We report here on an uncommon case of metastatic choriocarcinoma to the lung, brain and lumbar spine. A 33-year-old woman was admitted to the pulmonary department with headache, dyspnea and hemoptysis. There was a history of cesarean section due to intrauterine fetal death at 37-weeks gestation and this occurred 2 weeks before admission to the pulmonary department. The radiological studies revealed a nodular lung mass with hypervascularity in the left upper lobe and also a brain parenchymal lesion in the parietal lobe with marginal bleeding and surrounding edema. She underwent embolization for the lung lesion, which was suspected to be an arteriovenous malformation according to the pulmonary arteriogram. Approximately 10 days after discharge from the pulmonary department, she was readmitted due to back pain and progressive paraparesis. The neuroradiological studies revealed a hypervascular tumor occupying the entire L3 vertebral body and pedicle, and the tumor extended to the epidural area. She underwent embolization of the hypervascular lesion of the lumbar spine, and after which injection of polymethylmethacrylate in the L3 vertebral body, total laminectomy of L3, subtotal removal of the epidural mass and screw fixation of L2 and L4 were performed. The result of biopsy was a choriocarcinoma.
Metastatic choriocarconoma; Spinal metastasis
Background. Cutting the sternothyroid (ST) muscle is a useful technique to expose the superior pole of thyroid gland during thyroidectomy. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial cutting of the ST muscle on postoperative vocal outcomes after total thyroidectomy. Methods. A retrospective review of 57 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for micropapillary thyroid carcinoma was conducted. Group A (n = 26) included those without cutting the ST muscle, while group B (n = 31) included patients whose muscle was partially cut at the superior pole. All patients underwent voice analysis before the operation and 2 weeks and 1 month after the surgery, and the outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. There were no differences between the two groups regarding the outcomes at each time of voice analysis. Group A showed a decrease of maximum frequency 2 weeks after surgery but showed no difference after 1 month. Group B showed a mild decrease in maximum frequency 2 weeks after surgery, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion. Partial cutting of ST muscle during thyroidectomy is useful to expose the superior pole without significant negative impact on postoperative outcomes of vocal analysis.
To evaluate correlations between serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, and metabolic parameters in patients with PCOS.
A total of 175 patients with PCOS were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam Consensus were included. Exclusion criteria were age over 40, FSH>25 mIU/mL, and 17a-OHP>1.5 ng/mL. The Phenotypes of PCOS were divided into a severe form (oligo-anovulation, ANOV/hyperandrogenism/polycystic ovary morphology [PCOM]; n=59) and a mild form without HA (ANOV/PCOM, n=105). The serum AMH levels were classified into 3 groups (<5 vs. 5-10 vs. >10 ng/mL). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (n=34).
The mean age was 25.9±5.7 year and mean AMH level was 10.1±5.4 ng/mL. The BMI (kg/m2) was higher in group 1 (24.2±6.3) than in group 2 (21.9±4.3, p=0.046) or group 3 (21.6±3.3, p=0.019). There was no difference among the three groups in age, menstrual interval, antral follicle counts, androgens, or other metabolic parameters. The obesity group showed significantly lower AMH (7.7±3.9 ng/mL vs. 10.7±5.6 ng/mL), p=0.004) and low-density lipoprotein levels (93.1±21.2 mg/dL vs. 107.5±39.3 mg/dL, p=0.031), and showed higher total T (0.74±0.59 ng/mL vs. 0.47±0.36 ng/mL, p=0.001), free T (2.01±1.9 vs. 1.04±0.8 pg/mL, p=0.0001), and free androgen index (6.2±7.9 vs. 3.5±3.0, p=0.003). After controlling for age factors and BMI, the serum AMH levles did not show any significant correlations with other hormonal or metabolic parmeters.
