Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world today. The association between DNA damage to the lens epithelium and the development of lens opacities has been reported in many studies. Polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes may affect repair efficiency and thereby lead to the development of age related cataract.
In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in two DNA repair enzyme genes, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group (XPD) codon 312 and X-ray complementing group1 (XRCC1) codon 399, in a sample of 208 cataract patients (69 with cortical, 69 with nuclear and 70 with posterior sub capsular) and 151 sex and age matched healthy controls. XPD genotype was determined by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) while XRCC1 was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method.
There was a significant difference between frequencies for XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype in cataract patients (21.6%) and healthy controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.06–3.63). Considering the types of cataract, XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype was found to be significantly different in patients with cortical (29%) type in comparison to controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.11–5.12). No statistically significant difference was found for the genotypic and allelic distributions of the polymorphism in XRCC1. The MDR interaction analysis revealed weak synergism between the markers XPD-Asp312Asn and XRCC1-Arg399Gln contributing to cataract. It also showed that the AA genotype of XPD-Asp312Asn polymorphism when present in combination with the GA genotype of XRCC1-Arg399Gln had a fivefold and with AA had a fourfold risk for developing cataract.
The present study suggests that a polymorphism in XPD codon 312 may be associated with the development of maturity onset cataract. This is the first report on the association of XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism with maturity onset cataract.
Gliomas are the most common and aggressive of brain tumors in adults. Cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to chemoresistance in many solid tumors including gliomas. The function of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) as a pro-apoptotic protein is well documented in many cancers; however, its role in CSC remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Par-4 in drug-induced cytotoxicity using human glioma stem cell line - HNGC-2 and primary culture (G1) derived from high grade glioma. We show that among the panel of drugs- lomustine, carmustine, UCN-01, oxaliplatin, temozolomide and tamoxifen (TAM) screened, only TAM induced cell death and up-regulated Par-4 levels significantly. TAM-induced apoptosis was confirmed by PARP cleavage, Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Knock down of Par-4 by siRNA inhibited cell death by TAM, suggesting the role of Par-4 in induction of apoptosis. We also demonstrate that the mechanism involves break down of mitochondrial membrane potential, down regulation of Bcl-2 and reduced activation of Akt and ERK 42/44. Secretory Par-4 and GRP-78 were significantly expressed in HNGC-2 cells on exposure to TAM and specific antibodies to these molecules inhibited cell death suggesting that extrinsic Par-4 is important in TAM-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, TAM decreased the expression of neural stem cell markers - Nestin, Bmi1, Vimentin, Sox2, and Musashi in HNGC-2 cell line and G1 cells implicating its potential as a stemness inhibiting drug. Based on these data and our findings that enhanced levels of Par-4 sensitize the resistant glioma stem cells to drug-induced apoptosis, we propose that Par-4 may be explored for evaluating anti-tumor agents in CSC.
The purpose of this descriptive study is to highlight the physical and mental health symptoms of 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India, their compliance to ART medication, and barriers to accessing health care within the past six months. Physical and mental health status was obtained by self-report, administered by questionnaire and physician-determined clinical assessment, as well as selected objective parameters. Findings revealed that while rural WLA had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for just under two years, they self-reported a high prevalence of physical symptoms, and more than half reported high levels of depressive symptoms and major barriers to accessing health care. CD4 levels, body weight and basal metabolic rate were also low. While rural and urban WLA faced similar health care challenges, the demographic characteristics of the rural women may make them more vulnerable, as they are less adherent to ART and slimmer than their urban counterparts.
HIV/AIDS; Rural and Urban Women living with AIDS in India
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours.
This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done.
The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential.
The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.
Adolescents; Risk Behaviors; Tobacco; Alcoholic Beverages; Sexual Behavior; India
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important crop with added nutritional value. Production of capsaicin is an important quantitative trait with high environmental variance, so the development of markers regulating capsaicinoid accumulation is important for pepper breeding programs. In this study, we performed association mapping at the gene level to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with capsaicin pathway metabolites in a diverse Capsicum annuum collection during two seasons. The genes Pun1, CCR, KAS and HCT were sequenced and matched with the whole-genome sequence draft of pepper to identify SNP locations and for further characterization. The identified SNPs for each gene underwent candidate gene association mapping. Association mapping results revealed Pun1 as a key regulator of major metabolites in the capsaicin pathway mainly affecting capsaicinoids and precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids. Six different SNPs in the promoter sequence of Pun1 were found associated with capsaicin in plants from both seasons. Our results support that CCR is an important control point for the flux of p-coumaric acid to specific biosynthesis pathways. KAS was found to regulate the major precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids and may play a key role in capsaicinoid production. Candidate gene association mapping of Pun1 suggested that the accumulation of capsaicinoids depends on the expression of Pun1, as revealed by the most important associated SNPs found in the promoter region of Pun1.
