the invasion and migration of various glioblastoma cell lines in scrape motility, Matrigel invasion, soft agar, and brain slice implantation assays. In a mouse xenograft model of glioblastoma, caffeine intake via drinking water greatly increased mean survival duration of subject animals. These findings propose IP3R3 as a novel target for glioblastoma treatment and that caffeine may be a useful adjunct therapy that slows glioblastoma invasion and migration by selectively targeting IP3R3.
Although ARS-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2, also named as MSC p38) was first found as a component for a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex, it was recently discovered to dissociate from the complex and work as a potent tumor suppressor. Upon DNA damage, AIMP2 promotes apoptosis through the protective interaction with p53. However, it was not demonstrated whether AIMP2 was indeed pathologically linked to human cancer. In this work, we found that a splicing variant of AIMP2 lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2) is highly expressed by alternative splicing in human lung cancer cells and patient's tissues. AIMP2-DX2 compromised pro-apoptotic activity of normal AIMP2 through the competitive binding to p53. The cells with higher level of AIMP2-DX2 showed higher propensity to form anchorage-independent colonies and increased resistance to cell death. Mice constitutively expressing this variant showed increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. The expression ratio of AIMP2-DX2 to normal AIMP2 was increased according to lung cancer stage and showed a positive correlation with the survival of patients. Thus, this work identified an oncogenic splicing variant of a tumor suppressor, AIMP2/p38, and suggests its potential for anti-cancer target.
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of death resulting from cancer. Despite intensive investigation, effective therapeutic targets and reliable biomarkers are still limited. Here we found that a tumor suppressor, AIMP2 (MSC p38), produces a variant lacking a part of its structure in cancer tissues. We designated it AIMP2-DX2. This smaller version of AIMP2 compromises the normal tumor suppressive activity of AIMP2 and induces tumor formation. We also found that the expression of AIMP2-DX2 was increased according to cancer progression. In addition, the patients with higher expression of AIMP2-DX2 showed lower survival than those with lower levels of this variant. Suppression of AIMP2-DX2 slowed tumor growth, suggesting it as a new therapeutic target. In summary, this work newly identified a tumor-inducing factor, AIMP2-DX2, that can be used as a therapeutic target and biomarker associated with lung cancer.