For PCOS patients under the age 40, serum AMH is not negatively correlated with age. High serum AMH levels can not predict the phenotype of PCOS and metabolic disturbances in PCOS patients in the non-obese group. Further study might be needed to define the relation more clearly.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; Anti-Mullerian hormone; Hyperandrogenism; Obesity; Age
The objectives of the present study were to characterize the natural course of initially non-operated traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and to identify the risk factors of hematoma progression.
Retrospective analysis was performed using sequential computed tomography (CT) images maintained in a prospective observational database containing 177 ASDH cases treated from 2005 to 2011. Patients were allocated to four groups as followings; 136 (76.8%) patients to the spontaneous resolution group, 12 (6.8%) who underwent operation between 4 hours and 7 days to the rapid worsening group (RWG), 24 (13.6%) who experienced an increase of hematoma and that underwent operation between 7 and 28 days to the subacute worsening group (SWG), and 5 (2.8%) who developed delayed aggravation requiring surgery from one month after onset to the delayed worsening group (DWG). Groups were compared with respect to various factors.
No significant intergroup difference was found with respect to age, mechanism of injury, or initial Glasgow Coma Scale. The presence of combined cerebral contusion or subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to be a significant prognostic factor. Regarding CT findings, mixed density was common in the RWG and the SWG. Midline shifting, hematoma thickness, and numbers of CT slices containing hematoma were significant prognostic factors of the RWG and the SWG. Brain atrophy was more severe in the SWG and the DWG.
A large proportion of initially non-operated ASDHs worsen in the acute or subacute phase. Patients with risk factors should be monitored carefully for progression by repeat CT imaging.
Acute subdural hematoma; Chronic subdural hematoma; X-ray computed tomography
We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms.
Hydrocephalus; Spinal cord injuries; Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
To evaluate the efficacy of earlier oocyte retrieval in IVF patients with a premature LH surge on hCG day.
One hundred forty IVF patients (164 cycles) with premature LH surge on hCG day were included, retrospectively. We divided them into 2 study groups: LH surge with timed ovum pick-up (OPU) 36 hours after hCG injection (group B, 129 premature cycles), and LH surge with earlier OPU within 36 hours after hCG injection (group C, 35 cycles). Control groups were tubal factor infertility without premature LH surge (group A, 143 cycles).
The mean age (year) was statistically higher in group C than in groups A or B (38.2±5.4 vs. 36.2±4.2 vs. 36.8±4.9, respectively; p=0.012). The serum LH levels (mIU/mL) on hCG day were significantly higher in group B and C than in group A (22.7±14.9 vs. 30.3±15.9 vs. 3.2±2.9, respectively; p>0.001). Among groups A, B, and C, 4.9%, 31.7%, and 51.4% of the cycles, respectively, had no oocytes, and the overall rates of cycle cancellation (OPU cancellation, no oocyte, or no embryos transferrable) were 15.4%, 65.9%, and 74.3%, respectively. The fertilization rate (%) was significantly higher in group B than in group C (73.2±38.9 vs. 47.8±42.9, p=0.024). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in group C than in groups A and B (44.4% vs. 27.3% vs. 9.1%, respectively, p=0.021). However, the miscarriage rate was also higher in group C than in group B (22% vs. 0%, respectively, p=0.026).
Earlier OPU may not be effective in reducing the risk of cycle cancellation in patients with premature LH surge on hCG day. A larger scale study will be required to reveal the effectiveness of earlier ovum retrieval with premature LH surge.
Premature luteinization; Luteinizing hormone; Oocyte retrieval; Fertilization in vitro
Anisakiasis of the gastrointestinal tract is caused by the ingestion of raw fish or uncooked food infested with Anisakis larvae. A large number of cases of gastric anisakiasis have been reported in countries where the eating of raw fish is customary. However, there have been few reports of anisakiasis of the colon confirmed by colonoscopy and also very few reports of endoscopic ultrasonographic findings of anisakiasis. A 47-year-old man had epigastric pain with nausea after eating raw anchovies. Endoscopy found a living tubular structure penetrating into the lesser curvature of the stomach and the midtranseverse colon area. It was withdrawn with biopsy forceps. We report a case of anisakiasis simultaneously invading the stomach and the colon confirmed by endosopic utrasonographic findings and biopsy findings.
