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1.  Udenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction 
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often perceived by both patients and sexual partners as a serious problem that can jeopardize quality of life, psychosocial or emotional well-being, and the partnership in the long term. Since their introduction, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) have been found to be highly effective and well tolerated, and are available as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ED. Udenafil is one of the selective PDE5Is made available in recent years for the treatment of ED. Udenafil has clinical properties of both relatively rapid onset and long duration of action due to its pharmacokinetic profile, thereby providing an additional treatment option for ED men to better suit individual needs. There is positive evidence that udenafil is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of ED of a broad spectrum of etiologies or severity. Udenafil is as effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated ED as other PDE5Is. Due to the clinical property of relatively long duration of action, udenafil may be another option in daily dosing treatment for ED, as suggested by its favorable efficacy and safety profile. Most adverse effects reported from clinical trials are mild or moderate in severity, without any serious adverse event, with headache and flushing being the most common. Also, the concomitant use of anti-hypertensive drugs or alpha-1-blockers does not significantly affect the efficacy and safety profile of udenafil. However, additional studies with larger cohorts including prospective, multicenter, comparative studies with patients of different ethnicities are needed to further validate the favorable findings of udenafil in the treatment of ED.
Video abstract
PMCID: PMC4027935  PMID: 24868160
udenafil; erectile dysfunction; therapy
2.  Relationship of Postoperative Recatheterization and Intraoperative Bladder Distention Volume in Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(2):89-94.
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for recatheterization after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP).
Materials and Methods
A total of 166 consecutive patients treated with HoLEP by a single surgeon from January 2010 to June 2011 were enrolled in this study. We collected data on preoperative and intraoperative parameters, including intraoperative bladder distention volume. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients who voided successfully after removal of the catheter, and group 2 included patients who required recatheterization. Analysis and comparison of the perioperative parameters of both groups was performed for identification of risk factors for recatheterization.
Recatheterization was required in 9 of 166 (5.4%) patients. No significant differences in age or preoperative parameters, including prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score, peak flow rate, postvoid residual urine, maximal bladder capacity, and Abrahams Griffiths number, were observed between the two groups. Of the intraoperative parameters, intraoperative bladder distention volume was significantly smaller in group 1 than in group 2 (700.65 mL vs. 897.78 mL, p<0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for other variables, intraoperative bladder distention volume was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for postoperative recatheterization (hazard ratio, 1.006; confidence interval, 1.002 to 1.010; p=0.002).
Nine of 166 (5.4%) patients failed to void after HoLEP and required catheterization. Intraoperative bladder distention volume was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for recatheterization in this patient group.
PMCID: PMC3580311  PMID: 23549294
Holmium; Lasers; Prostatic hyperplasia; Urinary retention
3.  Serial Changes in Sexual Function Following Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: A Short-term Follow-up Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):104-108.
To evaluate the serial changes in sexual function in the short-term period after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to investigate whether a change in each domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is associated with improvement of micturition.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-eight potent men who underwent HoLEP and in whom complete 12-month follow-up data on the IIEF were available were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a baseline evaluation for BPH. The surgical outcome was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score, IIEF, and uroflowmetry.
The mean age and body mass index of the patients was 64.5±6.2 years and 24.2±2.6 kg/m2, respectively. Mean total prostate volume and transitional zone volume were 48.8±18.8 ml and 24.2±16.1 ml, respectively. Most IIEF domain scores showed a slight decrease at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery but recovered to the baseline or showed a marginal but nonsignificant increase at 12 months postoperatively compared with baseline. Orgasmic function and the overall sexual satisfaction domain score remained slightly reduced up to 12 months postoperatively. There was no significant correlation between improvement of micturition and change in sexual function throughout the follow-up period after surgery.
Although HoLEP achieves significant improvements in micturition, overall sexual function decreases slightly in the early postoperative period, but recovers to the baseline at 12 months postoperatively. Our data suggest that changes in sexual function after HoLEP are not associated with improvement of micturition.
PMCID: PMC3285704  PMID: 22379589
Erectile dysfunction; Holmium; Lasers; Prostatic hyperplasia
4.  Impact of Prostate Volume on the Efficacy of High-Power Potassium-Titanyl-Phosphate Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate: A Retrospective, Short-Term Follow-Up Study on Evaluating Feasibility and Safety 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(6):877-882.
