This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features of juvenile polyp and the usefulness of polypectomy with entire colonoscopy in children.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 83 children who were diagnosed with having juvenile polyps.
The mean age of the patients was 6.5±3.7 (range 1.3-14.5 years) years. The male to female ratio was 2.1 : 1. Eighty one patients (97.6%) had hematochezia, of which the observed characteristics included red stool (74.1%), blood on wipe (13.6%). The time interval between the 1st episode of hematochezia and colonoscopy was 8.9±20.4 (ranged 0.1-48.0) months. The most proximal regions of colonoscopic approach were terminal ileum (96.4%). Sixty three patients (75.9%) had a solitary polyp and 20 patients (24.1%) had multiple polyps. The sites of the polyps were rectum (61.4%), sigmoid colon (23.5%). Eighteen polyps (15.1%) were found more proximal locations than rectosigmoid. The polyp size ranged from 0.3 to 5 cm. After the polypectomy, hematochezia recurred in 9 patients. Endoscopic hemostasis was performed in 2 patients due to severe bleeding. All procedures were carried out without using general anesthesia.
Juvenile polyp occurred in a wide range locations and had variable sizes and numbers, suggesting that colonoscopy on the entire colon is necessary. Colonoscopic polypectomy is a simple and useful therapeutic method in children with juvenile polyp.
Juvenile polyp; Colonoscopy; Polypectomy; Child
The safety and effectiveness of colonoscopy in the investigation of lower gastrointestinal tract pathology in children has been established for more than 2 decades in Korea. Skill and experience have since advanced to the point that both diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy are now routinely performed by most pediatric gastroenterologists. Pediatric colonoscopy differs significantly from its adult parallels in nearly every aspect including patient and parent management and preparation, selection criteria for sedation and general anesthetic, bowel preparation, expected diagnoses, instrument selection, imperative for terminal ileal intubation, and requirement for biopsies from macroscopically normal mucosa. Investigation of inflammatory bowel disease, whether for diagnosis or follow-up evaluation, and suspected colonic polyps are the most common indication for pediatric colonoscopy. The child who presents with signs and symptoms of lower gastrointestinal disorder should undergo colonoscopy with biopsy to make the diagnosis, as well as to help determine the appropriate therapy. This review introduces practical information on pediatric colonoscopy, the author's experiences, and the role of colonoscopic examination in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric lower gastrointestinal disorders.
Catalytic iron nanoparticles generated by spark discharge were used to site-selectively grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and control their density. The generated aerosol nanoparticles were deposited on a cooled substrate by thermophoresis. The shadow mask on top of the cooled substrate enabled patterning of the catalytic nanoparticles and, thereby, patterning of CNTs synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The density of CNTs could be controlled by varying the catalytic nanoparticle deposition time. It was also demonstrated that the density could be adjusted by changing the gap between the shadow mask and the substrate, taking advantage of the blurring effect of the deposited nanoparticles, for an identical deposition time. As all the processing steps for the patterned growth and density control of CNTs can be performed under dry conditions, we also demonstrated the integration of CNTs on fully processed, movable silicon microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structures.
Carbon nanotubes; Thermophoresis; Patterning; Spark discharge; Chemical vapor deposition
The emission of the airborne particles from epoxy resin test sticks with different CNT loadings and two commercial products were characterized while sanding with three grit sizes and three disc sander speeds. The total number concentrations, respirable mass concentrations, and particle size number/mass distributions of the emitted particles were measured using a condensation particle counter, an optical particle counter, and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The emitted particles were sampled on a polycarbonate filter and analyzed using electron microscopy. The highest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 4670 particles/cm3) were produced with coarse sandpaper, 2% (by weight) CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed, whereas the lowest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 92 particles/cm3) were produced with medium sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and slow disc sander speed. Respirable mass concentrations were highest (arithmetic mean = 1.01 mg/m3) for fine sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed and lowest (arithmetic mean = 0.20 mg/m3) for medium sandpaper, 0% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed. For CNT-epoxy samples, airborne particles were primarily micrometer-sized epoxy cores with CNT protrusions. No free CNTs were observed in airborne samples, except for tests conducted with 4% CNT epoxy. The number concentration, mass concentration, and size distribution of airborne particles generated when products containing CNTs are sanded depends on the conditions of sanding and the characteristics of the material being sanded.
