Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world today. The association between DNA damage to the lens epithelium and the development of lens opacities has been reported in many studies. Polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes may affect repair efficiency and thereby lead to the development of age related cataract.
In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in two DNA repair enzyme genes, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group (XPD) codon 312 and X-ray complementing group1 (XRCC1) codon 399, in a sample of 208 cataract patients (69 with cortical, 69 with nuclear and 70 with posterior sub capsular) and 151 sex and age matched healthy controls. XPD genotype was determined by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) while XRCC1 was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method.
There was a significant difference between frequencies for XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype in cataract patients (21.6%) and healthy controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.06–3.63). Considering the types of cataract, XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype was found to be significantly different in patients with cortical (29%) type in comparison to controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.11–5.12). No statistically significant difference was found for the genotypic and allelic distributions of the polymorphism in XRCC1. The MDR interaction analysis revealed weak synergism between the markers XPD-Asp312Asn and XRCC1-Arg399Gln contributing to cataract. It also showed that the AA genotype of XPD-Asp312Asn polymorphism when present in combination with the GA genotype of XRCC1-Arg399Gln had a fivefold and with AA had a fourfold risk for developing cataract.
The present study suggests that a polymorphism in XPD codon 312 may be associated with the development of maturity onset cataract. This is the first report on the association of XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism with maturity onset cataract.
We have previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity of a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), towards normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer activities of RBL using human leukemic T-cell lines, Molt-4, Jurkat and HuT-78. RBL exhibited significant binding (>90%) to the cell membrane that was effectively inhibited by complex glycoproteins such as mucin (97% inhibition) and asialofetuin (94% inhibition) but not simple sugars such as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, glucose and sucrose. RBL induced a dose and time dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in the cell lines. The percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by hypodiploidy, was 33% and 42% in Molt-4 and Jurkat cells, respectively, compared to 3.11% and 2.92% in controls. This effect was associated with a concomitant decrease in the G0/G1 population. Though initiator caspase-8 and -9 were activated upon exposure to RBL, inhibition of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 rescued cells from RBL-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that RBL induced cleavage of Bid, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. The expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X was down regulated without altering the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins- Bad and Bax. In contrast to leukemic cells, RBL did not induce apoptosis in normal PBMC, isolated CD3+ve cells and undifferentiated CD34+ve hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The findings highlight the differential effects of RBL on transformed and normal hematopoietic cells and suggest that RBL may be explored for therapeutic applications in leukemia.
In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion, and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having ten or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program which will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA.
Adherence to ART; rural women living with AIDS in India; depression; social support
Age-related cataract (ARC) is a multifactorial disease and the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Genetic predisposition in association with other etiological factors may contribute to ARC. Although, there is some evidence for genetic influence for development of ARC, reports on gene mutations associated with ARC are scanty. In the present work, we identified a genetic variation (F71L) in the exon-2 of CRYAA gene in three unrelated female sporadic cases among 450 ARC patients but not in 144 normal non-cataractous controls. By comparing human recombinant wild-type and F71L-αA-crystallin, further we characterized the functional significance of this missense mutation. Size exclusion chromatography studies revealed that F71L mutation had no significant effect on the apparent molecular mass of αA-crystallin oligomeric complex. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and far- and near-UV CD spectra indicated that F71L missense mutation did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of αA-crystallin. The ANS fluorescence emission spectra suggested no changes in surface hydrophobicity due to the F71L substitution. While the mutant αA-crystallin displayed almost complete loss (90%) of chaperone-like activity (CLA), in thermal aggregation of carbonic anhydrase, it showed 35-50% less protection in heat-induced aggregation of βL- and γ-crystallins. This is the first report of an αA-F71L mutation being associated with ARC. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanism of ARC in individuals carrying this mutation (F71L) might be due to the overall loss of in vivo chaperone activity due to interaction with other environmental factors.
