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1.  Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis as a Primary Site of Treatment Failure in Early-Stage Breast Cancer 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(3):96-101.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) as a primary site of failure in early-stage breast cancer. Data from 294 patients diagnosed with pathologic stage I or II breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Median follow-up duration was 81.0 months (range, 18-135 months). The total number of patients with DM without evidence of locoregional recurrence was 20 and the median time between surgery and DM was 29 months (range, 9-79 months). Median survival time was 38 months (range, 22-77 months) after operation. HER-2 positivity (p=0.015), T stage of tumor (p=0.012), and number of involved lymph nodes (p=0.008) were significant predictors of DM in the univariable analysis. Number of involved lymph nodes [p=0.005, hazards ratio (HR): 1.741; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.178-2.574] and HER-2 positivity (p=0.018, HR: 2.888; 95% CI: 1.201-6.941) had a statistically significant effect on DM-free survival in the multivariable analysis. A cautious evaluation may be helpful when patients with risk factors for DM have symptoms implying the possibility of DM. To reduce DM, applying intensive therapy is needed after curative surgery for patients with high risk for DM.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.3.96
PMCID: PMC4276798  PMID: 25568845
Breast neoplasm; Neoplasm metastasis; Risk factors
2.  A comparison of preplan MRI and preplan CT-based prostate volume with intraoperative ultrasound-based prostate volume in real-time permanent brachytherapy 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2011;29(3):199-205.
Purpose
The present study compared the difference between intraoperative transrectal ultrasound (iTRUS)-based prostate volume and preplan computed tomography (CT), preplan magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prostate volume to estimate the number of seeds needed for appropriate dose coverage in permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between March 2007 and March 2011, among 112 patients who underwent permanent brachytherapy with 125I, 60 image scans of 56 patients who underwent preplan CT (pCT) or preplan MRI (pMRI) within 2 months before brachytherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four cases among 30 cases with pCT and 26 cases among 30 cases with pMRI received neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT). In 34 cases, NHT started after acquisition of preplan image. The median duration of NHT after preplan image acquisition was 17 and 21 days for cases with pCT and pMRI, respectively. The prostate volume calculated by different modalities was compared. And retrospective planning with iTRUS image was performed to estimate the number of 125I seed required to obtain recommended dose distribution according to prostate volume.
Results
The mean difference in prostate volume was 9.05 mL between the pCT and iTRUS and 6.84 mL between the pMRI and iTRUS. The prostate volume was roughly overestimated by 1.36 times with pCT and by 1.33 times with pMRI. For 34 cases which received NHT after image acquisition, the prostate volume was roughly overestimated by 1.45 times with pCT and by 1.37 times with pMRI. A statistically significant difference was found between preplan image-based volume and iTRUS-based volume (p < 0.001). The median number of wasted seeds is approximately 13, when the pCT or pMRI volume was accepted without modification to assess the required number of seeds for brachytherapy.
Conclusion
pCT-based volume and pMRI-based volume tended to overestimate prostate volume in comparison to iTRUS-based volume. To reduce wasted seeds and cost of the brachytherapy, we should take the volume discrepancy into account when we estimate the number of 125I seeds for permanent brachytherapy.
doi:10.3857/roj.2011.29.3.199
PMCID: PMC3429903  PMID: 22984671
Brachytherapy; Prostate cancer; Prostate volume

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