We determined the impact of prostate volume on the efficacy of the high-power (80 W) potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Materials and Methods
Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to prostate volume: '< 40 g' (n = 49) and '40-59 g' (n = 49) and '≥ 60 g' (n = 22). Median follow-up was 9 months (range 6 to 21).
No differences in age and follow-up duration were observed in the three groups. At baseline, no significant differences were noted in the three groups in terms of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) (21.4, 19.4 and 19.1; p = 0.412) as well as the maximum flow rate (Qmax) (10.2, 9.2, and 8.6 mL/s; p = 0.291) and post-void residual (PVR) (66.2, 80.4, and 71.5 mL; p = 0.856). The mean operative times were 30.9, 46.9, and 58.6 minutes (p < 0.001) and total median energy deliveries for each group were 62.3, 97.6, and 135.9 kJ, respectively (p < 0.001). No severe intraoperative complication was observed. At the last follow-up, these parameters improved significantly regardless of prostate volume, and the IPSS (11.1, 9.4, and 12.3; p = 0.286) as well as Qmax (15.9, 15.9, and 14.2 mL/s; p = 0.690) and PVR (33.7, 28.4, and 14.2 mL; p = 0.395) were not significantly different among the groups.
Although a larger prostate requires more time and energy delivery, photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate is safe and efficacious for patients with LUTS regardless of prostate volume.
PMCID: PMC2995958  PMID: 20879054
Prostate; benign prostatic hyperplasia; vaporization; KTP; laser surgery
5.  Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(11):737-744.
The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient.
PMCID: PMC2991569  PMID: 21165192
Laser therapy; Prostatic hyperplasia; Solid-state lasers
6.  The Learning Curve for Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: A Single-Center Experience 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(10):688-693.
Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is known to have a steep learning curve and, as a result, its clinical usage has limitations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the learning curve and early complications following the HoLEP procedure.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective analysis was performed on 161 patients who had undergone the HoLEP procedure for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from July 2008 to September 2009. The procedure was done by two surgeons. Perioperatively, enucleated tissue weight, enucleation time, morcellation time, enucleation ratio (enucleation weight/transitional zone volume), and enucleation efficiency (enucleated weight/enucleation time) were analyzed, and early complications were assessed.
Mean enucleation time, morcellation time, and enucleation ratio were 61.3 min (range, 10-180 min), 12.3 min (range, 2-60 min), and 0.66 (range, 0.07-2.51), respectively. In terms of efficiency, enucleation efficiency was 0.32 g/min (range, 0.02-1.25 g/min) and morcellation efficiency was 1.73 g/min (range, 0.1-7.7 g/min). Concerning the learning curve, enucleation efficiency was stationary after 30 cases (p<0.001), morcellation efficiency reached a learning curve at 20 cases (p=0.032), and enucleation ratio had no learning curve in this study. There were several cases of surgery-related complications, including bladder mucosal injury by the morcellator (13%), capsular injury during enucleation (7%), and conversion to a conventional resectoscopy procedure (15%), which showed a reduction in incidence with time.
The learning curve of HoLEP is steep; however, it can be overcome gradually. Further study is necessary with respect to long-term postoperative follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2963781  PMID: 21031088
Holmium; Lasers; Learning; Prostate; Prostatic hyperplasia
7.  Changes in Nocturia after Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate for Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(8):531-536.
To investigate changes in nocturia and predictive factors for improvement after photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
A total of 103 patients who complained of nocturia of ≥2 times per night on baseline frequency-volume chart (FVC) and who underwent PVP were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a preoperative evaluation for BPH including multichannel video urodynamics. The efficacy of the PVP was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and FVC. Subjective and objective improvement of nocturia were defined as a reduction of ≥50% in nocturnal frequency compared with baseline on the IPSS and FVC, respectively.
