Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data.
Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P21 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.
haemoglobin; shark; monoclinic; oxygen transport; crystal structure; heme; tetramer
Objective: Children with a Cleft Palate (CLP) and with or without cleft lips (non-syndromic) universally present with Secretory Otitis Media (SOM). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secretory otitis media that occurs in patients with cleft palates and to confirm the existence of these manifestations by doing a Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE).
Material and Methods: A retrospective study was done on forty four male and female children who were within the 2 to 14 years age range, with non-syndromic cleft palates with or without cleft lips, with the symptoms of SOM. Otoscopy examinations were done in all the cases. X-rays of the mastoids (both sides) were done in all the cases to detect the pneumatization of the mastoid air cell system. The Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE) includes an evaluation by tympanometry of the middle ear function and an evaluation by pure tone audiometry to establish the type of hearing loss.
Results: A majority of the patients (47.27%) were in the age group of eight-to-fourteen (8-14) years. The Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE) revealed that 77.27% of the children had presented with normal hearing; 13.6% had conductive hearing loss and 2.2% had presented with a mixed hearing loss. We noticed that 68.2% of the children had type A curves; 21.2% of the children had type C tympanometry curves; 7.1% had type B curves and 3.5% had Ad curves. The contralateral acoustic reflex was present in 54.5% of the children and 45.5% did not have this reflex. A majority of the patients (46%) showed sclerotic changes in their mastoid air cell systems in the X-rays of the mastoids.
Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of SOM in the children with cleft was confirmed by the study. Also, the hearing loss which was associated with SOM was evident and it demonstrated that there was a high prevalence of a mild conductive hearing loss when SOM was present. The cleft palate contributed to the occurrence of the secretory otitis media and it required proper ENT and audiological follow ups.
Cleft palate; Secretory otitis media; Hearing loss
The authors sought to determine whether nebivolol treatment results in changes in blood pressure (BP), nitric oxide bioavailability, and vascular function in obese African Americans with recently diagnosed stage 1 hypertension. Forty-three obese, hypertensive African Americans (mean BP: systolic, 148.8±14.3 mm Hg; diastolic, 90.4±8.2 mm Hg) were treated with nebivolol (5–10 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were change in systolic and diastolic BP and efficacy in reaching normotensive BP. Mean systolic BP decreased by 9.2±14 mm Hg (P<.005) and diastolic BP decreased 6.8±9 mm Hg (P<.005) with 8 weeks of therapy. Significant improvements were seen in arterial compliance with nebivolol treatment as measured by aortic augmentation index (P<.005) and time to wave reflection (P=.013). Nebivolol treatment improved endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation (P<.005). Levels of erythrocyte cellular superoxide dismutase increased with nebivolol, indirectly suggesting increased bioavailability of nitric oxide (P<.005). Monotherapy with nebivolol in obese, hypertensive African Americans results in significant systolic and diastolic BP reduction by mechanisms that include improved vascular function and compliance.
The purpose of the study was to identify the predictors of short-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT).
Materials and Methods
Retrospective analysis of data pertaining to adult patients who underwent PDT between July 2005 and June 2008 in an urban, academic, tertiary care medical center was done. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed for 483 patients undergoing PDT via multivariate logistic regression.
Mortality data were examined at in-hospital, 14, 30, and 180 days postprocedure. Overall mortality rates were 11% at 14 days, 19% at 30 days, and 40% at 180 days. In-hospital mortality was 30%.
Patients undergoing PDT have significant short-term mortality with 11% dying within 14 days and an in-hospital mortality rate of 30%. We identified an index diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia and trauma to be associated with a higher survival rate, whereas older age, oncological diagnosis, cardiogenic shock, and ventricular-assist devices were associated with higher mortality. There is significant heterogeneity in both underlying diagnosis and patient outcomes, and these factors should be considered when deciding to perform this procedure and discussed with patients/family members to provide a realistic expectation of potential prognosis.