Despite significant strides made in the clinical translation of adoptive immune cell therapies, it is apparent that many tumors incorporate strategies to avoid recognition by receptors expressed on the immune cells, such as NKG2D. Strategies that stabilize the expression of ligands for these receptors may enhance the therapeutic potential of these and related therapies. Doxycycline inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that act to cleave the extracellular domain of MICA/B, ligands for the NKG2D receptor. Doxycycline treatment blocked shedding of MICA/B from a panel of human tumor cells, but also acted to increase their expression and cell surface translocation, possibly through its action on ATM. This meant that many tumor cells displayed increased MICA/B expression and enhanced susceptibility to CIK cells. Interestingly, doxycycline also selectively enhanced the replication of oncolytic vaccinia in many tumor cell lines, leading to increased sensitivity to these therapies. Combination (CIK-oncolytic vaccinia) therapies used in conjunction with doxycyline led to increased anti-tumor effects. The unexpected and pleiotropic beneficial anti-tumor effects of doxycycline on both immune cell and oncolytic viral therapies make it an excellent candidate for rapid clinical testing.
doxycycline; NKG2D; immunotherapy; oncolytic virus; MICA
Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES.
Materials and Methods:
BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat.
Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer circulation and biodistrbution study confirmed high RES uptake (75%) in RES organs like liver lung spleen etc.
The high RES uptake suggests BPQ SLN as a promising approach for targeted and improved delivery in theileriosis.
Buparavaquone; solid lipid nanoparticles; targeting efficiency; theileriosis
We report here a case of a random synchronous male breast malignancy in a patient with a known base of tongue malignancy that was incidentally detected on a whole body 18-fluorine deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). Patient was referred to us for PET/CT staging and radiotherapy planning for a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue. Histopathologically, the incidentally detected breast lesion was proven to be an invasive ductal carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT being a whole body imaging modality is known to detect a considerable number of synchronous primaries. Synchronous malignancies in the head and neck area and the upper aerodigestive tract are well established. However, synchronous malignancy in male breast is reportedly uncommon. Our case is unique for the fact that a random synchronous dual malignancy of base of tongue and breast in a male patient was detected during a whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.
Breast neoplasms; Male; Multiple primary neoplasms; Positron-emission tomography; Tongue neoplasms
We have previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity of a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), towards normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer activities of RBL using human leukemic T-cell lines, Molt-4, Jurkat and HuT-78. RBL exhibited significant binding (>90%) to the cell membrane that was effectively inhibited by complex glycoproteins such as mucin (97% inhibition) and asialofetuin (94% inhibition) but not simple sugars such as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, glucose and sucrose. RBL induced a dose and time dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in the cell lines. The percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by hypodiploidy, was 33% and 42% in Molt-4 and Jurkat cells, respectively, compared to 3.11% and 2.92% in controls. This effect was associated with a concomitant decrease in the G0/G1 population. Though initiator caspase-8 and -9 were activated upon exposure to RBL, inhibition of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 rescued cells from RBL-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that RBL induced cleavage of Bid, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. The expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X was down regulated without altering the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins- Bad and Bax. In contrast to leukemic cells, RBL did not induce apoptosis in normal PBMC, isolated CD3+ve cells and undifferentiated CD34+ve hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The findings highlight the differential effects of RBL on transformed and normal hematopoietic cells and suggest that RBL may be explored for therapeutic applications in leukemia.
In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion, and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having ten or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program which will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA.
Adherence to ART; rural women living with AIDS in India; depression; social support
Age-related cataract (ARC) is a multifactorial disease and the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Genetic predisposition in association with other etiological factors may contribute to ARC. Although, there is some evidence for genetic influence for development of ARC, reports on gene mutations associated with ARC are scanty. In the present work, we identified a genetic variation (F71L) in the exon-2 of CRYAA gene in three unrelated female sporadic cases among 450 ARC patients but not in 144 normal non-cataractous controls. By comparing human recombinant wild-type and F71L-αA-crystallin, further we characterized the functional significance of this missense mutation. Size exclusion chromatography studies revealed that F71L mutation had no significant effect on the apparent molecular mass of αA-crystallin oligomeric complex. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and far- and near-UV CD spectra indicated that F71L missense mutation did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of αA-crystallin. The ANS fluorescence emission spectra suggested no changes in surface hydrophobicity due to the F71L substitution. While the mutant αA-crystallin displayed almost complete loss (90%) of chaperone-like activity (CLA), in thermal aggregation of carbonic anhydrase, it showed 35-50% less protection in heat-induced aggregation of βL- and γ-crystallins. This is the first report of an αA-F71L mutation being associated with ARC. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanism of ARC in individuals carrying this mutation (F71L) might be due to the overall loss of in vivo chaperone activity due to interaction with other environmental factors.