Anisakiasis; Endoscopy; Endosonography
Although there is no consensus on the ideal treatment of the craniocervical instability, biomechanical stabilization and bone fusion can be induced through occipito-cervical fusion (OCF). The authors conducted this study to evaluate efficacy of OCF, as well as to explore methods in reducing complications.
A total of 16 cases with craniocervical instability underwent OCF since the year 2002. The mean age of the patients was 51.5 years with a mean follow-up period of 34.9 months. The subjects were compared using lateral X-ray taken before the operation, after the operation, and during last follow-up. The Nurick score was used to assess neurological function pre and postoperatively.
All patients showed improvements in myelopathic symptoms after the operation. The mean preoperative Nurick score was 3.1. At the end of follow-up after surgery, the mean Nurick score was 2.0. After surgery, most patients' posterior occipito-cervical angle entered the normal range as the pre operation angle decresed from 121 to 114 degree. There were three cases with complications, such as, vertebral artery injury, occipital screw failure and wound infection. In two cases with cerebral palsy, occipital screw failures occurred. But, reoperation was performed in one case.
OCF is an effective method in treating craniocervical instability. However, the complication rate can be quite high when performing OCF in patients with cerebral palsy, rheumatoid arthritis. Much precaution should be taken when performing this procedure on high risk patients.
Atlanto-occipital joint; Postoperative complications; Cerebral palsy; Rheumatoid arthritis
Pemetrexed is approved as a first-line treatment for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cisplatin and as a single agent for second-line treatment or for patients who show no disease progression after four cycles of platinum-based doublet induction chemotherapy as maintenance therapy. Pemetrexed has a modest toxicity profile and has not traditionally been regarded as a cause of interstitial pneumonitis. Here, we report on a rare case of pemetrexed-induced pneumonitis in a patient with NSCLC.
Interstitial lung diseases; Pemetrexed; Non-small-cell lung carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma; Drug therapy
The authors reviewed their experiences of combined surgery (open door laminoplasty with unilateral screw fixation) for unstable multi-level cervical stenosis, to clarify the situation regarding the surgical approach most appropriate for the treatment of diffuse unstable multi-level cervical stenosis.
From January 2011 to January 2012, combined surgery was performed for unstable multi-level cervical stenosis by one surgeon at our institution. The subjects of this study were 6 men of mean age 53.7 years (range, 48-71) with a mean follow-up of 9.3 (range, 3-14) months. All imaging studies showed severe multi-level cervical stenosis with spinal cord signal change, and instability or kyphotic deformity. A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and surgical data was conducted.
Average laminoplasty level was 4.8 and the average screw fixation level was 5.0. Japanese Orthopedic Association score improved from an average of 5.2 to 11.2 points. According to Nurick's grades and Odom's criteria, symptom improvement was statistically significant. On the other hand, Cobb's angle changes were not significant. Average operation time was 5.86 hours with an average blood loss of 460 mL. No significant surgical complication was encountered.
Despite the small cohort and the short follow-up duration, the present study demonstrates that laminoplasty with unilateral screw fixation is a safe and effective treatment for unstable multi-level cervical stenosis.
Laminoplasty; Lateral mass screw fixation; Japanese Orthopedic Association score
We compared the results of two surgical techniques by retrospective study of 60 elderly patients (65 years or older) who underwent either decompression alone or fusion for the treatment of two-level or more lumbar spinal stenosis.
During the period of 2003 and 2008, two-level or more decompression alone or fusion was performed for lumbar spinal stenosis by three surgeons at our institution. Patients were allocated to two groups by surgical modality, namely, to a decompression group (31 patients) or a fusion group (29 patients). Overall mean age was 71.1 years (range, 65-84) and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 3-9). A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and surgical data was conducted.