Age-related cataract; αA-crystallin; F71L-mutation; chaperone-like activity; CD-spectra; oligomeric complex
Early physician follow-up after discharge is associated with lower rates of death and readmission among patients with heart failure. We explored whether physician continuity further influences outcomes after discharge.
We used data from linked administrative databases for all adults aged 20 years or more in the province of Alberta who were discharged alive from hospital between January 1999 and June 2009 with a first-time diagnosis of heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates to analyze the effect of follow-up with a familiar physician within the first month after discharge on the primary outcome of death or urgent all-cause readmission over 6 months. A familiar physician was defined as one who had seen the patient at least twice in the year before the index admission or once during the index admission.
In the first month after discharge, 5336 (21.9%) of the 24 373 identified patients had no follow-up visits, 16 855 (69.2%) saw a familiar physician, and 2182 (9.0%) saw unfamiliar physician(s) exclusively. The risk of death or unplanned readmission during the 6-month observation period was lower among patients who saw a familiar physician (43.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–0.91) or an unfamiliar physician (43.6%; adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.97) for early follow-up visits, as compared with patients who had no follow-up visits (62.9%). Taking into account all follow-up visits over the 6-month period, we found that the risk of death or urgent readmission was lower among patients who had all of their visits with a familiar physician than among those followed by unfamiliar physicians (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.98).
Early physician follow-up after discharge and physician continuity were both associated with better outcomes among patients with heart failure. Research is needed to explore whether physician continuity is important for other conditions and in settings other than recent hospital discharge.
To review clinical characteristics and response to immunomodulation therapy in autoimmune encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus (SE), epilepsy, and cognitive decline.
Observational, prospective case series.
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Materials and Methods:
Prospective analysis of 15 patients, who presented with SE, epilepsy, cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms with positive autoantibodies. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal-fluid analysis (CSF), and tumor screening were done periodically. Treatment received and responses (categorized as per patients and treating doctor's information) were noted.
There were 15 (males = 10) patients of autoimmune encephalitis. The mean age of presentation was 24 years (range: 2-64 years). The most common onset was subacute (64%) and four (29%) patients presented as SE. Predominant clinical presentations were seizures (100%) almost of every semiology. CSF was done in 10 patients; it was normal in 60%. Brain MRI was done in all patients, in six (40%) it was normal, six (40%) showed T2W and FLAIR hyperintensities in bilateral limbic areas. Antibodies found were the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody in seven (50%), voltage-gated potassium channel antibody in five (36%), two of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, and one patient with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. None showed evidence of malignancy. Patients received immunotherapy, either steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Follow-up showed significant improvement in majority of cases, neither further seizures nor relapse in nine (67%) cases. One death occurred, due to delayed presentation.
Uncommon but potentially reversible causes of SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline may be immune-related and high index of suspicion will prevent missing the diagnosis.
Autoimmune encephalitis; cognitive decline; drug refractory epilepsy; seizures; status epilepticus
There are various techniques developed to treat the exposed roots, a recent innovation in dentistry is the use of second generation platelet concentrate which is an autologous platelet-rich fibrin gel (PRF) with growth factors and cicatricial properties for root coverage procedures. Therefore, the present research was undertaken to study the additional benefits of PRF when used along with coronally advanced flap (CAF).
Materials and Methods:
Total of 15 systemically healthy subjects presenting bilateral isolated Miller's class I and II recession were enrolled into the study. Each patient was randomly treated with a combination of CAF along with a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane on the test site and CAF alone on the control site. Recession depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) were compared with baseline at 1, 3, and 6 months between test and control sites.
Mean percentage root coverage in the test group after 1, 3, and 6 months was 34.58, 70.73, and 100, respectively. Differences between the control and test groups were statistically significant. This study also showed a statistically significant increase in WKG in the test group (2.94 ± 0.77 at baseline to 5.38 ± 1.67 at 6 months).