Airborne particles; Carbon nanotubes; Number concentration; Particle size distribution; Respirable mass concentration; Sanding
The airway management of patients with subglottic stenosis poses many challenges for the anesthesiologists. Many anesthesiologists use a narrow endotracheal tube for airway control. This, however, can lead to complications such as tracheal mucosal trauma, tracheal perforation or bleeding. The ASA difficult airway algorithm recommends the use of supraglottic airway devices in a failed intubation/ventilation scenario. In this report, we present a case of failed intubation in a patient with subglottic stenosis successfully managed during an i-gel™ supraglottic airway device. The device provided a good seal, and allowed for controlled mechanical ventilation with acceptable peak pressures while the patient was in the beach-chair position.
Airway management; Subglottic stenosis
Internal hernia (IH) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction occurs when there is protrusion of an internal organ into a retroperitoneal fossa or a foramen in the abdominal cavity. IH can be presented with acute or chronic abdominal symptom and discovered by accident in operation field. However, various kinds of imaging modalities often do not provide the assistance to diagnose IH preoperatively, but computed tomography (CT) scan has a high diagnostic accuracy. We report a case of congenital IH in a 6-year-old boy who experienced life threatening shock. CT scan showed large amount of ascites, bowel wall thickening with poor or absent enhancement of the strangulated bowel segment. Surgical exploration was performed immediately and had to undergo over two meters excision of strangulated small bowel. To prevent the delay in the diagnosis of IH, we should early use of the CT scan and take urgent operation.
Intestinal obstruction; Hernia; Child
Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.
To investigate the association between necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants.
We studied were 180 VLBW preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of CHA Gangnam Hospital from January of 2006 to December of 2009. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: an NEC group (greater than stage II on the modified Bell's criteria) and a control group (less than stage II on the modified Bell's critieria). We defined red blood cell transfusion before NEC diagnosis as the frequency of transfusion until NEC diagnosis (mean day at NEC diagnosis, day 18) in the NEC group and the frequency of transfusion until 18 days after birth in the control group.
Of the 180 subjects, 18 (10%) belonged to the NEC group, and 14 (78%) of these 18 patients had a history of transfusion before NEC diagnosis. The NEC group received 3.1±2.9 transfusions, and the control group received 1.0±1.1 transfusions before the NEC diagnosis (P=0.005). In a multivariate logistic regression corrected for gestational age, Apgar score at 1 minute, the presence of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, premature rupture of membrane, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death were confounding factors. The risk of NEC increased 1.63 times (95% confidence interval, 1.145 to 2.305; P=0.007) with transfusion before the NEC diagnosis.
The risk for NEC increased significantly with increased transfusion frequency before the NEC diagnosis.
Necrotizing enterocolitis; Very low birth weight infants; Red blood cell transfusion
Exercise-induced atrioventricular (AV) block in patients with normal AV conduction at rest is rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 67-year-old woman with normal 1 : 1 AV conduction at rest, who developed complete AV block during a treadmill test. Our patient complained of effort-related dizziness and dyspnea, which had been ongoing for 3 months. The patient's physical examination was normal. The resting electrocardiogram showed left anterior fascicular block with a PR interval of 0.19 seconds. The echocardiogram was normal except for mild aortic valve regurgitation. During the treadmill test, the patient developed complete AV block at a sinus rate of 90 beats/min, which was followed by 2 : 1 AV block associated with dyspnea and dizziness. The patient's coronary angiogram was normal, and the ergonovine provocation test was negative. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated rate-dependent intranodal AV block. The patient received implantation of a permanent dual chamber (DDD) pacemaker and had no further symptoms during the follow-up period.
Atrioventricular block; Exercise test; Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac
Background and Objectives
Statin prevents atherosclerotic progression and helps to stabilize the plaque. According to a recent study, statin reduces inflammation in blood vessels. However, it has not been demonstrated to have any anti-inflammation reaction in patients who have been diagnosed as having a triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD).