As shown by the IPSS and FVC, nocturia was significantly reduced starting from 1 month after PVP. The percentage of patients with improvement in nocturia was 20.0%, 20.7%, 36.2%, and 27.9% on the IPSS, and 30.1%, 48.6%, 52.2%, and 54.5% on the FVC at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after PVP, respectively. None of the baseline parameters, including the presence or absence of nocturnal polyuria (NPU), reduced nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC), and detrusor overactivity (DO), were associated with improvement of nocturia.
Nocturnal frequency was significantly reduced from the early postoperative period after PVP. Improvement in nocturia after PVP was not affected by baseline nocturnal frequency, the presence or absence of preoperative NPU, or reduced NBC or DO on baseline urodynamics.
PMCID: PMC2924556  PMID: 20733958
Laser therapy; Nocturia; Prostatic hyperplasia
8.  Long-Term Outcome of the Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure in Female Urinary Incontinence: A 6-Year Follow-Up 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(6):409-415.
We evaluated the long-term outcomes of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for the treatment of female urinary incontinence (UI).
Materials and Methods
We included 141 patients who underwent the TVT procedure for UI and responded to a questionnaire at the 6-year follow-up. The questionnaire included selected questions of the Korean version of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptom (BFLUTS) questionnaire and questions on patients' satisfaction with the procedure. Subjects were characterized as having been cured if they answered 'never' to the questions about any episodes of urine leakage.
The mean follow-up was 85.5 months. The overall long-term cure rate for UI was 83.0% with a satisfaction rate of 80.1%, whereas the 1-year cure rate was 93.4%. The 1-year vs. 6-year cure rates in patients with urodynamic stress UI (SUI group; n=107) and with mixed UI (MUI group; n=34) were 94.1% vs. 84.1% and 89.8% vs. 79.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups. Also, long-term satisfaction rates in the SUI and MUI groups were 83.2% and 70.6%, without a significant difference between the two. In the MUI group, the 1-year and 6-year cure rates of urgency UI were 81.9% and 58.8%, respectively. There were no serious long-term complications related to the procedure. Most patients (85.9%) would likely recommend the TVT procedure to others.
After 6 years of follow-up, the TVT procedure showed a somewhat decreased cure rate for the treatment of female UI. However, most patients were satisfied with the procedure.
PMCID: PMC2890058  PMID: 20577608
Female; Stress urinary incontinence; Suburethral slings; Urinary incontinence
9.  The Efficacy and Safety of Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate with a Potassium-titanyl-phosphate Laser for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia according to Prostate Size: 2-Year Surgical Outcomes 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(5):330-336.
We investigated 2-year follow-up outcomes of patients who underwent potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP)-photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) laser therapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
Of a total of 169 patients who underwent 80 W KTP-PVP by a single surgeon, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 74 patients who completed 2 years of follow-up. The efficacy of the PVP was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). Safety, including complications, was evaluated at each visit.
Mean preoperative total prostate and transitional zone volumes were 42.3 ml (range, 34.0-59.0 ml) and 18.6 ml (range, 10.1-28.6 ml) respectively. According to both IPSS and uroflowmetry, compared with baseline, the improvement in each parameter was sustained significantly at both 1 and 2 years postoperatively (p<0.05). There were no serious intraoperative complications, such as massive hemorrhage requiring transfusion or transurethral resection syndrome. Transient gross hematuria occurred in 16 (21.6%) cases, urgency incontinence in 6 (8.1%) cases, bladder neck contracture (BNC) in 3 (4.1%) cases, and urethral stricture in 1 (2.7%) case. The cases of urethral stricture and BNC developed only in the group with a prostate size of less than 45 ml. No cases required reoperation due to re-growing prostatic tissue.
PVP seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the surgical treatment of symptomatic BPH. After PVP, the subjective and objective improvements in the micturition parameters were sustainable up to 2 years, with minimal complications.
PMCID: PMC2873887  PMID: 20495696
Laser therapy; Potassium titanylphosphate; Prostatic hyperplasia
10.  The One Year Outcome after KTP Laser Vaporization of the Prostate According to the Calculated Vaporized Volume 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1187-1191.
