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1.  Minimum 3-Year Outcomes in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis after Bilateral Microdecompression by Unilateral or Bilateral Laminotomy 
Lumbar spine stenosis (LSS) can result in symptomatic compression of the neural elements, requiring surgical treatment if conservative management fails. Minimally invasive surgery has come to be more commonly used for the treatment of LSS. The current study describes outcomes of bilateral microdecompression by unilateral or bilateral laminotomy (BML) for degenerative LSS after a minimum follow-up period of 3 years and investigates factors that result in a poor outcome.
Twenty-one patients who were followed-up for at least 3 years were included in this study. For clinical evaluation, the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system for low back pain was used. The modified grading system of Finneson and Cooper was used for outcome assessment. Radiographic evaluation was also performed for spondylolisthesis, sagittal rotation angle, and disc height.
Twenty-one patients (10 men, 11 women) aged 53-82 years (64.1±8.9 years) were followed-up for a minimum of 3 years (36-69 months). During follow-up, two patients underwent reoperation. Average preoperative JOA score and clinical symptoms, except persistent low back pain, improved significantly at the latest follow-up. There were no significant differences in radiological findings preoperatively and postoperatively. Thirteen patients (61.9%) had excellent to fair outcomes.
BML resulted in a favorable and persistent outcome for patients with degenerative LSS without radiological instability over a mid-term follow-up period. Persistent low back pain unrelated to postoperative instability adversely affects mid-term outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3836925  PMID: 24278647
Minimally invasive; Lumbar stenosis; Laminotomy; Midterm; Outcomes
2.  Review of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intramedullary Spinal Lesions 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(1):1-6.
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) represents an increasingly utilized modality in the treatment of intracranial and extracranial pathologies. Stereotactic spine radiosurgery (SSR) uses an alternative strategy to increase the probability of local control by delivering large cumulative doses of radiation therapy (RT) in only a few fractions. SSR in the treatment of intramedullary lesions remains in its infancy-this review summarizes the current literature regarding the use of SSR for treating intramedullary spinal lesions. Several studies have suggested that SSR should be guided by the principles of intracranial radiosurgery with radiation doses placed no further than 1-2mm apart, thereby minimizing exposure to the surrounding spinal cord and allowing for delivery of higher radiation doses to target areas. Maximum dose-volume relationships and single-point doses with SSR for the spinal cord are currently under debate. Prior reports of SR for intramedullary metastases, arteriovenous malformations, ependymomas, and hemangioblastomas demonstrated favorable outcomes. In the management of intrame-dullary spinal lesions, SSR appears to provide an effective and safe treatment compared to conventional RT. SSR should likely be utilized for select patient-scenarios given the potential for radiation-induced myelopathy, though high-quality literature on SSR for intramedullary lesions remains limited.
PMCID: PMC3941738  PMID: 24757449
Stereotactic radiosurgery; Spine; Intramedullary lesion
3.  Idiopathic Thoracic Epidural Lipomatosis with Chest Pain 
Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an overgrowth of the normally encapsulated adipose tissue in the epidural space around the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar spine causing compression of the neural components. Idiopathic SEL in non-obese patients is exceptional. Idiopathic SEL can result in thoracic myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. A thoracic radiculopathy due to idiopathic SEL has not been reported yet. We report a case of idiopathic SEL with intractable chest pain and paresthesia. We suggest that idiopathic SEL should be considered as a cause of chest pain.
PMCID: PMC3206276  PMID: 22053234
Spinal; Idiopathic; Epidural; Lipomatosis; Thoracic; Chest pain
4.  Posterior Cervical Inclinatory Foraminotomy for Spondylotic Radiculopathy Preliminary 
Posterior cervical foraminotomy is an attractive therapeutic option in selected cases of cervical radiculopathy that maintains cervical range of motion and minimize adjacent-segment degeneration. The focus of this procedure is to preserve as much of the facet as possible with decompression. Posterior cervical inclinatory foraminotomy (PCIF) is a new technique developed to offer excellent results by inclinatory decompression with minimal facet resection. The highlight of our PCIF technique is the use of inclinatory drilling out for preserving more of facet joint. The operative indications are radiculopathy from cervical foraminal stenosis (single or multilevel) with persistent or recurrent root symptoms. The PCIFs were performed between April 2007 and December 2009 on 26 male and 8 female patients with a total of 55 spinal levels. Complete and partial improvement in radiculopathic pain were seen in 26 patients (76%), and 8 patients (24%), respectively, with preserving more of facet joint. We believe that PCIF allows for preserving more of the facet joint and capsule when decompressing cervical foraminal stenosis due to spondylosis. We suggest that our PCIF technique can be an effective alternative surgical approach in the management of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.