Subjects and Methods
This study included a total of thirty (30) patients who had been diagnosed by coronary angiogram as having a triple-vessel CAD. Patients who already had been taking statin were given doubled dosage. An interview, physical examination and blood test were performed at the beginning of this study and three months later.
After doubling the dose of statin, there was no statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, (increase in) high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood test. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase reactant, significantly decreased from 0.34 mg/dL at the beginning of the study to 0.12 mg/dL at the end of study (p<0.01). The interleukin-6 concentration also significantly decreased from 8.55 pg/dL to 4.81 pg/dL (p<0.001). No major cardiovascular events occurred and the dosage regimen was not modified during the close observation period. There was no difference in the symptoms of angina pectoris, established by World Health Organization Angina Questionnaires, before and after the dose increase. Liver enzymes remained within normal range with no significant increase before and after conducting this study.
Doubling the dose of statin alone significantly lowers pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration, which is closely related to the potential acute coronary syndrome, and CRP, a marker of vascular inflammation.
Statin; C-reactive protein; Interleukin-6
Background and Objectives
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an important marker for the diagnosis of heart failure and is useful towards predicting morbidity and mortality after non-cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, information on the relationship between postoperative BNP levels and perioperative prognosis after non-cardiac surgery is scarce. The purpose of the study was to assess whether postoperative BNP levels could be used as a predictor of prolonged hospitalization in elderly hypertensive patients after non-cardiac surgery.
Subjects and Methods
Ninety-seven (97) patients, aged 55 years or older (mean age: 73.12±10.05 years, M : F=24 : 73) were enrolled in a prospective study from May 2005 through August 2010. All patients underwent total knee or hip replacement. Postoperative BNP and other diagnostic data were recorded within 24 hours of surgery. Patients that required a prolonged hospital stay due to operative causes, such as wound infection and re-operation, were excluded.
The length of hospital stay was significantly correlated with postoperative BNP levels (p=0.031). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated postoperative BNP levels as predictors of hospital stay ≥30 days with areas under the curve of 0.774 (95% confidence interval: 0.679-0.87, p<0.0001). A BNP cut-off value above 217.5 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 66.7% for predicting postoperative hospital stays of 30 days or more.
Postoperative BNP levels may predict the length of hospital stays after non-cardiac surgery in hypertensive patients. Elevated BNP levels were associated with prolonged hospitalization after elective orthopedic surgery.
Natriuretic peptin, brain; Hospitalization; Postoperative period; Hypertension
The transoral removal of stones by sialodochoplasty has been popularized in the treatment of submandibular sialolithiasis. However, the effectiveness of sialodochoplasty is controversial, and there are no reports on the long-term outcomes of this procedure. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of sialodochoplasty in patients with submandibular sialolithiasis.
We conducted a cross-sectional study that included retrospective chart reviews and prospective telephone or interview surveys of 150 patients treated for submandibular sialolithiasis from March 2001 to January 2008. The patients were treated with two different procedures by two different surgeons. One surgeon performed a transoral sialolithectomy without sialodochoplasty in 107 patients (SS group), and the other surgeon performed a transoral sialolithectomy with sialodochoplasty in 43 patients (SP group).
The success rate of transoral sialolithectomy was 98.1% in the SS group and 93% in the SP group. The recurrence rates of symptoms or stones were 1.9% and 4.7% in the SS and SP groups, respectively. The incidence of postoperative transient hypoesthesia was 13.1% in the SS group and 34.9% in the SP group. The mean operating times were 29.79 and 47.44 minutes in the SS and SP groups, respectively. The mean percentage of general anesthesia was 42.1% in the SS group and 83.7% in the SP group.
Sialodochoplasty in addition to transoral sialolithectomy for submandibular sialolithiasis did not affect the rate of symptom or stone recurrence, but did increase the postoperative hypoesthesia incidence and general anesthesia percentage.