The aim of this study was to develop a new simple method for measuring the vaporized volume and to evaluate the outcome of high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization. A total of 65 patients, with a mean age of 67.7 yr (range 53 to 85), were included in the primary analysis. The vaporized volume was calculated as the pre-operative volume minus the immediate post-operative volume plus the volume of the defect. For all patients, the subjective and objective parameters improved significantly after surgery. Six and 12 months after surgery, the group with a smaller vaporized volume (<15 g) had a lower reduction of the mean International Prostate Symptom Score (P=0.006 and P=0.004) and quality of life index (P=0.006 and P=0.004) when compared to the group with a greater vaporized volume (≥15 g). There were no differences in the change of the maximum flow rate and post-void residual based on the vaporized volume. Our findings suggest that the subjective improvement, after a high-power KTP laser vaporization, may be dependent on the vaporized volume obtained after the procedure.
PMCID: PMC2775872  PMID: 19949680
Prostate; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Vaporization; Laser Therapy
11.  Factors Influencing Nonabsolute Indications for Surgery in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Analysis Using Causal Bayesian Networks 
To identify the factors affecting the surgical decisions of experienced physicians when treating patients with lower urinary tract symptoms that are suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).
Patients with LUTS/BPH treated by two physicians between October 2004 and August 2013 were included in this study. The causal Bayesian network (CBN) model was used to analyze factors influencing the surgical decisions of physicians and the actual performance of surgery. The accuracies of the established CBN models were verified using linear regression (LR) analysis.
A total of 1,108 patients with LUTS/BPH were analyzed. The mean age and total prostate volume (TPV) were 66.2 (±7.3, standard deviation) years and 47.3 (±25.4) mL, respectively. Of the total 1,108 patients, 603 (54.4%) were treated by physician A and 505 (45.6%) were treated by physician B. Although surgery was recommended to 699 patients (63.1%), 589 (53.2%) actually underwent surgery. Our CBN model showed that the TPV (R=0.432), treating physician (R=0.370), bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on urodynamic study (UDS) (R=0.324), and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) question 3 (intermittency; R=0.141) were the factors directly influencing the surgical decision. The transition zone volume (R=0.396), treating physician (R=0.340), and BOO (R=0.300) directly affected the performance of surgery. Compared to the LR model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the CBN surgical decision model was slightly compromised (0.803 vs. 0.847, P<0.001), whereas that of the actual performance of surgery model was similar (0.801 vs. 0.820, P=0.063) to the LR model.
The TPV, treating physician, BOO on UDS, and the IPSS item of intermittency were factors that directly influenced decision-making in physicians treating patients with LUTS/BPH.
PMCID: PMC4280439  PMID: 25558417
Bayes Theorem; Decision Support Techniques; Decision Making, Computer-Assisted; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urodynamics
12.  Non-Invasive Clinical Parameters for the Prediction of Urodynamic Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Analysis Using Causal Bayesian Networks 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113131.
To identify non-invasive clinical parameters to predict urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using causal Bayesian networks (CBN).
Subjects and Methods
From October 2004 to August 2013, 1,381 eligible BPH patients with complete data were selected for analysis. The following clinical variables were considered: age, total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), prostate specific antigen (PSA), maximum flow rate (Qmax), and post-void residual volume (PVR) on uroflowmetry, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Among these variables, the independent predictors of BOO were selected using the CBN model. The predictive performance of the CBN model using the selected variables was verified through a logistic regression (LR) model with the same dataset.
Mean age, TPV, and IPSS were 6.2 (±7.3, SD) years, 48.5 (±25.9) ml, and 17.9 (±7.9), respectively. The mean BOO index was 35.1 (±25.2) and 477 patients (34.5%) had urodynamic BOO (BOO index ≥40). By using the CBN model, we identified TPV, Qmax, and PVR as independent predictors of BOO. With these three variables, the BOO prediction accuracy was 73.5%. The LR model showed a similar accuracy (77.0%). However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the CBN model was statistically smaller than that of the LR model (0.772 vs. 0.798, p = 0.020).
Our study demonstrated that TPV, Qmax, and PVR are independent predictors of urodynamic BOO.
PMCID: PMC4232562  PMID: 25397903
13.  HoLEP does not affect the overall sexual function of BPH patients: a prospective study 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2014;16(6):873-877.
We aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) on the overall postoperative sexual function of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and to explore the relationship between sexual function and LUTS. From January 2010 to December 2011, sixty sexually active consecutive patients with BPH who underwent HoLEP were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients filled out the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) for evaluation of their overall sexual function and the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) for pre- and post-operative 6 months evaluation of their voiding symptoms. The LUTS and sexual function changes were statistically analyzed. The preoperative and 6 months postoperative status of the patients was compared using uroflowmetry and IPSS questionnaires. The analysis revealed significant improvements following HoLEP. Among the sub-domains of the MSHQ, postoperative sexual function, including erection, ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, anxiety or sexual desire, did not significantly change after HoLEP (P > 0.05), whereas satisfaction scores decreased slightly due to retrograde ejaculation in 38 patients (63.3%). Sexual satisfaction improved significantly and was correlated with the improvements of all LUTS and the quality-of-life (QoL) domains in IPSS after surgery (QoL; relative risk [RR]: −0.293; total symptoms, RR: −0.411; P < 0.05). The nocturia score was associated with the erectile function score (odds ratio 0.318, P = 0.029). The change in ejaculatory scores did not show significant association with IPSS scores. HoLEP did not influence overall sexual function, including erectile function. In addition, sexual satisfaction improved in proportion with the improvement of LUTS.
PMCID: PMC4236332  PMID: 25038179
benign prostatic hyperplasia; ejaculation; erectile dysfunction; lasers; prostatectomy; sex disorders
14.  Preoperative CT Voiding Cystourethrography Using 16-Multidetector CT in Female Urethral Diverticulum 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107448.
To evaluate the clinical usefulness of preoperative CT voiding cystourethrography (CT-VCUG) using 16-multidetector computed tomography for female urethral diverticula.
Materials and Methods
Preoperative CT-VCUG was performed in 15 consecutive patients who underwent urethral diverticulectomy from May 2004 to December 2012. The result of preoperative cystourethroscopy and surgical findings were recorded by a single surgeon and CT-VCUG findings including the location of osita were retrospectively reviewed by another urologist who was blinded to the surgical finding. The location of the ostium detected on CT-VCUG was compared descriptively with the intraoperative surgical and preoperative cystourethroscopic findings.
A total of 14 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT-VCUG and urethral diverticulectomy were included in the analysis. Ostia were detected on CT-VCUG in all cases, whereas ostia were identified in 10 patients (71.4%) by cystourethroscopy. Ostia were located between the 4 and 8 o’clock direction. Mean distance from the bladder neck to the ostium was 24.2 mm. Circumferential and horseshoe shaped diverticula were observed in 6 and 4 patients, respectively. The surgical findings correlated well with the CT findings.
Preoperative CT-VCUG can be useful in identifying the ostia of urethral diverticula in patients scheduled for urethral diverticulectomy and can provide structural information, useful to establish surgical strategy.
PMCID: PMC4162593  PMID: 25216189
15.  Surgical Outcome of Urethroplasty Using Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous Flap for Anterior Urethral Stricture 
Penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty is a useful technique for a long anterior urethral stricture due to the flap's hairless nature and ample length. We investigated the surgical outcomes of urethroplasty for a complex anterior urethral stricture, performed using a penile circular fasciocutaneous flap.
Materials and Methods
Between 2008 and 2013, we performed a retrospective review of 29 patients who underwent urethroplasty using a penile circular fasciocutaneous flap and had at least 6 months of follow-up. A total of 20 cases utilized only a fasciocutaneous flap, while 9 cases combined a fasciocutaneous flap with other surgery. Success was defined as no requirement of additional urethral instrumentation.
The overall success rate was 68.9% (20 out of 29 cases) at a median follow-up of 19 months. Furthermore, fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty rendered the actual stricture-free rate of 79.3%. The location of recurrence was mostly at the junction of the flap. Among 9 surgical failures, 5 cases were treated successfully by using an additional surgical procedure. Fistula repair was needed in 1 case 4 months later. Further, periodic urethral dilation was performed in the remaining 3 cases. The failure rate was significantly higher in patients with suprapubic cystostomy than in patients without suprapubic cystostomy. The most common complication was post-micturition dribbling.
Penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty is a useful method for the reconstruction of a long anterior urethral stricture. A sufficient healthy margin should be acquired for better surgical results due to the fact that most recurrence occurs at the junction of the flap.
PMCID: PMC4166375  PMID: 25237658
Penis; Surgical flaps; Urethral stricture
16.  The Incidence of Fever after Subinguinal Microsurgical Varicocelectomy 
In the present study, we aimed to identify the incidence of fever in patients after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy and to evaluate the clinical factors associated with the occurrence of the fever.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients who underwent subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (group A) under spinal anesthesia. In addition, we reviewed the cases of patients who underwent microsurgical vasovasostomy under spinal anesthesia as a control group (group B). The incidence of fever in each group was compared. We investigated the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of fever in the patients of group A.
The incidence of fever in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (32.5% [53/163] vs. 0.4% [1/284]; p<0.001). Clinical factors such as age, varicocele grade, weight, height, operation time, number of ligated veins, usage of immediate postoperative analgesics, presence of postoperative hematoma, and duration of hospital stay were not significantly associated with the occurrence of fever.
We found that one-third of the patients developed transient fever after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy, and therefore, this information should be provided during preoperative counseling.
PMCID: PMC4026235  PMID: 24872953
Fever; Varicocele; Vasovasostomy
17.  The Efficacy and Safety of Tadalafil 5 mg Once Daily in Korean Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Integrated Analysis 
This post hoc integrated analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of tadalafil 5 mg once daily in a large Korean population with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS).
Materials and Methods
Individual Korean participant data were integrated from three 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in Asian men with BPH-LUTS, wherein 177 Korean men received placebo and 177 received tadalafil 5 mg once daily. The primary objective was to compare the change from baseline to week 12 in total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) after treatment with tadalafil versus placebo.
A significantly greater improvement (p<0.001) in total IPSS from baseline to week 12 was observed for tadalafil compared to placebo (least squares mean: tadalafil=-5.97; placebo=-3.94 ). Total IPSS at weeks 4 and 12, IPSS voiding and storage subscores at weeks 4, 8, and 12, and IPSS quality of life index at weeks 8 and 12 were also significantly improved (p<0.05) for tadalafil compared to placebo. There was significant improvement (p<0.001) in the patient global Impression of improvement responses and numerical improvement in the clinician global impression of improvement responses with tadalafil compared to placebo. There were no significant treatment differences for peak urine flow rate or postvoid residual volume. Few participants had treatment-emergent adverse events and there were no unexpected safety findings.
This integrated analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled Asian studies confirmed tadalafil 5 mg once daily as an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment for Korean men with BPH-LUTS.
PMCID: PMC4026231  PMID: 24872949
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Korean; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors; Tadalafil
18.  Salvage Holmium laser enucleation of prostate to treat residual benign prostatic hyperplasia 
The Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) technique to remove residual adenoma has not been reported. Salvage HoLEP enables anatomical enucleation of residual adenoma in patients who have previously undergone surgical treatment. We describe not only anatomical insights into the frequent location of adenoma recurrence, but also the feasibility of the salvage HoLEP technique.
We retrospectively reviewed a database containing HoLEP video records for 35 patients out of a total of 535 individuals on whom HoLEP was performed by 2 surgeons (SJO & JSP) between July 2008 and June 2011. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent salvage HoLEP due to recurring adenoma and Group 2 of patients who underwent HoLEP as an initially surgical management to treat benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We compared the dataset of pre-, intra- and postoperative parameters between Groups 1 and 2.
In the analysis of the video records of Group 1 (n = 35), there was significant remnant tissue around the verumontanum and the lateral lobes were also incompletely removed by previous conventional procedures. When we compared pre-, intra- and postoperative parameters between the 2 groups, there were no significant differences, including operation time, duration of hospital stay. However, the duration of the catheterization of Group 1 was shorter than that of Group 2 (1.38 ± 0.55 vs. 1.90 ± 1.81 days, p < 0.001).
Even for cases of residual BPH, salvage HoLEP is a feasible and effective procedure for treating residual adenoma along the anatomical plane.