No significant difference between the two groups was found with respect to age, follow-up period, surgical levels, or preoperative condition. At the last follow-up, correction of lumbar lordotic angle (determined radiologically) was better in the fusion group. However, clinical outcomes including visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and the Odom's criteria were not significantly different in the two groups. On the other hand, surgical outcomes, such as, operation time, estimated blood loss, and surgical complications were significantly better in the decompression alone group.
Our findings suggest that decompressive laminectomy alone achieves good outcomes in patients with two-level or more lumbar spinal stenosis, associated with an advanced age, poor general condition, or osteoporosis.
Laminectomy; Spinal fusion; Spinal stenosis
We compared the assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with IVM, conventional IVF, GnRH agonist, and GnRH antagonist cycles.
The prospective study included a total of 67 cycles in 61 infertile women with PCOS. The women with PCOS were randomized into three IVF protocols: IVM/IVF with FSH and hCG priming with immature oocyte retrieval 38 hours later (group A, 14 cycles), GnRH agonist long protocol (group B, 14 cycles), and GnRH antagonist multi-dose flexible protocol (group C, 39 cycles). IVF outcomes, such as clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR), miscarriage rate (MR), and live birth rate (LBR), were compared among the three groups.
Age, BMI, and basal FSH and LH levels did not differ among the three groups. The number of retrieved oocytes and 2 pronucleus embryos was significantly lower in group A compared with groups B and C. The CPR, IR, MR, and LBR per embryo transfer showed no differences among the three groups. There was no incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in group A.
The IR, MR, and LBR in the IVM cycles were comparable to those of the GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist cycles. The IVM protocol, FSH and hCG priming with oocyte retrieval 38 hours later, is an effective ART option that is comparable with conventional IVF for infertile women with PCOS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; In vitro maturation; GnRH antagonist; GnRH agonist; Assisted reproductive technology outcome
It is well known that fresh blastocyst transfer results in better pregnancy outcomes with a smaller number of transferred embryos compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer. However, in terms of frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, only a few studies are available. We aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) with blastocysts.
Retrospective analysis of FET cycles with blastocysts (B-FET) between Jan 2007 and June 2009 was performed. Age-matched FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET) during the same period were collected as controls. A total of 58 B-FET cycles were compared with 172 C-FET cycles and also compared with those of post-thaw extended culture blastocysts from frozen pronuclear stage embryos (22 cycles).
There was no difference in the patient characteristics of each group. The embryos' survival rates after thawing were comparable (>90%) and there was no difference in the implantation rate or clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate among the three groups.
In FET, blastocyst transfers may not present better pregnancy outcomes than cleavage stage embryo transfers. A further large-scale prospective study is needed.
Frozen-thawed embryo transfer; Blastocyst; Pregnancy outcome
We present a case of a near total amputation at the distal tibial level, in which the patient emphatically wanted to save the leg. The anterior and posterior tibial nerves were intact, indicating a high possibility of sensory recovery after revascularization. The patient had open fractures at the tibia and fibula, but no bone shortening was performed. The posterior tibial vessels were reconstructed with an interposition saphenous vein graft from the contralateral side and a usable anterior tibial artery graft from the undamaged ipsilateral distal portions. The skin and soft tissue defects were covered using a subatmospheric pressure system for demarcating the wound, and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap for definite coverage of the wound. At 6 months after surgery, the patient was ambulatory without requiring additional procedures. Replantation without bone shortening, with use of vessel grafts and temporary coverage of the wound with subatmospheric pressure dressings before definite coverage, can shorten recovery time.
Limb salvage; Negative-pressure wound therapy; Vascular grafting
This study evaluates the bacterial pathogens of Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a tertiary referral hospital.
A total of 109 bacterial pathogens from 91 adult patients with VAP, who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit from January 2008 to December 2009, were examined. Clinical characteristics, bacterial pathogens, and resistance profiles were analyzed.