Stone; Sialolithiasis; Sialodochoplasty
Surgical excision was performed on a 30-years old woman with a painful mass on her left thigh. The pathologic findings on the mass indicated fibromatosis. After the operation, she complained of allodynia and spontaneous pain at the operation site and ipsilateral lower leg. We treated her based on postoperative femoral neuropathy, but symptom was aggravated. We found a large liposarcoma in her left iliopsoas muscle which compressed the lumbar plexus. In conclusion, the cause of pain was lumbar plexopathy related to a mass in the left iliopsoas muscle. Prompt diagnosis of acute neuropathic pain after an operation is important and management must be based on exact causes.
fibromatosis; liposarcoma; neuropathic pain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of six Yukatan minipig brains was performed. The animals were placed in stereotaxic conditions currently used in experiments. To allow for correctpositioning of the animal in the MRI instrument, landmarks were previously traced on the snout of the pig. To avoid movements, animal were anesthetized. The animals were placed in a prone position in a Siemens Magnetom Avanto 1.5 System with a head coil. Axial T2-weighted and sagittal T1-weighted MRI images were obtained from each pig. Afterwards, the brains of the pigs were fixed and cut into axial sections. Histologic and MR images were compared. The usefulness of this technique is discussed.
Brain; Yukatan minipigs; magnetic resonance imaging; neurologic disorder
Osteoclasts, together with osteoblasts, control the amount of bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) acts as a signal mediator in osteoclast differentiation. Simvastatin, which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, is a hypolipidemic drug which is known to affect bone metabolism and suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we analyzed whether simvastatin can inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through suppression of the subsequently formed ROS and investigated whether simvastatin can inhibit H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclast differentiation. We found that simvastatin decreased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a genetic marker of osteoclast differentiation, and inhibited intracellular ROS generation in RAW 264.7 cell lines. ROS generation activated NF-κB, protein kinases B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways such as c-JUN N-terminal kinases, p38 MAP kinases as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Simvastatin was found to suppress these H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Together, these results indicate that simvastatin acts as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor through suppression of ROS-mediated signaling pathways. This indicates that simvastatin has potential usefulness for osteoporosis and pathological bone resorption.
bone resorption; mitogen-activated protein kinases; osteoclast; RANK ligand; reactive oxygen species; simvastatin
Due primarily to the increasing shortage of allogeneic donor organs, xenotransplantation has become the focus of a growing field of research. Currently, micropigs are the most suitable donor animal for humans. However, no standard method has been developed to evaluate the systemic vascular anatomy of micropigs and standard reference values to aid in the selection of normal healthy animals as potential organ donors are lacking. Using 64-channel multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), we evaluated morphological features of the major systemic vessels in micropigs and compared our results to published human data. The main vasculature of the animals was similar to that of humans, except for the iliac arterial system. However, diameters of the major systemic vessels were significantly different between micropigs and humans. Specifically, the diameter of the aortic arch, abdominal aorta, external iliac artery, and femoral artery, were measured as 1.50 ± 0.07 cm, 0.85 ± 0.06 cm, 0.52 ± 0.05 cm, and 0.48 ± 0.05 cm, respectively, in the micropigs. This MDCTA data for micropig major systemic vessels can be used as standard reference values for xenotransplantation studies. The use of 64-channel MDCTA enables accurate evaluation of the major systemic vasculature in micropigs.
MDCTA; micropig; vessel; xenotransplantation
Polyphosphate [poly(P)] has antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria are generally resistant to poly(P). Here, we describe the antibacterial characterization of poly(P) against a Gram-negative periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. The MICs of pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7) and all poly(P) (Nan + 2PnO3n + 1; n = 3 to 75) tested for the bacterium by the agar dilution method were 0.24% and 0.06%, respectively. Orthophosphate (Na2HPO4) failed to inhibit bacterial growth. Poly-P75 was chosen for further study. In liquid medium, 0.03% poly-P75 was bactericidal against P. gingivalis irrespective of the growth phase and inoculum size, ranging from 105 to109 cells/ml. UV-visible spectra of the pigments from P. gingivalis grown on blood agar with or without poly-P75 showed that poly-P75 reduced the formation of μ-oxo bisheme by the bacterium. Poly-P75 increased hemin accumulation on the P. gingivalis surface and decreased energy-driven uptake of hemin by the bacterium. The expression of the genes encoding hemagglutinins, gingipains, hemin uptake loci, chromosome replication, and energy production was downregulated, while that of the genes related to iron storage and oxidative stress was upregulated by poly-P75. The transmission electron microscope showed morphologically atypical cells with electron-dense granules and condensed nucleoid in the cytoplasm. Collectively, poly(P) is bactericidal against P. gingivalis, in which hemin/heme utilization is disturbed and oxidative stress is increased by poly(P).