CAF is a predictable treatment for isolated Miller's class I and II recession defects. The addition of PRF membrane with CAF provides superior root coverage with additional benefits of gain in CAL and WKG at 6 months postoperatively.
Coronally advanced flap; gingival recession; platelet rich fibrin; root coverage procedures
Identification of cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis has been the mainstay of anti-cancer therapeutics for several decades. In recent years, focus has shifted to inducing multiple modes of cell death coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. The plant Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This encouraged us to investigate into the anti-proliferative effect of a fraction (F2) isolated from S. grandiflora flowers in cancer cells and delineate the underlying involvement of apoptotic and autophagic pathways.
Using MTT based cell viability assay, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of fraction F2. It was the most effective on U937 cells (IC50∶18.6 µg/ml). Inhibition of growth involved enhancement of Annexin V positivity. This was associated with elevated reactive oxygen species generation, measured by flow cytometry and reduced oxygen consumption – both effects being abrogated by anti-oxidant NAC. This caused stimulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and concomitant inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein expressions inducing mitochondrial depolarization, as measured by flow cytometry and release of cytochrome c. Interestingly, even with these molecular features of apoptosis, F2 was able to alter Atg protein levels and induce LC3 processing. This was accompanied by formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy – confirming the occurrence of autophagy. Eventually, F2 triggered caspase cascade – executioners of programmed cell death and AIF translocation to nuclei. This culminated in cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase that caused DNA damage as proved by staining with Hoechst 33258 leading to cell death.
The findings suggest fraction F2 triggers pro-oxidant activity and mediates its cytotoxicity in leukemic cells via apoptosis and autophagy. Thus, it merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leukemia.
Increased proteoglycan (PG) synthesis is essential for the stimulation of cartilage repair processes that take place during the reversible phase of osteoarthritis (OA). In articular cartilage, xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) is the key enzyme that initiates glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis by transferring the first sugar residue to the PG core protein. Biological activity of PGs is closely linked to GAG biosynthesis since their polyanionic nature directly contributes to the proper hydration and elastic properties of the cartilage tissue present at the articular interface. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variations in the level of Xylt1 present in serum can be used to predict OA disease progression. The influence of bone forming activity on the systemic release of this enzyme was addressed by experimentally-inducing OA in mice of two different genetic backgrounds that were previously characterized for their distinct bone metabolism: C57BL/6J (B6, high bone remodelers) or C3H/HeJ (C3H, high bone formers). Serum was collected after medial meniscectomy or sham surgeries in young adult mice of these two strains over a period of 3.5 months at which point knee histopathology was assessed. A significant increase in serum Xylt1 levels observed shortly after meniscectomy positively correlated with severe cartilage damage evaluated by histological assessment at later time points in mice of the C3H background. In contrast, no temporal regulation of Xylt1 level was found between meniscectomies and control surgeries in B6 mice, which developed OA at a slower rate. Additionally, longitudinal evaluation of the serum levels of other markers of cartilage/bone metabolism (C1,2C, osteocalcin) did not reveal any association with late knee damages. Our results strongly support the idea that serum Xylt1 has a clinical value for monitoring risk of OA progression in young adults with high bone forming potential. Ultimately, the understanding of posttraumatic mechanisms regulating PG synthesis and their modification by GAG will be essential so that interventions that stimulate cartilage regrowth can be undertaken prior to irreversible destruction of the joint tissue.
