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1.  Modification of a Rodent Hindlimb Model of Secondary Lymphedema: Surgical Radicality versus Radiotherapeutic Ablation 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:208912.
Secondary lymphedema is an intractable disease mainly caused by damage of the lymphatic system during surgery, yet studies are limited by the lack of suitable animal models. The purpose of this study was to create an improved model of secondary lymphedema in the hindlimbs of rodents with sustained effects and able to mimic human lymphedema. This was achieved by combining previously reported surgical methods and radiation to induce chronic lymphedema. Despite more radical surgical destruction of superficial and deep lymphatic vessels, surgery alone was not enough to sustain increased hindlimb volume. Radiotherapy was necessary to prolong these effects, with decreased lymphatic flow on lymphoscintigraphy, but hindlimb necrosis occurred after 4 weeks due to radiation toxicity. The applicability of this model for studies of therapeutic lymphangiogenesis was subsequently tested by injecting muscle-derived stem cells previously cocultured with the supernatant of human lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. There was a tendency for increased lymphatic flow which significantly increased lymphatic vessel formation after cell injection, but attenuation of hindlimb volume was not observed. These results suggest that further refinement of the rodent hindlimb model is needed by titration of adequate radiation dosage, while stem cell lymphangiogenesis seems to be a promising approach.
doi:10.1155/2013/208912
PMCID: PMC3856125  PMID: 24350251
2.  Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture 
Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding.
doi:10.5758/vsi.2015.31.2.62
PMCID: PMC4508654  PMID: 26217647
Spontaneous rupture; Iliac vein; Hemoperitoneum
3.  Recent Advances in the Development of Experimental Animal Models Mimicking Human Aortic Aneurysms 
Aortic aneurysm is a common and life-threatening disease that can cause death from rupture. Current therapeutic options are limited to surgical or endovascular procedures because no pharmacological approaches have been proven to decrease the chance of expansion or rupture. The best approach to the management of aortic aneurysm would be the understanding and prevention of the processes involved in disease occurrence, progression, and rupture. There is a need for animal models that can reproduce the pathophysiological features of human aortic aneurysm, and several such models have been studied. This review will emphasize recent advances in animal models used in the determination of mechanisms and treatments of aortic aneurysms.
doi:10.5758/vsi.2015.31.1.1
PMCID: PMC4480291  PMID: 26217637
Aorta; Aneurysm; Animal model; Research
4.  Tracking the Fate of Muscle-derived Stem Cells: an Insight into the Distribution and Mode of Action 
Purpose:
To examine the fate of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) after injection into different host conditions and provide an insight for their mechanism of action.
Materials and Methods:
MDSCs differentiated in vitro towards the endothelial lineage and transfected with lentivirus tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into two animal models mimicking vascular diseases: hindlimb ischemia and carotid injury models. Injected cells were tracked at the site of injection and in remote organs by harvesting the respective tissues at different time intervals and performing immunofluorescent histological analyses. Stem cell survival was quantified at the site of injection for up to 4 weeks.
Results:
MDSCs were successfully tagged with fluorescent material GFP and showed successful implantation into the respective injection sites. These cells showed a higher affinity to implant in blood vessel walls as shown by double fluorescent co-stain with CD31. Quantification of stem cell survival showed a timede pendent decrease from day 3 to 4 weeks (survival rate normalized against day 3 was 72.0% at 1 week, 26.8% at 2 weeks and 2.4% at 4 weeks). Stem cells were also found in distant organs, especially the kidneys and liver, which survived up to 4 weeks.
Conclusion:
MDSCs were successfully tracked in different vascular disease models, and their fate was assessed in terms of cell survival and distribution. Better understanding of the donor cell properties, including their interaction with the host conditions and their mechanism of action, are needed to enhance cell survival and achieve improved outcomes.
doi:10.5758/vsi.2014.30.1.11
PMCID: PMC4480300  PMID: 26217610
Vascular diseases; Stem cell niche; Survival; Adult stem cells
5.  Prospective nonrandomized comparison of quality of life and recurrence between high ligation and stripping and radiofrequency ablation for varicose veins 
Purpose
Varicose veins are a major problem worldwide and improvement in quality of life (QoL) is the ultimate goal after treatment of this benign disease. However QoL is highly dependent on personal and social factors. This study compares high ligation and stripping (HS) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in terms of QoL and recurrence in Korea.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between August 2006 and October 2008 was performed for patients undergoing HS and RFA at a single institution. QoL was assessed with a questionnaire preoperatively, at 3 months postoperatively and annually thereafter. Recurrence was assessed by Duplex ultrasound annually after surgery.
RESULTS
A total of 272 patients completed the questionnaire at 3 months. Among these patients, 155 patients returned for their annual follow-up. There were no significant differences between HS and RFA in global QoL scores, although RFA showed less pain. However, paresthesia rates were also higher after RFA. Recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities, although technical failures were more common after RFA.
Conclusion
Overall QoL and recurrence rates were similar between the two modalities. The benefits of RFA do not seem to be enough to overcome the higher costs of HS in Korea.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.1.48
PMCID: PMC3539110  PMID: 23323236
Varicose veins; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Recurrence; Quality of life
6.  Experience of non-vascular complications following endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S67-S70.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a widely used method, and its decreased invasiveness compared to traditional surgical repair has brought about reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. Several vascular complications related to the procedure have been reported, but non-vascular complications have rarely occurred. We report herein the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent EVAR for AAA and presented with active duodenal ulcer bleeding and acute acalculous cholecystitis as complications after the procedure. We must consider that a wide spectrum of complications may occur following EVAR, and therefore it is important to evaluate the risks of complication and to take the necessary measures to minimize them.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.Suppl1.S67
PMCID: PMC3205366  PMID: 22066089
Complication; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Abdominal aortic aneurysm

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