It is generally accepted that morphine affords cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is considered an end target for cardioprotection. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of opioid receptors (OR) and MPTP in morphine-induced postconditioning (M-Post).
Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Hearts were treated with 1 µM morphine, with or without the OR antagonists or a MPTP opener at early reperfusion. Infarct size was measured with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining.
There were no significant differences in cardiodynamic variables except a decrease in heart rate in the M-Post group (P < 0.01 vs. control) after reperfusion. M-Post dramatically reduced infarct-risk volume ratio (9.8 ± 2.5%, P < 0.001 vs. 30.0 ± 3.7% in control). This beneficial effect on infarct volume by M-Post was comparable with ischemic postconditioning (11.9 ± 2.2%, P > 0.05). The nonspecific OR antagonist naloxone (25.7 ± 1.9%, P < 0.01), the δ-OR antagonist naltrindole (27.8 ± 4.3%, P < 0.05) and δ1-OR antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (24.7 ± 3.7%, P < 0.01) totally abrogated the anti-infarct effect of M-Post. In addition, the anti-infarct effect by M-Post was also totally blocked by the MPTP opener atractyloside (26.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.05).
M-Post effectively reduces myocardial infarction. The anti-infarct effect by M-Post is mediated via activation of δ-OR, especially δ1-OR, and inhibition of the MPTP opening.
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Morphine; Opioid receptors; Postconditioning; Reperfusion injury
Micropigs are the most likely source animals for xenotransplantation. However, an appropriate method for evaluating the lung of micropigs had not been established. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of 64-channel multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) to measure the diameter of the pulmonary arteries and the lung volume in micropigs. The mean diameters of the trachea, and left and right bronchi were 1.6 ± 0.17, 1.18 ± 0.14, and 1.1 ± 0.11 cm, respectively. The mean diameters of the main, right, and left pulmonary arteries were 1.38 ± 0.09, 1.07 ± 0.26, and 0.98 ± 0.13 cm and the diameters of right, left, and common inferior pulmonary veins were 0.97 ± 0.20, 0.76 ± 0.20, and 1.99 ± 0.26 cm, respectively. The mean lung volume was 820.3 ± 77.11 mL. The data presented in this study suggest that the MDCT may be a noninvasive, rapid, and accurate investigational method for pulmonary anatomy in living lung donors.
lung; micropig; multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT)
In this paper, we describe an approach to generate microporous cell-laden hydrogels for fabricating biomimetic tissue engineered constructs. Micropores at different length scales were fabricated in cell-laden hydrogels by micromolding fluidic channels and leaching sucrose crystals. Microengineered channels were created within cell-laden hydrogel precursors that contained agarose solution mixed with sucrose crystals. The rapid cooling of the agarose solution was used to gel the solution and form micropores in place of the sucrose crystals. The sucrose leaching process generated micropores that were homogeneously distributed within the gels, while enabling the direct immobilization of cells within the gels. We also characterized the physical, mechanical, and biological properties (i.e. microporosity, diffusivity, and cell viability) of cell-laden agarose gels as a function of engineered porosity. The microporosity was controlled from 0% to 40% and the diffusivity of molecules in the porous agarose gels increased as compared to controls. Furthermore, the viability of human hepatocyte cells that were cultured in microporous agarose gels corresponded to the diffusion profile generated away from the microchannels. Based on their enhanced diffusive properties, microporous cell-laden hydrogels containing a microengineered fluidic channel could be a useful tool for generating tissue structures for regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications.