Cartilage; Osteoarthritis; Biomarkers; Xylosyltransferase; Longitudinal Study
Lung diseases are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality that are treated with limited efficacy. Recently stem cell therapies have been shown to effectively treat animal models of lung disease. However, there are limitations to the translation of these cell therapies to clinical disease. Studies have shown that delayed treatment of animal models does not improve outcomes and that the models do not reflect the repeated injury that is present in most lung diseases. We tested the efficacy of amnion mesenchymal stem cells (AM-MSC), bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC) and human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) in C57BL/6 mice using a repeat dose bleomycin-induced model of lung injury that better reflects the repeat injury seen in lung diseases. The dual bleomycin dose led to significantly higher levels of inflammation and fibrosis in the mouse lung compared to a single bleomycin dose. Intravenously infused stem cells were present in the lung in similar numbers at days 7 and 21 post cell injection. In addition, stem cell injection resulted in a significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltrate and a reduction in IL-1 (AM-MSC), IL-6 (AM-MSC, BM-MSC, hAEC) and TNF-α (AM-MSC). The only trophic factor tested that increased following stem cell injection was IL-1RA (AM-MSC). IL-1RA levels may be modulated by GM-CSF produced by AM-MSC. Furthermore, only AM-MSC reduced collagen deposition and increased MMP-9 activity in the lung although there was a reduction of the pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β following BM-MSC, AM-MSC and hAEC treatment. Therefore, AM-MSC may be more effective in reducing injury following delayed injection in the setting of repeated lung injury.
Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio® L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients’ sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential biomarker on a larger scale in patients at-risk of HCC.
Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing.
Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula.
Materials and Methods:
Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract.
Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046) even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml).
Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study.
Disc diffusion assay; Enterobacter aerogenes; GC-MS; kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside; pyrogallol; Terminalia chebula
This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae).
Materials and Methods:
Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated.
Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms.
Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs.
Euphorbia hirta; flavonoid; kaempferol; minimum inhibitory concentration; quercetin; total activity
Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay.
Materials and Methods:
Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.)
Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article.
FEV1 calculation; hepatopulmonary syndrome; Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy; shunt scintigraphy
The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention, engaging an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist), to participate in the care of WLA, along with other health care providers compared to a Usual Care group. Two high prevalence HIV/AIDS villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, which were demographically alike and served by distinct Public Health Centers, were selected randomly from a total of 16 villages. The findings of this study demonstrated that the Asha-Life participants significantly reduced their depressive symptom scores compared to the Usual Care participants. Moreover, women living with AIDS who demonstrated higher depressive symptom scores at baseline had greater reduction in their depressive symptoms than women with lower scores.
AIDS; depressive symptoms; rural India; women
Background: Proton pump inhibitors are used in endodontic disinfection of root canals for elimination of enterococcus faecalis. This invivo study on Wistner Rats is carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of proton pump inhibitor in combination with sodium hypochlorite & Mixture of Isomer of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD) against E. Faecalis
Materials & Methods: Periapical lesions were induced on the 30 Incisor teeth of 30 male Wistner rats (10per group). After 28 days, root canals of each tooth were instrumented to 35# k file, during the process of instrumentation canals were irrigated with their respective irrigation solutions. Group-1: 2% CHX + 5.2% NaOCL, Group-2: MTAD(Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) + 5.2% NaOCL, Group-3: 8.5% Omeprazole (Dr Reddy's labs private limited – Hyderabad) + 5.2% NaOCL. Microbiological samples were collected by using #35 sterilized paper points after 28 days of inducing periapical lesions, Sample (S1) was collected before instrumentation and Sample (S2) was collected after instrumentation and Irrigation data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Newman Keuls Post Hoc test.
Results: Microbiological Analysis revealed significant decrease of colony forming units from S1 to S2 Samples in all the 3 groups.
Conclusion: Our data showed that association of Omeprazole with NaOCL showed a superior antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis in comparision with other irrigants.
Sodium Hypochlorite; Chlorhexidine; Gluconate; MTAD; Omeprazole
Ceramic fracture in metal ceramic restorations are serious and pose an aesthetic and functional dilemma both for the patients and the dentist. This has created a demand for the development of practical repair options which do not necessitate the removal and remake of entire restorations.
To evaluate and compare the effect of four different surface treatments on shear bond strength of metal ceramic specimens with three commercially available porcelain repair systems.
