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author:("prick, J-S")
1.  Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase in rat penile tissue: reduced enzyme activity is responsible for erectile dysfunction in a rat model of atherosclerosis 
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is mainly metabolized by NG,NG-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). We investigated whether altered cavernosal ADMA–DDAH metabolism might cause impairment of erection in rat model of atherosclerosis (AS). Male Sprague–Dawley rats (3 months old) were divided into an AS group and a normal control (Con) group (n=20 in each group). The AS rats received AS-prone treatment (6 weeks of 1% cholesterol diet plus early 2 weeks of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (3 mg ml−1 per day) treatment). After 6 weeks, rats underwent cavernosometry measuring the maximal intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratios as a surrogate marker of erectile function. The amount of cavernosal ADMA was assessed by immunoblot analysis and correlated with the ICP/MAP. Isoform-specific DDAH expression was compared by immunohistochemistry. Cavernosal DDAH and NOS activity were measured. Cavernosal malondialdehyde levels were assayed to determine the degree of lipid peroxidation. Compared to the controls, the AS rats had signs of impaired erectile function. Higher cavernosal ADMA was observed in the AS rats. The cavernosal ADMA had a moderately negative correlation with the ICP/MAP. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of both isoforms was not affected by the presence of AS. However, significantly diminished DDAH as well as NOS activity was observed in the AS group. In addition, elevated cavernosal malondialdehyde levels were noted in the AS rats. Our study showed that decreased cavernosal DDAH activity is the cause of cavernosal ADMA accumulation leading to reduced cavernosal NOS activity and impairment of erectile function.
doi:10.1038/ijir.2009.20
PMCID: PMC2834501  PMID: 19603041
erectile dysfunction; atherosclerosis; rats; asymmetric dimethylarginine; dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
2.  Efficacy and safety of solifenacin succinate in Korean patients with overactive bladder: a randomised, prospective, double-blind, multicentre study 
Purpose:
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
Results:
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Conclusions:
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01898.x
PMCID: PMC2680337  PMID: 19143854

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