Staphylococcus aureus (44%) was the most frequently isolated. Acinetobacter baumanii (30%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6%), and Serratia marcescens (2%) were isolated from the transtracheal aspirates or bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with VAP. There was no significant difference of bacterial pathogens between early and late onset VAP. All isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant S. aureus; the imipenem resistance rate of A. baumanii was 69%.
The two most frequent pathogens of VAP were S. aureus and A. baumanii. There were no pathogenic differences between early and late onset VAP.
Pneumonia, Ventilator Associated; Staphylococcus aureus; Acinetobacter baumanii
To evaluate the ability of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH, and age to clinically predict ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in IVF patients with endometriosis.
We evaluated 91 COH cycles, including 43 cycles with endometriosis (group I) and 48 cycles with male factor infertility (group II) from January to December, 2010. Patients were classified into study groups based on their surgical history of endometriosis-group Ia (without surgical history, n=16), group Ib (with a surgical history, n=27).
The mean age was not significantly different between group I and group II. However, AMH and FSH were significantly different between group I and group II (1.9±1.9 ng/mL vs. 4.1±2.9 ng/mL, p<0.01; 13.1±7.2 mIU/mL vs. 8.6±3.3 mIU/mL, p<0.01). Furthermore, the number of retrieved oocytes and the number of matured oocytes were significantly lower in group I than in group II. In group II, AMH and FSH as well as age were significant predictors of retrieved oocytes on univariate analysis. Only the serum AMH level was a significant predictor of poor ovarian response in women with endometriosis.
Serum AMH may be a better predictor of the ovarian response of COH in patients with endometriosis than basal FSH or age. AMH level can be considered a useful clinical predictor of poor ovarian response in endometriosis patients.
Anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting substance); Ovarian stimulation; Endometriosis; In vitro fertilization; Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; Human
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is one of the oldest herbal medicines. It has a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. Recently, we isolated a subset of glycolipoproteins that we designated gintonin, and demonstrated that it induced transient change in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cells via G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway(s). The previous method for gintonin isolation included multiple steps using methanol, butanol, and other organic solvents. In the present study, we developed a much simple method for the preparation of gintonin from ginseng root using 80% ethanol extraction. The extracted fraction was designated edible gintonin. This method produced a high yield of gintonin (0.20%). The chemical characteristics of gintonin such as molecular weight and the composition of the extract product were almost identical as the gintonin prepared using the previous extraction regimen involving various organic solvents. We also examined the physiological effects of edible gintonin on endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl- channel activity of Xenopus oocytes. The 50% effective dose was 1.03±0.3 μg/mL. Finally, since gintonin preparation through ethanol extraction is easily reproducible, gintonin could be commercially applied for ginseng-derived functional health food and/or drug following the confirmations of in vitro and in vivo physiological and pharmacological effects of gintonin.
Panax ginseng; Ginseng; Gintonin; Ethanol extraction; Edible gintonin
To examine the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (RM) and to investigate the association between MTHFR genotype variants and alloimmune activation, proportion of peripheral blood natural killer (pbNK) cells.
A total of 39 patients with a history of two or more unexplained miscarriages were recruited to this study. The controls were women who had a live birth without a history of RM (n=50). The proportion of pbNK cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma homocysteine levels and the incidence of the MTHFR variant of the RM and control groups were compared. The proportion of pbNK cells was compared to the MTHFR variants in the RM group.
No differences were found between the two groups' mean plasma homocysteine levels (7.6±1.5 µmol/L vs. 7.1±2.1 µmol/L) or incidence of the MTHFR genotype variant (CC, 35% vs. 33%; CT, 40% vs. 53%; and TT, 25% vs. 14%). In the RM group, individuals with the TT variant (7.7±1.1 µmol/L) had higher homocysteine levels than those with the CC and CT variants (7.4±1.9 µmol/L and 7.4±1.2 µmol/L) and those with the CT variant (19.2±8.1%) had a higher proportion of CD3-/CD56+ pbNK cells than those with the CC and TT variants (17.7±6.6% and 17.9±7. 0%), but the results of both comparisons were statistically insignificant.