Materials and Methods:
Specimens were fabricated with a base-metal ceramic alloy and divided into three groups, to evaluate three porcelain repair systems. Each group was divided into four subgroups based on surface treatment (A) sandblasting, (B) sandblasting followed by etching with 9% HF (Hydrofluoric acid) on surrounding ceramic, (C) Use of a diamond bur on exposed metal followed by etching with 37% H3PO4 and (D) Control groups (D1, D2, D3 for three groups of porcelain repair system which was not subjected to further treatment after finishing with 240 grit silicon carbide paper grinding. Shear bond strength of each group of specimens based on surface treatment were evaluated with a universal testing machine after storing in distilled water for 7 days. One way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD procedure were used to compare the mean values between and among the groups.
The mean shear bond strength of group III (10.402 ± 1.055) were significantly higher than group I (8.647 ± 0.990) and group II (8.099 ± 0.600) for all surface treatments. However the mean values of shear bond strength of sub-group A were significantly higher than sub-group C and D but were not significantly higher than sub-group B.
The results of this study suggest that in fractured metal ceramic restorations the exposed metal surface treated with sandblasting or sandblasting and etching the surrounding ceramic surface with HF can increase the shear bond strength of the repaired metal ceramic area. Porcelain repair systems which contain hybrid composites and 4-META as primer had increased bond strength.
Ceramic; fracture; intra-oral repair
The aim of this study was to determine if glycosylated hemoglobin is elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis who have not been diagnosed with diabetes and also to compare the HbA1c levels that were obtained with lab and chairside test kit.
Materials and Methods:
A Case control study was designed. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed using a chairside kit and laboratory method in 70 subjects without diabetes but with chronic periodontitis [having at least 10 teeth (at least one site around each tooth) with probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing (BOP) ≥15% and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥ 1 mm] and 70 healthy controls (PD ≤ 4 mm and BOP ≤ 15%). Groups were compared using the t-test and multiple linear regression model analysis. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the relationship between different variables.
In this case control study HbA1c (Lab and Kit) were slightly higher and statistically significant in chronic periodontitis cases than in healthy controls.
Chronic periodontitis is associated with a slight elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin (lab and chair side kit) and that the clinical significance of this difference remains to be determined. This preliminary finding is consistent with earlier reports that chronic periodontitis is associated with elevated blood glucose in adults without diabetes and may increase one's risk for type-2 diabetes.
Chronic periodontitis; diabetes; glycosylated hemoglobin; tumor necrosis factor-α
The peripheral taste system presents an excellent model for studying the consequences of neural injury, for the damaged nerve and sensory cells and the neighboring, intact neural cells. Sectioning a primary afferent nerve, the chorda tympani (CT), rapidly recruits neutrophils to both sides of the tongue. The bilateral neutrophil response induces transient functional deficits in the intact CT. Normal function is subsequently restored as macrophages respond to injury. We hypothesized that macrophages produce the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1, which contributes to the maintenance of normal taste function after nearby injury. We demonstrate that IL-1β protein levels are significantly increased on the injured side of the tongue at day 2 after injury. Dietary sodium deficiency, a manipulation which prevents macrophage recruitment, inhibits the elevation in IL-1β. IL-1β was expressed in several cell populations, including taste receptor cells and infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. To test whether IL-1 modulates taste function after injury, we blocked signaling with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) and recorded taste responses from the intact CT. This treatment inhibited the bilateral macrophage response to injury, and impaired taste responses in the intact CT. Cytokine actions in the taste system are largely unstudied. These results demonstrate that IL-1 has a beneficial effect on taste function after nearby injury, in contrast to its detrimental role in the injured central nervous system (CNS).