PMCID: PMC4001650  PMID: 24839489
19.  Factors Affecting De Novo Urinary Retention after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84938.
Patients can experience urinary retention (UR) after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) that requires bladder distension during the procedure. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify factors affecting the UR after HoLEP.
Materials and Methods
336 patients, which underwent HoLEP for a symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia between July 2008 and March 2012, were included in this study. Urethral catheters were routinely removed one or two days after surgery. UR was defined as the need for an indwelling catheter placement following a failure to void after catheter removal. Demographic and clinical parameters were compared between the UR (n = 37) and the non-urinary retention (non-UR; n = 299) groups.
The mean age of patients was 68.3 (±6.5) years and the mean operative time was 75.3 (±37.4) min. Thirty seven patients (11.0%) experienced a postoperative UR. UR patients voided catheter free an average of 1.9 (±1.7) days after UR. With regard to the causes of UR, 24 (7.1%) and 13 (3.9%) patients experienced a blood clot-related UR and a non-clot related UR respectively. Using multivariate analysis (p<0.05), we found significant differences between the UR and the non-UR groups with regard to a morcellation efficiency (OR 0.701, 95% CI 0.498–0.988) and a bleeding-related complication, such as, a reoperation for bleeding (OR 0.039, 95% CI 0.004–0.383) or a transfusion (OR 0.144, 95% CI 0.027–0.877). Age, history of diabetes, prostate volume, pre-operative post-void residual, bladder contractility index, learning curve, and operative time were not significantly associated with the UR (p>0.05).
De novo UR after HoLEP was found to be self-limited and it was not related to learning curve, patient age, diabetes, or operative time. Efficient morcellation and careful control of bleeding, which reduces clot formation, decrease the risk of UR after HoLEP.
PMCID: PMC3897383  PMID: 24465454
20.  Surgical Outcome of Excision and End-to-End Anastomosis for Bulbar Urethral Stricture 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(7):442-447.
Although direct-vision internal urethrotomy can be performed for the management of short, bulbar urethral strictures, excision and end-to-end anastomosis remains the best procedure to guarantee a high success rate. We performed a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent bulbar end-to-end anastomosis to assess the factors affecting surgical outcome.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 33 patients with an average age of 55 years who underwent bulbar end-to-end anastomosis. Stricture etiology was blunt perineal trauma (54.6%), iatrogenic (24.2%), idiopathic (12.1%), and infection (9.1%). A total of 21 patients (63.6%) underwent urethrotomy, dilation, or multiple treatments before referral to our center. Clinical outcome was considered a treatment failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed.
Mean operation time was 151 minutes (range, 100 to 215 minutes) and mean excised stricture length was 1.5 cm (range, 0.8 to 2.3 cm). At a mean follow-up of 42.6 months (range, 8 to 96 months), 29 patients (87.9%) were symptom-free and required no further procedure. Strictures recurred in 4 patients (12.1%) within 5 months after surgery. Of four recurrences, one patient was managed successfully by urethrotomy, whereas the remaining three did not respond to urethrotomy or dilation and required additional urethroplasty. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in the patients with nontraumatic causes (iatrogenic in three, infection in one patient) than in the patients with traumatic etiology.
Excision and end-to-end anastomosis for short, bulbar urethral stricture has an acceptable success rate of 87.9%. However, careful consideration is needed to decide on the surgical procedure if the stricture etiology is nontraumatic.
PMCID: PMC3715707  PMID: 23878686
Surgical anastomosis; Treatment outcome; Urethral stricture
21.  Time-Dependent Changes of Erectile Function in Diabetic Rats: Role of Systemic Endothelial Dysfunction 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2012;30(2):114-122.
To understand the potential contribution of systemic endothelial dysfunction to diabetic erectile dysfunction, and the time course of erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model.
Materials and Methods
Among 84, 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats, 48 rats received intraperitoneal STZ and were classified into six groups of diabetes by the period of observation (n=8). The remaining 36 rats were also grouped, similar to the diabetic groups, and served as normal controls. After 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks of diabetes (serum glucose >250 mg%), all rats underwent cavernous nerve electrostimulation (3 V, 0.2 ms, 30 sec) with varying frequency (2.5~20 Hz). At the end of the study, 8 ml of blood was taken to measure the plasma markers of endothelial function and glycosylated hemoglobin.