Age-related cataract; αA-crystallin; F71L-mutation; chaperone-like activity; CD-spectra; oligomeric complex
Early physician follow-up after discharge is associated with lower rates of death and readmission among patients with heart failure. We explored whether physician continuity further influences outcomes after discharge.
We used data from linked administrative databases for all adults aged 20 years or more in the province of Alberta who were discharged alive from hospital between January 1999 and June 2009 with a first-time diagnosis of heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates to analyze the effect of follow-up with a familiar physician within the first month after discharge on the primary outcome of death or urgent all-cause readmission over 6 months. A familiar physician was defined as one who had seen the patient at least twice in the year before the index admission or once during the index admission.
In the first month after discharge, 5336 (21.9%) of the 24 373 identified patients had no follow-up visits, 16 855 (69.2%) saw a familiar physician, and 2182 (9.0%) saw unfamiliar physician(s) exclusively. The risk of death or unplanned readmission during the 6-month observation period was lower among patients who saw a familiar physician (43.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–0.91) or an unfamiliar physician (43.6%; adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.97) for early follow-up visits, as compared with patients who had no follow-up visits (62.9%). Taking into account all follow-up visits over the 6-month period, we found that the risk of death or urgent readmission was lower among patients who had all of their visits with a familiar physician than among those followed by unfamiliar physicians (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.98).
Early physician follow-up after discharge and physician continuity were both associated with better outcomes among patients with heart failure. Research is needed to explore whether physician continuity is important for other conditions and in settings other than recent hospital discharge.
To review clinical characteristics and response to immunomodulation therapy in autoimmune encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus (SE), epilepsy, and cognitive decline.
Observational, prospective case series.
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Materials and Methods:
Prospective analysis of 15 patients, who presented with SE, epilepsy, cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms with positive autoantibodies. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal-fluid analysis (CSF), and tumor screening were done periodically. Treatment received and responses (categorized as per patients and treating doctor's information) were noted.
There were 15 (males = 10) patients of autoimmune encephalitis. The mean age of presentation was 24 years (range: 2-64 years). The most common onset was subacute (64%) and four (29%) patients presented as SE. Predominant clinical presentations were seizures (100%) almost of every semiology. CSF was done in 10 patients; it was normal in 60%. Brain MRI was done in all patients, in six (40%) it was normal, six (40%) showed T2W and FLAIR hyperintensities in bilateral limbic areas. Antibodies found were the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody in seven (50%), voltage-gated potassium channel antibody in five (36%), two of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, and one patient with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. None showed evidence of malignancy. Patients received immunotherapy, either steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Follow-up showed significant improvement in majority of cases, neither further seizures nor relapse in nine (67%) cases. One death occurred, due to delayed presentation.
Uncommon but potentially reversible causes of SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline may be immune-related and high index of suspicion will prevent missing the diagnosis.
Autoimmune encephalitis; cognitive decline; drug refractory epilepsy; seizures; status epilepticus
Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.
Crown lengthening; dental prosthesis; full mouth reconstruction; gingivectomy; removable appliance
There are various techniques developed to treat the exposed roots, a recent innovation in dentistry is the use of second generation platelet concentrate which is an autologous platelet-rich fibrin gel (PRF) with growth factors and cicatricial properties for root coverage procedures. Therefore, the present research was undertaken to study the additional benefits of PRF when used along with coronally advanced flap (CAF).
Materials and Methods:
Total of 15 systemically healthy subjects presenting bilateral isolated Miller's class I and II recession were enrolled into the study. Each patient was randomly treated with a combination of CAF along with a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane on the test site and CAF alone on the control site. Recession depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) were compared with baseline at 1, 3, and 6 months between test and control sites.
Mean percentage root coverage in the test group after 1, 3, and 6 months was 34.58, 70.73, and 100, respectively. Differences between the control and test groups were statistically significant. This study also showed a statistically significant increase in WKG in the test group (2.94 ± 0.77 at baseline to 5.38 ± 1.67 at 6 months).
CAF is a predictable treatment for isolated Miller's class I and II recession defects. The addition of PRF membrane with CAF provides superior root coverage with additional benefits of gain in CAL and WKG at 6 months postoperatively.
Coronally advanced flap; gingival recession; platelet rich fibrin; root coverage procedures
Identification of cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis has been the mainstay of anti-cancer therapeutics for several decades. In recent years, focus has shifted to inducing multiple modes of cell death coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. The plant Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This encouraged us to investigate into the anti-proliferative effect of a fraction (F2) isolated from S. grandiflora flowers in cancer cells and delineate the underlying involvement of apoptotic and autophagic pathways.
