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2.  Triple subcellular targeting of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases encoded by a single gene 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2012;7(11):1495-1497.
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) is a key enzyme of the isoprenoid pathway, catalyzing the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the universal precursors of all isoprenoids. In plants, several subcellular compartments, including cytosol/ER, peroxisomes, mitochondria and plastids, are involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Here, we report on the unique triple targeting of two Catharanthus roseus IDI isoforms encoded by a single gene (CrIDI1). The triple localization of CrIDI1 in mitochondria, plastids and peroxisomes is explained by alternative transcription initiation of CrIDI1, by the specificity of a bifunctional N-terminal mitochondria/plastid transit peptide and by the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal. Moreover, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed self-interactions suggesting that the IDI likely acts as a multimer in vivo.
doi:10.4161/psb.21892
PMCID: PMC3548878  PMID: 22951398
isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase; isoprenoid; alkaloid; triple targeting; subcellular localization; Catharanthus roseus
3.  Subcellular evidence for the involvement of peroxisomes in plant isoprenoid biosynthesis 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2011;6(12):2044-2046.
The role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid metabolism, especially in plants, has been questioned in several reports. A recent study of Sapir-Mir et al.1 revealed that the two isoforms of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase, catalyzing the isomerisation of IPP to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) are found in the peroxisome. In this addendum, we provide additional data describing the peroxisomal localization of 5-phosphomevalonate kinase and mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, the last two enzymes of the mevalonic acid pathway leading to IPP.2 This finding was reinforced in our latest report showing that a short isoform of farnesyl diphosphate, using IPP and DMAPP as substrates, is also targeted to the organelle.3 Therefore, the classical sequestration of isoprenoid biosynthesis between plastids and cytosol/ER can be revisited by including the peroxisome as an additional isoprenoid biosynthetic compartment within plant cells.
doi:10.4161/psb.6.12.18173
PMCID: PMC3337203  PMID: 22080790
5-phosphomevalonate kinase; Arabidopsis thaliana; Catharanthus roseus; farnesyl diphosphate synthase; isoprenoid; mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase; mevalonic acid pathway; peroxisome
4.  Acquisition of Flucytosine, Azole, and Caspofungin Resistance in Candida glabrata Bloodstream Isolates Serially Obtained from a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient ▿ †  
We describe the acquisition of flucytosine, azole, and caspofungin resistance in sequential Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates collected from a bone marrow transplant patient with clinical failure. Point mutations in C. glabrata FUR1 (CgFUR1) and CgFKS2 and overexpression of CgCDR1 and CgCDR2 were observed in resistant isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01138-09
PMCID: PMC2826023  PMID: 20038613
5.  Nonsense and Missense Mutations in FCY2 and FCY1 Genes Are Responsible for Flucytosine Resistance and Flucytosine-Fluconazole Cross-Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Candida lusitaniae▿  
The aim of this work was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of flucytosine (5FC) resistance and 5FC/fluconazole (FLC) cross-resistance in 11 genetically and epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Candida lusitaniae. We first showed that the levels of transcription of the FCY2 gene encoding purine-cytosine permease (PCP) in the isolates were similar to that in the wild-type strain, 6936. Nucleotide sequencing of the FCY2 alleles revealed that 5FC and 5FC/FLC resistance could be correlated with a cytosine-to-thymine substitution at nucleotide 505 in the fcy2 genes of seven clinical isolates, resulting in a nonsense mutation and in a putative nonfunctional truncated PCP of 168 amino acids. Reintroducing a FCY2 wild-type allele at the fcy2 locus of a ura3 auxotrophic strain derived from the clinical isolate CL38 fcy2(C505T) restored levels of susceptibility to antifungals comparable to those of the wild-type strains. In the remaining four isolates, a polymorphic nucleotide was found in FCY1 where the nucleotide substitution T26C resulted in the amino acid replacement M9T in cytosine deaminase. Introducing this mutated allele into a 5FC- and 5FC/FLC-resistant fcy1Δ strain failed to restore antifungal susceptibility, while susceptibility was obtained by introducing a wild-type FCY1 allele. We thus found a correlation between the fcy1 T26C mutation and both 5FC and 5FC/FLC resistances. We demonstrated that only two genetic events occurred in 11 unrelated clinical isolates of C. lusitaniae to support 5FC and 5FC/FLC resistance: either the nonsense mutation C505T in the fcy2 gene or the missense mutation T26C in the fcy1 gene.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00880-08
PMCID: PMC2704628  PMID: 19414575
6.  Insight into the Role of HOG Pathway Components Ssk2p, Pbs2p, and Hog1p in the Opportunistic Yeast Candida lusitaniae▿ †  
Eukaryotic Cell  2008;7(12):2179-2183.