gustatory; chorda tympani nerve; taste bud; degeneration; cytokine; nerve injury; neural-immune interactions
The goal of this study was to use bioengineered injectable microgels to enhance the action of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulate cartilage matrix repair in a reversible animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). A module of perlecan (PlnD1) bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains was covalently immobilized to hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels for the controlled release of BMP2 in vivo. Articular cartilage damage was induced in mice using a reversible model of experimental OA and was treated by intra-articular injection of PlnD1-HA particles with BMP2 bound to HS. Control injections consisted of BMP2 free PlnD1-HA particles, HA particles, free BMP2 or saline. Knees dissected following these injections were analyzed using histological, immunostaining and gene expression approaches. Our results show that knees treated with PlnD1-HA/BMP2 had lesser OA-like damage compared to control knees. In addition, the PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees had higher mRNA levels encoding for type II collagen, proteoglycans, and xylosyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting anabolic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains, relative to control knees (PlnD1-HA). This finding was paralleled by enhanced levels of aggrecan in the articular cartilage of PlnD1-HA/BMP2 treated knees. Additionally, decreases in the mRNA levels encoding for cartilage-degrading enzymes and type X collagen were seen relative to controls. In conclusion, PlnD1-HA microgels constitute a formulation improvement compared to HA for efficient in vivo delivery and stimulation of proteoglycan and cartilage matrix synthesis in mouse articular cartilage. Ultimately, PlnD1-HA/BMP2 may serve as an injectable therapeutic agent for slowing or inhibiting the onset of OA after knee injury.
Perlecan; Hyaluronic Acid; Heparan Sulfate; Osteoarthritis; Cartilage Repair; Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Introduction: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health problem in both hospitals and communities. Panton – Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) has been reported to be an important marker for the highly pathogenic community acquired S. aureus infections. A rapid detection of these MRSA is very important for its treatment. The specific detection of MRSA is always a problem due to the prevalence of methicillin resistance among the coagulase negative Staphylococci. Hence, this study was done to develop a rapid triplex PCR for the detection of PVL positive MRSA and for the simultaneous differentiation of MRSA from Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS).
Materials and Methods: We developed a triplex PCR for the specific detection of PVL positive Community Acquired (CA) – MRSA and for its simultaneous differentiation from the coagulase negative Staphylococci. We used PCR for targeting the fem A gene which is specific for S. aureus, mecA which is specific for methicillin-resistance and luk - PV which is specific for the PVL toxin. The method was evaluated with a total of 100 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp.
Results: The triplex PCR was successfully standardized by using the reference strains and it was evaluated by using clinical strains. The method was found to be rapid, highly sensitive (100%), specific (99%) and cost effective.
Conclusion: Triplex PCR can be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of the highly pathogenic strains of CA-MRSA.
PVL MRSA; MRCoNS; Triplex PCR; femA; mecA
The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the benefits of sub gingival chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish and biodegradable CHX chip application used as an adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) as combined therapy and also to compare the effect of combined therapy with SRP alone.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with at least three sites with a probing pocket depth (PPD) of 5-8 mm were considered. Following baseline evaluation, all three sites were subjected for SRP. After completing SRP, each site was randomly subjected for CHX varnish, CHX chip application and the 3rd site was left without any medication as a control. Clinical parameters such as sulcus bleeding index, plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively.
All three groups presented with an improvement in clinical parameters compared to baseline. The mean reduction in PPD was 2.4 mm in SRP sites, 2.5 mm in SRP + CHX varnish sites and 2.8 mm in SRP + CHX chip sites. The mean gain in CAL was 2.4 mm in SRP sites, 2.3 mm in SRP + CHX varnish sites and 2.8 mm SRP + CHX chip sites.
Interpretation and Conclusion:
The present study indicated that application of CHX varnish and placement of CHX chip as an adjunct to SRP produced a clinically significant reduction in the PPD, BOP and a gain in CAL at 30th day and 90th day from baseline when compared to SRP alone. The results though were not statistically significant.
Chlorhexidine chip and scaling and root planning; chlorhexidine varnish; local drug delivery; periodontitis