Using MTT based cell viability assay, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of fraction F2. It was the most effective on U937 cells (IC50∶18.6 µg/ml). Inhibition of growth involved enhancement of Annexin V positivity. This was associated with elevated reactive oxygen species generation, measured by flow cytometry and reduced oxygen consumption – both effects being abrogated by anti-oxidant NAC. This caused stimulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and concomitant inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein expressions inducing mitochondrial depolarization, as measured by flow cytometry and release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, even with these molecular features of apoptosis, F2 was able to alter Atg protein levels and induce LC3 processing. This was accompanied by formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy – confirming the occurrence of autophagy. Eventually, F2 triggered caspase cascade – executioners of programmed cell death and AIF translocation to nuclei. This culminated in cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase that caused DNA damage as proved by staining with Hoechst 33258 leading to cell death.
The findings suggest fraction F2 triggers pro-oxidant activity and mediates its cytotoxicity in leukemic cells via apoptosis and autophagy. Thus, it merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leukemia.
Increased proteoglycan (PG) synthesis is essential for the stimulation of cartilage repair processes that take place during the reversible phase of osteoarthritis (OA). In articular cartilage, xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) is the key enzyme that initiates glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis by transferring the first sugar residue to the PG core protein. Biological activity of PGs is closely linked to GAG biosynthesis since their polyanionic nature directly contributes to the proper hydration and elastic properties of the cartilage tissue present at the articular interface. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variations in the level of Xylt1 present in serum can be used to predict OA disease progression. The influence of bone forming activity on the systemic release of this enzyme was addressed by experimentally-inducing OA in mice of two different genetic backgrounds that were previously characterized for their distinct bone metabolism: C57BL/6J (B6, high bone remodelers) or C3H/HeJ (C3H, high bone formers). Serum was collected after medial meniscectomy or sham surgeries in young adult mice of these two strains over a period of 3.5 months at which point knee histopathology was assessed. A significant increase in serum Xylt1 levels observed shortly after meniscectomy positively correlated with severe cartilage damage evaluated by histological assessment at later time points in mice of the C3H background. In contrast, no temporal regulation of Xylt1 level was found between meniscectomies and control surgeries in B6 mice, which developed OA at a slower rate. Additionally, longitudinal evaluation of the serum levels of other markers of cartilage/bone metabolism (C1,2C, osteocalcin) did not reveal any association with late knee damages. Our results strongly support the idea that serum Xylt1 has a clinical value for monitoring risk of OA progression in young adults with high bone forming potential. Ultimately, the understanding of posttraumatic mechanisms regulating PG synthesis and their modification by GAG will be essential so that interventions that stimulate cartilage regrowth can be undertaken prior to irreversible destruction of the joint tissue.
Cartilage; Osteoarthritis; Biomarkers; Xylosyltransferase; Longitudinal Study
Lung diseases are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality that are treated with limited efficacy. Recently stem cell therapies have been shown to effectively treat animal models of lung disease. However, there are limitations to the translation of these cell therapies to clinical disease. Studies have shown that delayed treatment of animal models does not improve outcomes and that the models do not reflect the repeated injury that is present in most lung diseases. We tested the efficacy of amnion mesenchymal stem cells (AM-MSC), bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC) and human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) in C57BL/6 mice using a repeat dose bleomycin-induced model of lung injury that better reflects the repeat injury seen in lung diseases. The dual bleomycin dose led to significantly higher levels of inflammation and fibrosis in the mouse lung compared to a single bleomycin dose. Intravenously infused stem cells were present in the lung in similar numbers at days 7 and 21 post cell injection. In addition, stem cell injection resulted in a significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltrate and a reduction in IL-1 (AM-MSC), IL-6 (AM-MSC, BM-MSC, hAEC) and TNF-α (AM-MSC). The only trophic factor tested that increased following stem cell injection was IL-1RA (AM-MSC). IL-1RA levels may be modulated by GM-CSF produced by AM-MSC. Furthermore, only AM-MSC reduced collagen deposition and increased MMP-9 activity in the lung although there was a reduction of the pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β following BM-MSC, AM-MSC and hAEC treatment. Therefore, AM-MSC may be more effective in reducing injury following delayed injection in the setting of repeated lung injury.
Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio® L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients’ sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential biomarker on a larger scale in patients at-risk of HCC.
Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective pain management option for patients with chronic and cancer pain. The delivery of drugs into the intrathecal space provides superior analgesia with smaller doses of analgesics to minimize side effects while significantly improving quality of life. This article aims to provide a general overview of the use of intrathecal drug delivery to manage pain, dosing recommendations, potential risks and complications, and growing trends in the field.
This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae).
Materials and Methods:
Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated.
Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms.
Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs.
Euphorbia hirta; flavonoid; kaempferol; minimum inhibitory concentration; quercetin; total activity