Compared to the control, significant reduction of erectile response was not observed until eight weeks after diabetes induction. The diabetic rats had elevation of all plasma markers except for l-selectin. However, the correlation analysis revealed that no systemic marker of endothelial dysfunction was associated with change in erectile function. Only the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) showed a modest but significant correlation with the peak intracavernosal pressure, corrected by mean arterial pressure (ρ=-0.183), and the area under the curve of the cavernosometry (ρ=-0.207).
Significant reduction of erectile function was not observed until eight weeks after the induction of diabetes. Except for HbA1c, there was no systemic marker associated with endothelial activation and erectile function in the diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC3623519  PMID: 23596598
Erectile dysfunction; Diabetes mellitus; Rats; Endothelium
22.  Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Seoul National University Hospital Experience 
The objective of this study was to report the experience acquired at the Seoul National University Hospital with Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (HoLEP), combined with mechanical morcellation for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
A retrospective review was performed on the clinical data of 309 consecutive patients who underwent HoLEP at our institution between July 2008 and June 2010. All patients were evaluated preoperatively for prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) score. Peri- and postoperative parameters were evaluated and patients were followed-up at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12- months with the aforementioned investigations.
The patients' mean age was 68.3 (±6.5) years and mean prostate volume was 55.6 (±23.6) mL. Mean enucleation time was 56.2 (±25.1) minutes, mean morcellation time was 11.3 (±9.5) minutes, and the mean resected weight of the prostate was 20.8 (±16.9) g. The mean catheter indwelling period was 1.9 (±1.7) days and mean hospital stay was 2.9 (±1.5) days. Significant improvement was noted in Qmax, IPSS, and QoL at the 1-year follow-up compared with baseline (P<0.01). At 1 month 17.2% of patients complained of irritative urinary symptoms, which were typically self-limiting within 3 months. Transient stress incontinence was reported in 15.2% of patients. No patient experienced persistent obstructive symptoms that required reoperation.
Our study showed that HoLEP is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for BPH.
PMCID: PMC3070223  PMID: 21468284
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium; Lasers; Prostatectomy
23.  Desmopressin is an Effective Treatment for Mixed Nocturia with Nocturnal Polyuria and Decreased Nocturnal Bladder Capacity 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(12):1792-1797.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.
PMCID: PMC2995235  PMID: 21165296
Urinary Bladder; Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; Hyponatremia; Nocturia; Nocturnal Polyuria
24.  Treatment satisfaction after 1 year high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate photoselective vaporization of the prostate 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2010;12(5):728-734.
To investigate the factors that influence treatment satisfaction after high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser vaporization of the prostate, we compared the characteristics between patients who were satisfied and those who were not satisfied. In all, 97 patients aged between 53–82 years (median age 67 years) underwent high-power KTP laser vaporization of the prostate for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. At 12 months postoperatively, 60 patients were satisfied with the treatment, whereas 37 were dissatisfied. Although there were no differences in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) values at baseline, the satisfied group scored better in total IPSS at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). At baseline, the maximum flow rate (Qmax) was lower in the dissatisfied group and remained low throughout the follow-up period, with the exception of 1 month postoperatively (P < 0.05), compared with the satisfied group. There were no differences in other objective data between the two groups, including post-void residual and the number of voids based on the frequency-volume charts. In a multivariate model, a higher bladder contractility index was associated with a greater likelihood of treatment satisfaction 12 months after high-power KTP laser vaporization (odds ratio 1.024, 95% confidence interval 1.001–1.048, P < 0.05). Patients who were not satisfied following the surgery had a smaller improvement in subjective symptoms and Qmax. In addition, our findings suggest that the relative risk of treatment dissatisfaction following high-power KTP laser vaporization was increased in patients with weak detrusor contractility.
PMCID: PMC3739308  PMID: 20818402
benign prostatic hyperplasia; potassium-titanyl-phosphate; prostate; satisfaction; vaporization
25.  A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):435-439.
We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis.
PMCID: PMC2826739  PMID: 20191044
Cystitis; Immunization; Escherichia coli; OM-8930; Prevention and Control

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