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1.  Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:299.
Background
The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy.
Results
The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY).
Conclusion
The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-299
PMCID: PMC3438083  PMID: 22709668
Multi-Drug Resistant bacteria; Spices; Methanol extract; Cameroon
2.  Antibacterial activities of selected Cameroonian spices and their synergistic effects with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant phenotypes 
Background
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of eleven Cameroonian spices on a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including MDR strains.
Methods
The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by standard tests meanwhile the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays.
Results
Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins in all plants extracts. The results of the antibacterial assays indicated that all tested extracts exert antibacterial activities, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varying from 32 to 1024 μg/ml. The extracts from Dichrostachys glomerata, Beilschmiedia cinnamomea, Aframomum citratum, Piper capense, Echinops giganteus, Fagara xanthoxyloïdes and Olax subscorpioïdea were the most active. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor, PAßN, the activity of the extract from D. glomerata significantly increased on 69.2% of the tested MDR bacteria. At MIC/5, synergistic effects were noted with the extract of D. glomerata on 75% of the tested bacteria for chloramphenicol (CHL), tetracycline (TET) and norfloxacin (NOR). With B. cinnamomea synergy were observed on 62.5% of the studied MDR bacteria with CHL, cefepime (FEP), NOR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 75% with erythromycin (ERY).
Conclusion
The overall results provide information for the possible use of the studied extracts of the spices in the control of bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-104
PMCID: PMC3228721  PMID: 22044718
3.  Antibacterial Activities of Selected Cameroonian Plants and Their Synergistic Effects with Antibiotics against Bacteria Expressing MDR Phenotypes 
The present work was designed to assess the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants and the effect of their associations with currently used antibiotics on multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria overexpressing active efflux pumps. The antibacterial activities of twelve methanol extracts of medicinal plants were evaluated using broth microdilution. The results of this test showed that three extracts Garcinia lucida with the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varying from 128 to 512 μg/mL, Garcinia kola (MIC of 256 to 1024 μg/mL), and Picralima nitida (MIC of 128 to 1024 μg/mL) were active on all the twenty-nine studied bacteria including MDR phenotypes. The association of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN or efflux pumps inhibitor) to different extracts did not modify their activities. At the concentration of MIC/2 and MIC/5, the extracts of P. nitida and G. kola improved the antibacterial activities of some commonly used antibiotics suggesting their synergistic effects with the tested antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that the tested plant extracts and mostly those from P. nitida, G. lucida and G. kola could be used alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight of bacterial infections involving MDR strains.
doi:10.1155/2012/623723
PMCID: PMC3304440  PMID: 22474511
4.  Efflux Pump, the Masked Side of ß-Lactam Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(3):e4817.
Background
β-lactamase production and porin decrease are the well-recognized mechanisms of acquired ß-lactam resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. However, such mechanisms proved to be absent in K. pneumoniae isolates that are non susceptible to cefoxitin (FOX) and succeptible to amoxicillin+clavulanic acid in our hospital. Assessing the role of efflux pumps in this β-lactam phenotype was the aim of this study.
Methodology/Findings
MICs of 9 β-lactams, including cloxacillin (CLX), and other antibiotic families were tested alone and with an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), then with both CLX (subinhibitory concentrations) and EPI against 11 unique bacteremia K. pneumoniae isolates displaying the unusual phenotype, and 2 ATCC strains. CLX and EPI-dose dependent effects were studied on 4 representatives strains. CLX MICs significantly decreased when tested with EPI. A similar phenomenon was observed with piperacillin+tazobactam whereas MICs of the other β-lactams significantly decreased only in the presence of both EPI and CLX. Thus, FOX MICs decreased 128 fold in the K. pneumoniae isolates but also16 fold in ATCC strain. Restoration of FOX activity was CLX dose-dependent suggesting a competitive relationship between CLX and the other β-lactams with regard to their efflux. For chloramphenicol, erythromycin and nalidixic acid whose resistance was also due to efflux, adding CLX to EPI did not increase their activity suggesting differences between the efflux process of these molecules and that of β-lactams.