Tracheostomy; Mortality; Critically ill; Intensive care
Our previous analyses using the Stress Recognition subscale of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) resulted in significant effect estimates with equally opposing explanations. We suspected construct validity issues and investigated such using our own data and correlation matrices of previous published studies.
The correlation matrices for each of the SAQ subscales from two previous studies by Speroff and Taylor were replicated and compared. The SAS Proc Factor procedure and the PRIORS = SMC option were used to perform Common Factor Analysis.
The correlation matrices of both studies were very similar. Teamwork, Safety Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management and Working Conditions were well-correlated. The correlations ranged from 0.53 to 0.76. For Stress Recognition correlations ranged from -0.15 to 0.03. Common Factor Analysis confirmed the isolation of Stress Recognition. CFA returned a strong one-factor model that explained virtually all of the communal variance. Stress Recognition loaded poorly on this factor in both instances, and the CFA indicated that 96.4-100.0% of the variance associated with Stress Recognition was unique to that subscale, and not shared with the other 5 subscales.
We conclude that the Stress Recognition subscale does not fit into the overall safety climate construct the SAQ intended to reflect. We recommend that this domain be omitted from overall safety climate scale score calculations, and clearly identified as an important yet distinct organizational construct. We suggest that this subscale be investigated for its true meaning, characterized as such, and findings conveyed to SAQ end users. We make no argument against Stress Recognition as an important organizational metric, rather we suggest that as a stand-alone construct its current packaging within the SAQ may be misleading for those intent on intervention development and evaluation in healthcare settings if they interpret Stress Recognition results as emblematic of safety climate.
Safety attitudes questionnaire; Stress recognition; Factor analysis
The focal intent of this study was to find out an alternative strategy for the antibiotic usage against bacterial infections. The quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of marine sponges collected from Palk Bay, India was evaluated against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated violacein production in Chromobacteriumviolaceum (ATCC 12472), CV026 and virulence gene expressions in clinical isolate Serratiamarcescens PS1. Out of 29 marine sponges tested, the methanol extracts of Aphrocallistesbocagei (TS 8), Haliclona (Gellius) megastoma (TS 25) and Clathriaatrasanguinea (TS 27) inhibited the AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) and CV026. Further, these sponge extracts inhibited the AHL dependent prodigiosin pigment, virulence enzymes such as protease, hemolysin production and biofilm formation in S. marcescens PS1. However, these sponge extracts were not inhibitory to bacterial growth, which reveals the fact that the QSI activity of these extracts was not related to static or killing effects on bacteria. Based on the obtained results, it is envisaged that the marine sponges could pave the way to prevent quorum sensing (QS) mediated bacterial infections.
Marine sponges; Quorum sensing inhibition; Acyl homoserine lactone; Serratia marcescens PS1; Biofilm; Bacterial pathogenesis
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant condition affecting the oral cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the oral mucosa eventually causing trismus. This condition is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with limited success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions.
Classification; oral submucous fibrosis; pathogenesis; treatment
Background & objectives:
Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics, although not able to kill bacteria, but influence bacterial virulence significantly. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) which are used against other bacterial pathogens creates resistance in non-targeted Streptococcus pyogenes. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of sub-MICs of FQs on S. pyogenes biofilm formation.
Biofilm forming six M serotypes M56, st38, M89, M65, M100 and M74 of S. pyogenes clinical isolates were challenged against four FQs namely, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin. The antibiofilm potential of these FQs was analysed at their subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 to 1/64 MIC) using biofilm assay, XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).
Among the four FQs tested, ofloxacin and levofloxacin at 1/2 MIC showed the maximum inhibition (92%) of biofilm formation against M56 and M74 serotypes. FQs effectively interfered in the microcolony formation of S. pyogenes isolates at 1/2 to 1/8 sub-MICs. Inhibition of biofilm formation was greatly reduced beyond 1/16 MICs and allowed biofilm formation. XTT reduction assay revealed the increase in metabolic activity of S. pyogenes biofilm against the decrease in FQs concentration. SEM and CLSM validated the potential of sub-MICs of FQs against the six S. pyogenes.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Our results showed that the inhibitory effect all four FQs on S. pyogenes biofilm formation was concentration dependent. FQs at proper dosage can be effective against S. pyogenes and lower concentrations may allow the bacteria to form barriers against the antibiotic in the form of biofilm.
