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1.  The Important Role for Intravenous Iron in Perioperative Patient Blood Management in Major Abdominal Surgery 
Annals of Surgery  2016;264(1):41-46.
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
To determine if preoperative intravenous (IV) iron improves outcomes in abdominal surgery patients.
Summary Background Data:
Preoperative iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs frequently; however if left untreated, increases the risk of blood transfusion allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). Limited evidence supports IDA treatment with preoperative IV iron. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine whether perioperative IV iron reduced the need for ABT.
Between August 2011 and November 2014, 72 patients with IDA were assigned to receive either IV iron or usual care. The primary endpoint was incidence of ABT. Secondary endpoints were various hemoglobin (Hb) levels, change in Hb between time points, length of stay, iron status, morbidity, mortality, and quality of life 4 weeks postsurgery.
A 60% reduction in ABT was observed in the IV iron group compared with the usual care group (31.25% vs 12.5%). Hb values, although similar at randomization, improved by 0.8 g/dL with IV iron compared with 0.1 g/dL with usual care (P = 0.01) by the day of admission. The IV iron group had higher Hb 4 weeks after discharge compared with the usual care group (1.9 vs 0.9 g/dL, P = 0.01), and a shorter length of stay (7.0 vs 9.7 d, P = 0.026). There was no difference in discharge Hb levels, morbidity, mortality, or quality of life.
Administration of perioperative IV iron reduces the need for blood transfusion, and is associated with a shorter hospital stay, enhanced restoration of iron stores, and a higher mean Hb concentration 4 weeks after surgery.
PMCID: PMC4902320  PMID: 26817624
intravenous iron; iron deficiency anemia; outcomes; red blood cell transfusion; surgery
2.  Genome of the Haloarchaeon Natronomonas moolapensis, a Neutrophilic Member of a Previously Haloalkaliphilic Genus 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(2):e00095-13.
The genus Natronomonas contains two species, one haloalkaliphile (N. pharaonis) and one neutrophile (N. moolapensis). Here, we report the genome sequence of N. moolapensis strain 8.8.11. The overall genome properties are similar for the two species. Only the neutrophile contains bacteriorhodopsin and a membrane glycolipid.
PMCID: PMC3623002  PMID: 23516216
3.  Haloquadratum walsbyi : Limited Diversity in a Global Pond 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e20968.
Haloquadratum walsbyi commonly dominates the microbial flora of hypersaline waters. Its cells are extremely fragile squares requiring >14%(w/v) salt for growth, properties that should limit its dispersal and promote geographical isolation and divergence. To assess this, the genome sequences of two isolates recovered from sites at near maximum distance on Earth, were compared.
Principal Findings
Both chromosomes are 3.1 MB in size, and 84% of each sequence was highly similar to the other (98.6% identity), comprising the core sequence. ORFs of this shared sequence were completely synteneic (conserved in genomic orientation and order), without inversion or rearrangement. Strain-specific insertions/deletions could be precisely mapped, often allowing the genetic events to be inferred. Many inferred deletions were associated with short direct repeats (4–20 bp). Deletion-coupled insertions are frequent, producing different sequences at identical positions. In cases where the inserted and deleted sequences are homologous, this leads to variant genes in a common synteneic background (as already described by others). Cas/CRISPR systems are present in C23T but have been lost in HBSQ001 except for a few spacer remnants. Numerous types of mobile genetic elements occur in both strains, most of which appear to be active, and with some specifically targetting others. Strain C23T carries two ∼6 kb plasmids that show similarity to halovirus His1 and to sequences nearby halovirus/plasmid gene clusters commonly found in haloarchaea.
Deletion-coupled insertions show that Hqr. walsbyi evolves by uptake and precise integration of foreign DNA, probably originating from close relatives. Change is also driven by mobile genetic elements but these do not by themselves explain the atypically low gene coding density found in this species. The remarkable genome conservation despite the presence of active systems for genome rearrangement implies both an efficient global dispersal system, and a high selective fitness for this species.
PMCID: PMC3119063  PMID: 21701686
4.  Autoinducer-2-Producing Protein LuxS, a Novel Salt- and Chloride-Induced Protein in the Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Halobacillus halophilus▿  
The moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus carries a homologue of LuxS, a protein involved in the activated methyl cycle and the production of autoinducer-2, which mediates quorum sensing between certain species. luxS of H. halophilus is part of an operon that encodes an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, a cysteine synthase, and a β-cystathionine lyase. Expression of luxS was growth phase dependent, with maximal expression in the mid-exponential growth phase. In addition, transcription of luxS was strictly salt dependent; maximal mRNA concentrations were observed with 2.0 M NaCl in the growth medium. Chloride ions stimulated luxS transcription by a factor of three. Western blot analyses demonstrated a growth phase- and salinity-dependent production of LuxS. Moreover, cellular LuxS levels were strictly chloride dependent. Maximal accumulation of LuxS was observed at 0.5 to 1.0 M Cl− and depended on the salinity.
PMCID: PMC1796989  PMID: 17085700
5.  Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of the Biosynthesis of Glutamine and Glutamate, Two Major Compatible Solutes in the Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Halobacillus halophilus†  
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(19):6808-6815.
The moderately halophilic, chloride-dependent bacterium Halobacillus halophilus produces glutamate and glutamine as main compatible solutes at external salinities of 1.0 to 1.5 M NaCl. The routes for the biosynthesis of these solutes and their regulation were examined. The genome contains two genes potentially encoding glutamate dehydrogenases and two genes for the small subunit of a glutamate synthase, but only one gene for the large subunit. However, the expression of these genes was not salt dependent, nor were the corresponding enzymatic activities detectable in cell extracts of cells grown at different salinities. In contrast, glutamine synthetase activity was readily detectable in H. halophilus. Induction of glutamine synthetase activity was strictly salt dependent and reached a maximum at 3.0 M NaCl; chloride stimulated the production of active enzyme by about 300%. Two potential genes encoding a glutamine synthetase, glnA1 and glnA2, were identified. The expression of glnA2 but not of glnA1 was increased up to fourfold in cells adapted to high salt, indicating that GlnA2 is the glutamine synthetase involved in the synthesis of the solutes glutamate and glutamine. Furthermore, expression of glnA2 was stimulated twofold by the presence of chloride ions. Chloride exerted an even more pronounced effect on the enzymatic activity of preformed enzyme: in the absence of chloride in the assay buffer, glutamine synthetase activity was decreased by as much as 90%. These data demonstrate for the first time a regulatory role of a component of common salt, chloride, in the biosynthesis of compatible solutes.
PMCID: PMC1595520  PMID: 16980483
6.  The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity 
BMC Genomics  2006;7:169.
The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl-saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were carried out in order to reveal how H. walsbyi has specialized into its narrow and hostile ecological niche and found ways to cope with the desiccation stress.
A rich repertoire of proteins involved in phosphate metabolism, phototrophic growth and extracellular protective polymers, including the largest archaeal protein (9159 amino acids), a homolog to eukaryotic mucins, are amongst the most outstanding features. A relatively low GC content (47.9%), 15–20% less than in other halophilic archaea, and one of the lowest coding densities (76.5%) known for prokaryotes might be an indication for the specialization in its unique environment
Although no direct genetic indication was found that can explain how this peculiar organism retains its square shape, the genome revealed several unique adaptive traits that allow this organism to thrive in its specific and extreme niche.
PMCID: PMC1544339  PMID: 16820047

Results 1-6 (6)