Microporous; Agarose; Cell-laden hydrogel; Tissue engineering
A 51-yr-old man presented with an enlarged right testis for two months. The radically resected testis showed a relatively well-circumscribed ovoid mass, nearly replacing the normal architecture with central cystic changes. Microscopically, the mass was composed of ovoid shaped tumor cells of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The central portion of the mass was filled with well-formed laminated keratinous materials and the remnant cavity lined by dysplastic squamous epithelium, indicated SCC may be derived from an epidermal cyst. SCC is among the most common types of neoplasm afflicting human beings, but it is rare in the testis. To our knowledge, this is the second report of the testicular squamous cell carcinoma occurring in a patient without other primary tumors, and the firstly reported case in Korea.
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Testis
Gastroblastoma is a rare gastric epitheliomesenchymal biphasic tumour composed of spindle and epithelial cells, reported by Miettinen et al in a series of three cases in 2009. All those cases arose in stomachs of young adults. Neither the epithelial nor the mesenchymal component displayed sufficient atypia to diagnose a carcinosarcoma or other malignancy. On immunohistochemistry, the epithelial component expressed cytokeratin, and the mesenchymal component was positive for vimentin and CD10. Miettinen et al designated these neoplasms as gastroblastomas based on their similarities with other childhood blastomas such as pleuropulmonary blastoma and nephroblastoma. This report describes a probable fourth case of this unique type of neoplasm. The present case arose in the gastric antrum of a 9-year-old boy. While similarities were evident with the other cases, there were some differences. The epithelial component was more predominant and showed more mature morphology. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial component showed immunolabelling for c-KIT and CD56. The mesenchymal component was only focally positive for CD10. Ultrastructually, desmosomes and microvilli were found supporting a truly epithelial lesion.
Gastric; neoplasms; paediatric pathology
Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) provides anatomical information about the kidney and other internal organs. Presently, the suitability of 64-channel MDCT to assess the kidney of healthy micropigs was evaluated. Morphological evaluations of the kidney and the major renal vessels of six healthy micropigs were carried out using MDCT, recording kidney volume and the diameter and length of renal arteries and veins. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal artery were 0.44 ± 0.05 and 4.51 ± 0.55 cm on the right side and 0.46 ± 0.06 and 3.36 ± 0.27 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal vein were 1.44 ± 0.52 and 4.22 ± 1.29 cm on the right side and 1.38 ± 0.17 and 5.15 ± 0.87 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean volume of the right kidney was 79.3 ± 14.5 mL and of the left kidney was 78.0 ± 13.9 mL. The data presented in this study suggest that the MDCT offers a noninvasive, rapid, and accurate method for the evaluation of the renal anatomy in living kidney donors. It also provides sufficient information about extra-renal anatomy important for donor surgery and determination of organ suitability.
kidney; micropig; multidetector row computed tomography; renal vessels
A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner’s performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.
nano-scanner; atomic force microscope; flexure-guide; piezoelectric actuator; nano-sensor
The shortage of organ donors has stimulated interest in the possibility of using animal organs for transplantation into humans. In addition, pigs are now considered to be the most likely source animals for human xenotransplantation because of their advantages over non-human primates. However, the appropriate standard values for estimations of the liver of micropigs have not been established. The determination of standard values for the micropig liver using multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) would help to select a suitable donor for an individual patient, determine the condition of the liver of the micropigs and help predict patient prognosis. Therefore, we determined the standard values for the livers of micropigs using MDCT. The liver parenchyma showed homogenous enhancement and had no space-occupying lesions. The total and right lobe volumes of the liver were 698.57 ± 47.81 ml and 420.14 ± 26.70 ml, which are 51.74% and 49.35% of the human liver volume, respectively. In micropigs, the percentage of liver volume to body weight was approximately 2.05%. The diameters of the common hepatic artery and proper hepatic artery were 6.24 ± 0.20 mm and 4.68 ± 0.13 mm, respectively. The hepatic vascular system of the micropigs was similar to that of humans, except for the variation in the length of the proper hepatic artery. In addition, the diameter of the portal vein was 11.27 ± 0.38 mm. In conclusion, imaging evaluation using the MDCT was a reliable method for liver evaluation and its vascular anatomy for xenotransplantation using micropigs.
liver evaluation; micropig; multi-detector row computed tomography; xenotransplantation