Biofilms; confocal laser scanning microscopy; fluoroquinolones; Streptococcus pyogenes; subinhibitory concentration
Rectourethral fistula is an uncommon but devastating condition. Traumatic rectourethral fistula is still uncommon and repair of traumatic rectourethral fistula involves a complex procedure. Most of the urologists would prefer to repair the fistula through perineal route especially when urethral reconstruction is also required. The repaired ends of the fistula are separated with various interposition flaps and grafts in order to prevent recurrence. Gracilis interposition muscle flap is commonly used. We describe the first case of traumatic rectourethral fistula repair in a 45-year-old man using interposition of a porcine small intestinal submucosal (Biodesign™ (Surgisis®) graft.
Rectourethral fistula; small intestinal submucosa; stricture; trauma
The reactivity of copper complexes of three different 2nd generation bispidine-based ligands (bispidine = 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane; mono- and bis-tetradentate; exclusively tertiary amine donors) with dioxygen [(reversible) binding of dioxygen by copper(I)] is reported. The UV-vis, electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibrational spectra (resonance Raman,rR) of the dioxygen adducts indicate that, depending on the ligand and reaction conditions, several different species (mono- and dinuclear, superoxo, peroxo and hydroperoxo), partially in equilibrium with each other, are formed. Minor changes in the ligand structure and/or experimental conditions (solvent, temperature, relative concentrations) allow switching between the different forms. With one of the ligands, an end-on-peroxo-dicopper(II) and a mononuclear copper(II)-hydroperoxo complex could be characterized. With another ligand, reversible dioxygen binding was observed, leading to a meta-stable copper(II)-superoxo complex, and the amount of dioxygen involved in the reversible binding to CuI was determined quantitatively. The mechanism of dioxygen binding as well as the preference of each of the three ligands for a particular dioxygen adduct is discussed on the basis of a computational (DFT) analysis.
A β-cyclodextrin (β-Cyd) inclusion complex containing azomethine as a guest was prepared by kneading method with aliquot addition of ethanol. The product was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), which proves the formation of the inclusion complex where the benzyl part of azomethine has been encapsulated by the hydrophobic cavity of β-Cyd. The interaction of β-Cyd and azomethine was also analyzed by means of spectrometry by UV-Vis spectrophotometer to determine the formation constant. The formation constant was calculated by using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation at 25 °C. The apparent formation constant obtained was 1.29 × 104 L/mol. Besides that, the stoichiometry ratio was also determined to be 1:1 for the inclusion complex of β-Cyd with azomethine.
β-cyclodextrin; azomethine; Schiff bases; inclusion complex
Aromatic-aromatic hydrogen bonds are important in many areas of chemistry, biology and materials science. In this study we have
analyzed the roles played by the π-π interactions in interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) proteins. Majority of π-π
interacting residues are conserved in ILs and TNF proteins. The accessible surface area calculations in these proteins reveal that
these interactions might be important in stabilizing the inner core regions of these proteins. In addition to π-π interactions, the
aromatic residues also form π-networks in ILs and TNF proteins. The results obtained in the present study indicate that π-π
interactions and π-π networks play important roles in the structural stability of ILs and TNF proteins.