These preliminary results show no difference in plasma homocysteine levels between the RM and control groups or among MTHFR genotype variants in the RM group, which may suggest that the plasma homocysteine level is difficult to use as a predictive marker of RM in the Korean population. A study of a larger number of patients is needed.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism; Habitual Abortion; Natural Killer Cells; Human
To compare the IVF outcomes of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders.
From 2004 to 2009, 389 IVF cycles in 285 women showed poor responses (defined as either a basal FSH level ≥12 mIU/mL, or the number of retrieved oocytes ≤3, or serum E2 level on hCG day <500 pg/mL) were analyzed, retrospectively. In total, 119 cycles with mild ovarian stimulation (m-IVF) and 270 cycles with conventional ovarian stimulation (c-IVF) were included. Both groups were divided based on their age, into groups over and under 37 years old.
The m-IVF group was lower than the c-IVF group in the duration of stimulation, total doses of gonadotropins used, serum E2 level on hCG day, the number of retrieved oocytes, and the number of mature oocytes. However, there was no significant difference in the number of good embryos, the number of transferred embryos, the cancellation rate, or the clinical pregnancy rate. In the m-IVF group over 37 years old, the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were higher when compared with the c-IVF group, but this result was not statistically significant.
In poor responder groups, mild ovarian stimulation is more cost effective and patient friendly than conventional IVF. Therefore, we suggest that mild ovarian stimulation could be considered for poor responders over 37 years old.
Mild Ovarian Stimulation; Poor Response; In Vitro Fertilization; Human
The aim of this study was to investigate whether anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels could be predict ovarian poor/hyper response and IVF cycle outcome.
Between May 2010 and January 2011, serum AMH levels were evaluated with retrospective analysis. Three hundred seventy infertile women undergoing 461 IVF cycles between the ages of 20 and 42 were studied. We defined the poor response as the number of oocytes retrieved was equal or less than 3, and the hyper response as more than 25 oocytes retrieved. Serum AMH was measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay.
The number of oocytes retrieved was more correlated with the serum AMH level (r=0.781, p<0.01) than serum FSH (r=-0.412, p<0.01). The cut-off value of serum AMH levels for poor response was 1.05 ng/mL (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves/area under the curve [AUC], ROCAUC=0.85, sensitivity 74%, specificity 87%). Hyper response cut-off value was 3.55 ng/mL (ROCAUC=0.91, sensitivity 94%, specificity 81%). When the study group was divided according to the serum AMH levels (low: <1.05 ng/mL, middle: 1.05 ng/mL - 3.55 ng/mL, high: >3.55 ng/mL), the groups showed no statistical differences in mature oocyte rates (71.6% vs. 76.5% vs. 74.8%) or fertilization rates (76.9% vs. 76.6% vs. 73.8%), but showed significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (21.7% vs. 24.1% vs. 40.8%, p=0.017).
The serum AMH level can be used to predict the number of oocytes retrieved in patients, distinguishing poor and high responders.
Anti-Müllerian Hormone; Ovarian Response; Poor Response; Hyper Reponse; In Vitro Fertilization; Human
In the previous report, we have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rc, one of major ginsenosides, is a major component for the restoration for normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium. In the present study, we further investigated the roles of minor ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside Rh1 and Rh2, ginsenoside metabolites such as compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) and ginsenoside epimers such as 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 in cholesterol-deprived medium. We found that ginsenoside Rh1 almost restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium in F1 generation. However, supplement of ginsenoside Rh2 caused a suppression of worm growths in cholesterol-deprived medium. In addition, CK and PPD also slightly restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium but PPT not. In experiments using ginsenoside epimers, supplement of 20(S)- but not 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 in cholesterol-deprived medium also almost restored worm growth. These results indicate that the absence or presence of carbohydrate component at backbone of ginsenoside, the number of carbohydrate attached at carbon-3, and the position of hydroxyl group at carbon-20 of ginsenoside might plays important roles in restoration of worm growth in cholesterol-deprived medium.