In the present study, we have investigated the role of SSK2, PBS2, and HOG1, encoding modules of the high-osmolarity-glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in Candida lusitaniae. Functional analysis of mutants indicated that Ssk2p, Pbs2p, and Hog1p are involved in osmotolerance, drug sensitivity, and heavy metal tolerance but not in oxidant stress adaptation.
doi:10.1128/EC.00262-08
PMCID: PMC2593183  PMID: 18952902
7.  Contributions of the Response Regulators Ssk1p and Skn7p in the Pseudohyphal Development, Stress Adaptation, and Drug Sensitivity of the Opportunistic Yeast Candida lusitaniae▿ †  
Eukaryotic Cell  2008;7(6):1071-1074.
We recently characterized the histidine kinase receptor genes of Candida lusitaniae. For the present study, we have further investigated the role of SSK1 and SKN7, encoding response regulators. The results of functional analysis of mutants indicated that Ssk1p is involved in osmotolerance and pseudohyphal development, whereas Skn7p appears crucial for oxidative stress adaptation.
doi:10.1128/EC.00066-08
PMCID: PMC2446652  PMID: 18408054
8.  Differential Involvement of Histidine Kinase Receptors in Pseudohyphal Development, Stress Adaptation, and Drug Sensitivity of the Opportunistic Yeast Candida lusitaniae▿  
Eukaryotic Cell  2007;6(10):1782-1794.
Fungal histidine kinase receptors (HKRs) sense and transduce many extracellular signals. We investigated the role of HKRs in morphogenetic transition, osmotolerance, oxidative stress response, and mating ability in the opportunistic yeast Candida lusitaniae. We isolated three genes, SLN1, NIK1, and CHK1, potentially encoding HKRs of classes VI, III, and X, respectively. These genes were disrupted by a transformation system based upon the “URA3 blaster” strategy. Functional analysis of disruptants was undertaken, except for the sln1 nik1 double mutant and the sln1 nik1 chk1 triple mutant, which are not viable in C. lusitaniae. The sln1 mutant revealed a high sensitivity to oxidative stress, whereas both the nik1 and chk1 mutants exhibited a more moderate sensitivity to peroxide. We also showed that the NIK1 gene was implicated in phenylpyrrole and dicarboximide compound susceptibility while HKRs seem not to be involved in resistance toward antifungals of clinical relevance. Concerning mating ability, all disruptants were still able to reproduce sexually in vitro in unilateral or bilateral crosses. The most important result of this study was that the sln1 mutant displayed a global defect of pseudohyphal differentiation, especially in high-osmolarity and oxidative-stress conditions. Thus, the SLN1 gene could be crucial for the C. lusitaniae yeast-to-pseudohypha morphogenetic transition. This implication is strengthened by a high level of SLN1 mRNAs revealed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR when the yeast develops pseudohyphae. Our findings highlight a differential contribution of the three HKRs in osmotic and oxidant adaptation during the morphological transition in C. lusitaniae.
doi:10.1128/EC.00155-07
PMCID: PMC2043395  PMID: 17660361
9.  Molecular Mechanism of Flucytosine Resistance in Candida lusitaniae: Contribution of the FCY2, FCY1, and FUR1 Genes to 5-Fluorouracil and Fluconazole Cross-Resistance▿  
Inactivation of the FCY2 (cytosine permease), FCY1 (cytosine deaminase), and FUR1 (uracil phosphoribosyltransferase) genes in Candida lusitaniae produced two patterns of resistance to flucytosine. Mutant fur1 demonstrated resistance to 5-fluorouracil, whereas mutants fcy1 and fcy2 demonstrated fluconazole resistance in the presence of subinhibitory flucytosine concentrations.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00824-06
PMCID: PMC1797687  PMID: 17060521

Results 1-9 (9)