π-π interactions; TNF proteins; ILs; structure; stability; π-network
The effect of various solvent extracts of Gelidiella acerosa on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities was investigated. AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities were analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Phytochemical screening of the compounds present in the solvent extracts was done qualitatively. Characterization of the compounds present in the benzene extract of G. acerosa was done by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that, at 487.80 μg/mL, benzene extract showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory activity against both AChE and BuChE with the percentage of inhibition 54.18 ± 5.65 % (IC50 = 434.61 ± 26.53 μg/mL) and 78.43 ± 0% (IC50 = 163.01 ± 85.35 μg/mL), respectively. The mode of inhibition exhibited by benzene extract against the AChE and BuChE was found to be competitive and uncompetitive type of inhibition, respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis coupled with GC-MS illustrates that the benzene extract possesses high amount of terpenoids, which could be the reason for potential cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
While tobacco use occurs in many forms all over the world, there is little information on cross-tobacco use. Authors report an unusual case of tobacco use in the form of chewing beedies which are normally smoked (cross-tobacco use). A 22-year-old single female, diagnosed with schizophrenia for the last 6 years, started chewing beedies from the age of 15 years and was using it in a dependent pattern since 7 years. After 3 years of treatment for her schizophrenia, patient's family pressured her to seek tobacco cessation treatment. Initial treatment with nicotine gum replacement and behavioral counseling did not prove useful. Subsequently she was treated with bupropion 300 mg/day and able to successfully abstain. Cross-tobacco use is relatively rare, and merits further study, especially in the mentally ill population.
Beedies; chewing; schizophrenia; tobacco
The current study deals with the evaluation of two coral-associated bacterial (CAB) extracts to inhibit the biofilm synthesis in vitro as well as the virulence production like hemolysin and exopolysaccharide (EPS), and also to assess their ability to modify the adhesion properties, that is cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Out of nine CAB screened, the ethyl acetate extract of CAB-E2 (Bacillus firmus) and CAB-E4 (Vibrio parahemolyticus) have shown excellent antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. CAB-E2 reduced the production of EPS (57–79%) and hemolysin (43–70%), which ultimately resulted in the significant inhibition of biofilms (80–87%) formed by both MRSA and MSSA. Similarly, CAB-E4 was also found to decrease the production of EPS (43–57%), hemolysin (43–57%) and biofilms (80–85%) of test pathogens. CLSM analysis also proved the antibiofilm efficacy of CAB extracts. Furthermore, the CAB extracts strongly decreased the CSH of S. aureus. Additionally, FT-IR analysis of S. aureus treated with CAB extracts evidenced the reduction in cellular components compared to their respective controls. Thus, the present study reports for the first time, B. firmus—a coral-associated bacterium, as a promising source of antibiofilm agent against the recalcitrant biofilms formed by multidrug resistant S. aureus.
Cellular reprogramming involves profound alterations in genome-wide gene expression that is precisely controlled by a hypothetical epigenetic code. Small molecules have been shown to artificially induce epigenetic modifications in a sequence independent manner. Recently, we showed that specific DNA binding hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) could be conjugated with chromatin modifying histone deacetylase inhibitors like SAHA to epigenetically activate certain pluripotent genes in mouse fibroblasts. In our steadfast progress to improve the efficiency of SAHA-PIPs, we identified a novel compound termed, δ that could dramatically induce the endogenous expression of Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Genome-wide gene analysis suggests that in just 24 h and at nM concentration, δ induced multiple pluripotency-associated genes including Rex1 and Cdh1 by more than ten-fold. δ treated MEFs also rapidly overcame the rate-limiting step of epithelial transition in cellular reprogramming by switching “” the complex transcriptional gene network.
Data on prevalence, pattern of tobacco use, proportion of population dependent on nicotine and their determinants are important for developing and implementing tobacco control strategies. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependency.
A cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 18,018 individuals in the age group of >=14 years was conducted in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands during 2007–09. A structured questionnaire, a modified version of an instrument which was used successfully in several multi-country epidemiological studies of the World Health Organisation, was used to survey individual socio-demographic details, known co-morbid conditions, tobacco use and alcohol use. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to estimate nicotine dependence.