Panax ginseng; Caenorhabditis elegans; Ginsenoside metabolites; Ginsenoside epimers; Growth
The flavonoid quercetin is a low molecular weight compound generally found in apple, gingko, tomato, onion and other red-colored fruits and vegetables. Like other flavonoids, quercetin has diverse pharmacological actions. However, relatively little is known about the influence of quercetin effects in the regulation of ligand-gated ion channels. Previously, we reported that quercetin regulates subsets of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors such as α3β4, α7 and α9α10. Presently, we investigated the effects of quercetin on muscle-type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of cRNA encoding human fetal or adult muscle-type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Acetylcholine treatment elicited an inward peak current (IACh) in oocytes expressing both muscle-type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and co-treatment of quercetin with acetylcholine inhibited IACh. Pre-treatment of quercetin further inhibited IACh in oocytes expressing adult and fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The inhibition of IACh by quercetin was reversible and concentration-dependent. The IC50 of quercetin was 18.9±1.2 µM in oocytes expressing adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The inhibition of IACh by quercetin was voltage-independent and non-competitive. These results indicate that quercetin might regulate human muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity and that quercetin-mediated regulation of muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor might be coupled to regulation of neuromuscular junction activity.
Flavonoids; Quercetin; Muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; Xenopus oocyte
To determine the age specific serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) reference values in Korean women with regular menstruation.
Between May, 2010 and January, 2011, the serum AMH levels were evaluated in a total of 1,298 women who have regular menstrual cycles aged between 20 and 50 years. Women were classified into 6 categories by age: 20-31 years, 32-34 years, 35-37 years, 38-40 years, 41-43 years, above 43 years. Measurement of serum AMH was measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay.
The serum AMH levels correlated negatively with age. The median AMH level of each age group was 4.20 ng/mL, 3.70 ng/mL, 2.60 ng/mL, 1.50 ng/mL, 1.30 ng/mL, and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. The AMH values in the lower 5th percentile of each age group were 1.19 ng/mL, 0.60 ng/mL, 0.42 ng/mL, 0.27 ng/mL, 0.14 ng/mL, and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively.
This study determined reference values of serum AMH in Korean women with regular menstruation. These values can be applied to clinical evaluation and treatment of infertile women.
Anti-Müllerian Hormone; Ovarian Reserve; Korean; Human
To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups.
Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02).
Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia.
Pregnancy Outcome; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; Non-obese; Reproductive Techniques, Assisted; Diabetes, Gestational; Fetal Macrosomia; Human
To determine whether characteristics of sperm motility obtained by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) could predict pregnancy after intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility.
Three hundred eighty-three cycles of intrauterine insemination with superovulation were retrospectively analyzed. Semen analysis was performed with CASA before and after swim-up and the parameters were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women.
The pregnancy rate per cycle was 14.1%. Pregnant and non-pregnant women were comparable in terms of age, infertility duration, the number of dominant follicles. While sperm concentration, motility, and parameters such as average path velocity (VAP) and percentage rapid (RAPID) before semen preparation were significantly different between the pregnancy and non-pregnancy groups, there were no differences in sperm parameters when comparing the two groups after preparation. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve to measure sensitivity and specificity, the optimal threshold value for the predictors of pregnancy was revealed to be a concentration of ≥111×106/mL, a motility of ≥51.4%, and RAPID ≥30.1% before preparation for IUI.
Sperm parameters including concentration, motility, and RAPID before sperm preparation could have predictive value for pregnancy outcome after intrauterine insemination with superovulation in couples with unexplained infertility, and would be helpful when counseling patients before they make the decision to proceed with IVF/ICSI-ET.
Insemination, Artificial; Infertility; Semen Analysis; Image Processing, Computer-assisted; Sperm Motility; Human