PMCID: PMC3115157  PMID: 21716632
Cervical; Posterior; Inclinatory; Foraminotomy; Cervical Spondylosis; Radiculopathy
5.  Clinical Factors for the Development of Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus after Decompressive Craniectomy 
Earlier reports have revealed that the incidence of posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is higher among patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC). The aim of this study was to determine the influencing factors for the development of PTH after DC.
A total of 693 head trauma patients admitted in our hospital between March 2004 and May 2007 were reviewed. Among thee, we analyzed 55 patients with severe traumatic brain injury who underwent DC. We excluded patients who had confounding variables. The 33 patients were finally enrolled in the study and data were collected retrospectively for these patients. The patients were divided into two groups: non-hydrocephalus group (Group I) and hydrocephalus group (Group II). Related factors assessed were individual Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), age, sex, radiological findings, type of operation, re-operation and outcome.
Of the 693 patients with head trauma, 28 (4.0%) developed PTH. Fifty-five patients underwent DC and 13 (23.6%) developed PTH. Eleven of the 33 study patients (30.3%) who had no confounding factors were diagnosed with PTH. Significant differences in the type of craniectomy and re-operation were found between Group I and II.
It is suggested that the size of DC and repeated operation may promote posttraumatic hydrocephalus in severe head trauma patients who underwent DC.
PMCID: PMC2588218  PMID: 19096601
Hydrocephalus; Craniotomy; Craniocerebral trauma
6.  Crowned Dens Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(1):15-17.
The crowned dens syndrome (CDS), also known as periodontoid calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition disease, is typified clinically by severe cervical pain, neck stiffness and atlantoaxial synovial calcification which could be misdiagnosed as meningitis, epidural abscess, polymyalgia rheumatica, giant cell arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, cervical spondylitis or metastatic spinal tumor. Crystalline deposition on cervical vertebrae is less well known disease entity and only a limited number of cases have been reported to date. Authors report a case of CDS and describe the clinical feature.
PMCID: PMC4040636  PMID: 24891867
Neck pain; Calcium pyrophosphate; Axis; Computed tomography
7.  The management of vertebral artery injury in anterior cervical spine operation: a systematic review of published cases 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(12):2475-2485.
Anterior cervical spine operations (ACSO) are generally considered to be safe and effective, but the vertebral artery (VA) is at risk during the procedure. Because the consequences of VA injury can be catastrophic, properly managing a VA injury is very important. However, due to the rarity of these injuries, there is no agreed upon treatment strategy.
Studies were identified for inclusion in the review via sensitive searches of electronic databases through 31 December 2011. All cases included in the review were qualitatively analyzed to explore the relationship between type of VA injury management and neurological complications.
Seventeen articles describing 39 cases of VA injury during ACSO were included in this study. Seven patients (17.9 %) had neurological complications followed by VA insufficiency. Two patients (5.1 %) had root damage due to ligation. One case (2.6 %) resulted in intraoperative death due to fatal bleeding. Delayed vascular complications were identified in nine (45.0 %) of the 20 patients that underwent only tamponade or hemostatic agent during the operation. Four patients underwent intraoperative endovascular treatment, and three of these patients had a cerebral infarction. All three patients who underwent clipping also had neurological complications. The five patients treated by direct repair did not have any complications.
Our review suggests the management of VA injury should be considered in order listed: (1) performing tamponade with a hemostatic agent, (2) direct repair, (3) postoperative endovascular procedures to prevent delayed complications. If tamponade fails to achieve proper hemostasis, additional procedures as endovascular embolization, clipping and ligation should be considered but carry the risk of neurological complications. Because of the limitations of this review, further studies are recommended with larger sample sizes.
PMCID: PMC3508242  PMID: 22790563
Vertebral artery injury; Cervical spine; Anterior operation; Management
8.  Redundant Nerve Roots of Cauda Equina Mimicking Intradural Disc Herniation: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(1):41-43.
Redundant Nerve Roots (RNRs) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a tortuous, serpentine, large and elongated nerve root of the cauda equina. To our knowledge, most cases of RNRs are associated with lumbar stenosis, and RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation has not been reported until now.
Here we present a rare case of unusual RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation mimicking intradural disc herniation.
PMCID: PMC3941734  PMID: 24757458
Redundant nerve roots; Lumbar disc herniation
9.  Angiographic Results of Indirect and Combined Bypass Surgery for Adult Moyamoya Disease 
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of indirect and combined bypass surgery for treatment of adult moyamoya disease (MMD). The definition of combined bypass surgery is a combination of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and indirect anastomosis. Development of collateral circulation after surgery was investigated.
Forty three patients (58 hemispheres) with MMD were followed by cerebral angiography for at least six months after surgery, between May 2002 and July 2011. Indirect and combined revascularization surgeries were performed in 33 and 25 cases, respectively. Good outcome was defined as more than group B, in accordance with the method suggested by Matsushima.