The response rate of our survey was 97% (18,018/18,554). Females (n = 8,888) were significantly younger than males (34.3 + 14.6 Vs 36.2 + 15.4 years). The prevalence of current tobacco use in any form was 48.9% (95% CI: 48.2–49.6). Tobacco chewing alone was prevalent in 40.9% (95% CI: 40.1–41.6) of the population. While one tenth of males (9.7%, 95% CI: 9.1–10.4) were nicotine dependent, it was only 3% (95% CI: 2.7–3.4) in females. Three fourth of the tobacco users initiated use of tobacco before reaching 21 years of age. Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and co-morbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in the population.
The high prevalence of tobacco use especially the chewing form of tobacco in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the differences in prevalence and pattern of tobacco use and nicotine dependency observed across subgroups warrants implementation of culturally specific tobacco control activities in this population.
India has around 2.27 million adults living with HIV/AIDS who face several challenges in the medical management of their disease. Stigma, discrimination and psychosocial issues are prevalent. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of severe stigma and to study the association between this, depression and the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Tamil Nadu.
This was a community based cross sectional study carried out in seven districts of Tamil Nadu, India, among 400 PLHA in the year 2009. The following scales were used for stigma, depression and quality of life, Berger scale, Major Depression Inventory (MDI) scale and the WHO BREF scale. Both Stigma and QOL were classified as none, moderate or severe/poor based on the tertile cut off values of the scale scores. Depression was classified as none, mild, moderate and severe. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the risk factors.
Twenty seven per cent of PLHA had experienced severe forms of stigma. These were severe forms of personalized stigma (28.8%), negative self-image (30.3%), perceived public attitude (18.2%) and disclosure concerns (26%). PLHA experiencing severe depression were 12% and those experiencing poor quality of life were 34%. Poor QOL reported in the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains was 42.5%, 40%, 51.2% and 34% respectively. PLHA who had severe personalized stigma and negative self-image had 3.4 (1.6-7.0) and 2.1 (1.0-4.1) times higher risk of severe depression respectively (p < .001). PLHA who had severe depression had experienced 2.7(1.1-7.7) times significantly poorer QOL.
Severe forms of stigma were equivalently prevalent among all the categories of PLHA. However, PLHA who had experienced severe depression had only developed poor QOL. A high level of social support was associated with a high level of QOL.
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of hyperglycosylated hCG (hhCG) measurements for the diagnosis of clinical pregnancies in the IVF setting and how soon post embryo transfer (ET) a pregnancy can be detected using an ultrasensitive (hhCG) assay. To determine if a single, early hhCG measurement can discriminate between biochemical and clinical pregnancies.
A 4 center prospective blinded clinical trial was performed with patients undergoing IVF-ET. Patients had blood drawn and submitted for hhCG analysis on the day of ET and at days 4, 6, 8, and 12 thereafter. First morning urines were collected and submitted for hhCG analysis on days 0, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12.
Clinical pregnancies were defined as an ultrasound study demonstrating a gestational sac and/or heart beat at appropriate gestational ages.
Fifty-six of 58 enrolled patients completed the study. There were 25 clinical and 6 biochemical pregnancies. For blastocyst transfers, a single serum or urine hhCG measurement identified pregnancies (both biochemical and clinical) at 6 days post ET with 100% sensitivity and specificity. There were 6 biochemical pregnancies, all following blastocyst transfers. All of these pregnancies were identified by lower values.
Pregnancy detection; IVF-ET; Biochemical pregnancy
Marker assisted backcross breeding for combining three resistance genes (xa13 and Xa21 for Bacterial Blight, Pi54 for blast) and a major QTL (qSBR11-1 for resistance to Sheath blight) in Basmati rice.
Background and aims
Basmati rice grown in the Indian subcontinent is highly valued for its unique culinary qualities. Production is, however, often constrained by diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), blast and sheath blight (ShB). The present study developed Basmati rice with inbuilt resistance to BB, blast and ShB using molecular marker-assisted selection.