Conclusion
This is the first study demonstrating that efflux mechanism plays a key role in the β-lactam susceptibility of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. Such data clearly evidence that the involvement of efflux pumps in ß-lactam resistance is specially underestimated in clinical isolates.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004817
PMCID: PMC2652100  PMID: 19279676
5.  RamA Is an Alternate Activator of the Multidrug Resistance Cascade in Enterobacter aerogenes 
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in Enterobacter aerogenes can be mediated by induction of MarA, which is triggered by certain antibiotics and phenolic compounds. In this study, we identified the gene encoding RamA, a 113-amino-acid regulatory protein belonging to the AraC-XylS transcriptional activator family, in the Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 type strain and in a clinical multiresistant isolate. Overexpression of RamA induced an MDR phenotype in drug-susceptible Escherichia coli JM109 and E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, as demonstrated by 2- to 16-fold-increased resistance to β-lactams, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and quinolones, a decrease in porin production, and increased production of AcrA, a component of the AcrAB-TolC drug efflux pump. We show that RamA enhances the transcription of the marRAB operon but is also able to induce an MDR phenotype in a mar-deleted strain. We demonstrate here that RamA is a transcriptional activator of the Mar regulon and is also a self-governing activator of the MDR cascade.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.7.2518-2523.2004
PMCID: PMC434192  PMID: 15215103
6.  Oxacillinase-Mediated Resistance to Cefepime and Susceptibility to Ceftazidime in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate SOF-1 was resistant to cefepime and susceptible to ceftazidime. This resistance phenotype was explained by the expression of OXA-31, which shared 98% amino acid identity with a class D β-lactamase, OXA-1. The oxa-31 gene was located on a ca. 300-kb nonconjugative plasmid and on a class 1 integron. No additional efflux mechanism for cefepime was detected in P. aeruginosa SOF-1. Resistance to cefepime and susceptibility to ceftazidime in P. aeruginosa were conferred by OXA-1 as well.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.6.1615-1620.2001
PMCID: PMC90522  PMID: 11353602
7.  Imipenem Resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes Mediated by Outer Membrane Permeability 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(3):1048-1052.
Multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes strains are increasingly isolated in Europe and especially in France. Treatment leads to imipenem resistance, because of a lack of porin. We studied the evolution of resistance in 29 strains isolated from four patients during their clinical course. These strains belonged to the prevalent epidemiological type observed in France in previous studies (C. Bosi, et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2165–2169, 1999; A. Davin-Regli et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1474–1480, 1996). They also harbored a TEM-24 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-coding gene. Thirteen strains were susceptible to gentamicin and resistant to imipenem and cefepime. All of the patients showed E. aerogenes strains with this resistance after an imipenem treatment. One patient showed resistance to imipenem after a treatment with cefpirome. Twelve of these 13 strains showed a lack of porin. Cessation of treatment with imipenem for three patients was followed by reversion of susceptibility to this antibiotic and the reappearance of porins, except in one case. For one patient, we observed three times in the same day the coexistence of resistant strains lacking porin and susceptible strains possessing porin. The emergence of multidrug-resistant E. aerogenes strains is very disquieting. In our study, infection by E. aerogenes increased the severity of the patients' illnesses, causing a 100% fatality rate.
PMCID: PMC86335  PMID: 10698994
8.  Most Enterobacter aerogenes Strains in France Belong to a Prevalent Clone 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(7):2165-2169.
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution in France of the Enterobacter aerogenes prevalent clone isolated in the hospitals of the Marseille area (A. Davin-Regli, D. Monnet, P. Saux, C. Bosi, R. Charrel, A. Barthelemy, and C. Bollet, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1474–1480, 1996). A total of 123 E. aerogenes isolates were collected from 23 hospital laboratories and analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Molecular typing revealed that 21 of the 23 laboratories had isolated this prevalent clone harboring the plasmid encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamase of the TEM-24 type. Most isolates were susceptible only to imipenem and gentamicin. Their dissemination seems to be clonal and was probably the result of the general use of broad-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones. Four isolates showed an alteration of their outer membrane proteins, causing decrease of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and imipenem and leading to the critical situation of having no alternative therapeutic. The large dissemination of the E. aerogenes prevalent clone probably results from its good adaptation to the antibiotics administered in France and the hospital environment, particularly in intensive care units.
PMCID: PMC85109  PMID: 10364580
9.  A Major Outer Membrane Protein of Rahnella aquatilis Functions as a Porin and Root Adhesin 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(4):909-913.
A 38-kDa major outer membrane protein (OMP) was isolated from the nitrogen-fixing enterobacterium Rahnella aquatilis CF3. This protein exists as a stable trimer in the presence of 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate at temperatures below 60°C. Single channel experiments showed that this major OMP of R. aquatilis CF3 is able to form pores in the planar lipid membrane. Two oligonucleotides encoding the N-terminal portion of the 38-kDa OMP and C-terminal portion of OmpC were used to amplify the 38-kDa gene by PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong homology with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Serratia marcescens OmpC sequences, except loops L6 and L7, which are postulated to be cell surface exposed. On the basis of the OmpF-PhoE three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that this 38-kDa organizes three 16-strand β-barrel subunits. The relationship between the structure and the double functionality of this protein as porin and as a root adhesin is discussed.
PMCID: PMC106971  PMID: 9473046

Results 1-9 (9)