Development of collateral circulation was not affected by sex (p = 0.493), clinical features (p = 0.206), or Suzuki stage (p = 0.428). Based on postoperative cerebral angiography, the combined bypass surgery group showed a better angiographic outcome, than the encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis (EDAMS) group (p = 0.100, odds ratio [OR] 4.107, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.700 - 24.096). The combined bypass group showed a better response than the encephaloduroarteriogaleosynangiosis (EDAGS) group (p = 0.088, OR 4.600, 95% CI 0.721 - 29.332). Similar responses were observed for EDAGS and EDAMS (p = 0.886, OR 1.120, 95% CI 0.239 - 5.251). The combined bypass group showed a better response than the indirect group (p = 0.064, OR 4.313, 95% CI 0.840 - 22.130).
Results of this study demonstrate that combined bypass results in better revascularization on angiographic evaluation in adult MMD. Therefore, among surgical procedures, combined bypass is a choice that can be recommended.
PMCID: PMC3491217  PMID: 23210050
Moyamoya disease; Cerebral revascularization; Indirect bypass surgery; Combined bypass surgery
10.  Morphometric Study of the Nerve Roots Around the Lateral Mass for Posterior Foraminotomy 
Morphometric data on dorsal cervical anatomy were examined in an effort to protect the nerve root near the lateral mass during posterior foraminotomy.
Using 25 adult formalin-fixed cadaveric cervical spines, measurements were taken at the lateral mass from C3 to C7 via a total laminectomy and a medial one-half facetectomy. The morphometric relationship between the nerve roots and structures of the lateral mass was investigated. Results from both genders were compared.
Following the total laminectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance from the medial point of the facet (MPF) of the lateral mass to the axilla of the root origin was 3.2-4.7 mm. The whole length of the exposed root had a mean of 4.2-5.8 mm. Following a medial one-half facetectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance to the axilla of the root origin was 2.1-3.4 mm, based on the MPF. Mean vertical distances from the MPF to the medial point of the root that crossed the inferior margin of the intervertebral disc were 1.2-2.7 mm. The mean distance of the exposed root was 8.2-9.0 mm, and the mean angle between the dura and the nerve root was significantly different between males and females, at 53.4-68.4°.
These data will aid in reducing root injuries during posterior cervical foraminotomy.
PMCID: PMC2883056  PMID: 20539795
Posterior foraminotomy; Spinal nerve roots; Laminectomy; Facetectomy; Cadaveric study
11.  Sudden Migration of a Thalamic Hemorrhage into the Ventricles 
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common condition that often leads to death or disability. Accurate prediction of the outcome and decisions regarding the treatment of ICH patients are important issues. We report a case of thalamic hemorrhage with an intraventricular hemorrhage that was suddenly migrated into the third and fourth ventricles in its entirety 8 hours after symptom onset. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of spontaneous migration of thalamic ICH into ventricles, and we suggest a possible mechanism for this case with a brief review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC2851082  PMID: 20379475
Cerebral hemorrhage; Cerebral ventricles
12.  Morphometric Study of the Korean Adult Pituitary Glands and the Diaphragma Sellae 
To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults.
Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae.
The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%.
These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2817514  PMID: 20157377
Pituitary gland; Diaphragma sellae; Cadaver
13.  A Morphometric Aspect of the Brachial Plexus in the Periclavicular Region 
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal morphometric landmarks of the uniting and dividing points of the brachial plexus (BP) in the periclavicular region to provide useful guidance in surgery of BP injuries.
A total of 20 brachial plexuses were obtained from 10 adult, formalin-fixed cadavers. Distances were measured on the basis of the Chassaignac tubercle (CT), and the most lateral margin of the BP (LMBP) crossing the superior and inferior edge of the clavicle.
LMBP was located within 25 mm medially from the midpoint in all subjects. In the supraclavicular region, the upper trunk uniting at 21 ± 7 mm from the CT, separating into divisions at 42 ± 5 mm from the CT, and dividing at 19 ± 4 mm from the LMBP crossing the superior edge of the clavicle. In the infraclavicular region, the distance from the inferior edge of the clavicle to the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) origin was 49 ± 1 mm, to the median nerve origin 57 ± 7 mm, and the ulnar nerve origin 48 ± 6 mm. From the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor to the MCN origin the distance averaged 3.3 ± 10 mm. Mean diameter of the MCN was 4.3 ± 1.1 mm (range, 2.5-6.0) in males (n = 6), and 3.1 ± 1.5 mm (range, 1.6-4.0) in females (n = 4).
We hope these data will aid in understanding the anatomy of the BP and in planning surgical treatment in BP injuries.
PMCID: PMC2744022  PMID: 19763215
Brachial plexus; Musculocutaneous nerve; Clavicle; Pectoralis muscles

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