The rice cultivar ‘Improved Pusa Basmati 1’ (carrying the BB resistance genes xa13 and Xa21) was used as the recurrent parent and cultivar ‘Tetep’ (carrying the blast resistance gene Pi54 and ShB resistance quality trait loci (QTL), qSBR11-1) was the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was employed to identify plants possessing resistance alleles in the segregating generations along with stringent phenotypic selection for faster recovery of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) and phenome (RPP). Background analysis with molecular markers was used to estimate the recovery of RPG in improved lines.
Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified plants homozygous for xa13, Xa21 and Pi54, which were advanced to BC2F5 through pedigree selection. Marker-assisted selection for qSBR11-1 in BC2F5 using flanking markers identified seven homozygous families. Background analysis revealed that RPG recovery was up to 89.5%. Screening with highly virulent isolates of BB, blast and ShB showed that the improved lines were resistant to all three diseases and were on a par with ‘Improved Pusa Basmati 1’ for yield, duration and Basmati grain quality.
This is the first report of marker-assisted transfer of genes conferring resistance to three different diseases in rice wherein genes xa13 and Xa21 for BB resistance, Pi54 for blast resistance, and a major QTL qSBR11-1 have been combined through marker-assisted backcross breeding. In addition to offering the potential for release as cultivars, the pyramided lines will serve as useful donors of gene(s) for BB, blast and ShB in future Basmati rice breeding programmes.
Metalloproteins have many different functions in cells such as enzymes; signal transduction, transport and storage proteins. About
one third of all proteins require metals to carry out their functions. In the present study we have analyzed the roles played by Arg
and Lys (cationic side chains) interactions with π (Phe, Tyr or Trp) residues and their role in the structural stability of
metalloproteins. These interactions might play an important role in the global conformational stability in metalloproteins. In spite
of its lower natural occurrence (1.76%) the number of Trp residues involved in energetically significant interactions is higher in
Metalloproteins; π interactions; Arginine; Lysine; sequential distance
The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in a patient with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy.
Materials and Methods:
patients included in the study were 32 uncontrolled type 2 diabetic and 30 normal healthy individuals. Patients having any other systemic(or) nervous illness(or) taking medications that could affect the normal functioning of the salivary gland were excluded from the study. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed, with radioactivity measured at 1st, 20th, and 40th minutes. Twenty minutes after the injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40min). The data were replayed and regions of interest were chosen over four salivary glands to obtain the uptake ratio (UR) and excretory ratio(ER) of the salivary glands. Result: The scintigraphic total URand ER in diabetic and control groups was compared. The values in these two categories showed decrease in both UR and ER in diabetic patients, when compared to control patients.
Conclusion and Significance:
The result of this study suggests that salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.
Salivary gland dysfunction; scintigraphy; type 2 diabetes
Preseptal cellulitis is the commonest orbital disease which frequently needs to be differentiated from orbital cellulitis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics can prevent vision loss and life-threatening complications of orbital cellulitis.
To describe the clinical profile of cases with preseptal and orbital cellulitis admitted to a tertiary care hospital during a period of nine years. The causative organisms and the clinical outcome were analyzed.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective descriptive case study done in a tertiary care hospital in South India.
Material and Methods:
The in-patient records of patients with preseptal and orbital cellulitis were reviewed from 1998 to 2006. The factors reviewed included ocular findings aiding in the distinction of the two clinical conditions, the duration of symptoms, the duration of hospital stay, microbiological culture report of pus or wound swab, blood culture, drugs used for treatment, the response to therapy and complications.
Statistical Analysis Used:
One hundred and ten cases, 77 patients with preseptal cellulitis and 33 patients with orbital cellulitis were reviewed. Five percent of children and 21% of adults presented with cutaneous anthrax contributing to preseptal cellulitis. Thirty-nine percent cases with orbital cellulitis were caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
This study has helped in identifying organisms which cause orbital infections, especially community-acquired MRSA. It indicates the need for modifying our empirical antimicrobial therapy, especially in orbital cellulitis.
Anthrax; community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus; orbital cellulitis; preseptal cellulitis