Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world today. The association between DNA damage to the lens epithelium and the development of lens opacities has been reported in many studies. Polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes may affect repair efficiency and thereby lead to the development of age related cataract.
In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in two DNA repair enzyme genes, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group (XPD) codon 312 and X-ray complementing group1 (XRCC1) codon 399, in a sample of 208 cataract patients (69 with cortical, 69 with nuclear and 70 with posterior sub capsular) and 151 sex and age matched healthy controls. XPD genotype was determined by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) while XRCC1 was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method.
There was a significant difference between frequencies for XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype in cataract patients (21.6%) and healthy controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.06–3.63). Considering the types of cataract, XPD-312 Asn/Asn genotype was found to be significantly different in patients with cortical (29%) type in comparison to controls (13.2%; p=0.03, OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.11–5.12). No statistically significant difference was found for the genotypic and allelic distributions of the polymorphism in XRCC1. The MDR interaction analysis revealed weak synergism between the markers XPD-Asp312Asn and XRCC1-Arg399Gln contributing to cataract. It also showed that the AA genotype of XPD-Asp312Asn polymorphism when present in combination with the GA genotype of XRCC1-Arg399Gln had a fivefold and with AA had a fourfold risk for developing cataract.
The present study suggests that a polymorphism in XPD codon 312 may be associated with the development of maturity onset cataract. This is the first report on the association of XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism with maturity onset cataract.
Previously we identified a novel mutation (F71L) in the αA-crystallin gene associated with early onset of age-related cataract. However, it is not known how the missense substitution translates into reduced chaperone-like activity (CLA), and how the structural and functional changes lead to early onset of the disease. Herein, we show that under native conditions the F71L-mutant is not significantly different from wild-type with regard to secondary and tertiary structural organization, hydrophobicity and the apparent molecular mass of oligomer but has substantial differences in structural and functional properties following a heat treatment. Wild-type αA-crystallin demonstrated increased CLA, whereas the F71L-mutant substantially lost its CLA upon heat treatment. Further, unlike the wild-type αA-subunit, F71L-subunit did not protect the αB-subunit in hetero-oligomeric complex from heat-induced aggregation. Moreover, hetero-oligomer containing F71L and αB in 3:1 ratio had significantly lower CLA upon thermal treatment compared to its unheated control. These results indicate that α-crystallin complexes containing F71L-αA subunits are less stable and have reduced CLA. Therefore, F71L may lead to earlier onset of cataract due to interaction with several environmental factors (e.g., temperature in this case) along with the aging process.
Age-related cataract; F71L-mutation; αA-crystallin; Chaperone-like activity; Thermal stability
Probiotics, especially in combination with non-digestible oligosaccharides, may balance the gut microflora while multistrain preparations may express an improved functionality over single strain cultures. In vitro gastrointestinal models enable to test survival and growth dynamics of mixed strain probiotics in a controlled, replicable manner.
The robustness and compatibility of multistrain probiotics composed of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with mixed prebiotics (galacto-, fructo- and xylo-oligosaccharides or galactooligosaccharides and soluble starch) were studied using a dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS). The exposure to acid and bile of the upper gastrointestinal tract was followed by dilution with a continuous decrease of the dilution rate (de-celerostat) to simulate the descending nutrient availability of the large intestine. The bacterial numbers and metabolic products were analyzed and the growth parameters determined.
The most acid- and bile-resistant strains were Lactobacillus plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F8. Bifidobacterium breve 46 had the highest specific growth rate and, although sensitive to bile exposure, recovered during the dilution phase in most experiments. B. breve 46, L. plantarum F44, and L. paracasei F8 were selected as the most promising strains for further studies.
De-celerostat cultivation can be applied to study the mixed bacterial cultures under defined conditions of decreasing nutrient availability to select a compatible set of strains.
mixed culture; prebiotic oligosaccharides; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus; gastrointestinal tract simulator
Body composition in HIV-infected individuals is subject to many influences. We conducted a pilot six-month randomized trial of 68 WLA (women living with AIDS) from rural India. High protein intervention combined with education and supportive care delivered by HIV-trained village women (Asha [Activated Social Health Activist] Life [AL]) was compared to standard protein with usual care delivered by village community assistants (Usual Care [UC]). Measurements included CD4 counts, ART adherence, socio-demographics, disease characteristics (questionnaires); and anthropometry (bioimpedance analyzer). Repeated measures analysis of variance modeled associations. AL significantly gained in BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, ART adherence, and CD4 counts compared to UC, with higher weight and muscle mass gains among ART adherent (≥ 66%) participants who had healthier immunity (CD4 ≥ 450). BMI of WLA improved through high protein supplementation combined with education and supportive care. Future research is needed to determine which intervention aspect was most responsible.
Nutrition; AIDS in rural women; ART; protein; body composition
Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the present case control study was to check the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population.
In a hospital based case control study, patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects from outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using multivariate logistic regression.
In this study, 224 patients and 224 age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and controls were 53.9 ± 13.4 and 53.6 ± 12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and large vessel stroke (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11). An age-stratified analysis, suggested independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and ischemic stroke, large vessel disease and small vessel disease stroke who had onset of disease at an older age.
The findings of the present study suggest that Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene may confer higher risk of large vessel disease stroke in a North Indian population. Prospective studies with larger sample size are required for independent validation.
AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on platelet counts in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP).
METHODS: A total of 36 cITP patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori was done by rapid urease test and Giemsa staining of the gastric biopsy specimen. All H. pylori positive patients received standard triple therapy for 14 d and were subjected for repeat endoscopy at 6 wk. Patients who continued to be positive for H. pylori on second endoscopy received second line salvage therapy. All the patients were assessed for platelet response at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th months.
RESULTS: Of the 36 patients, 17 were positive for H. pylori infection and eradication was achieved in 16 patients. The mean baseline platelet count in the eradicated patients was 88615.38 ± 30117.93/mm3 and platelet count after eradication at 6 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo was 143230.77 ± 52437.51/mm3 (P = 0.003), 152562.50 ± 52892.3/mm3 (P = 0.0001), 150187.50 ± 41796.68/mm3 (P = 0.0001) respectively and in the negative patients, the mean baseline count was 71000.00 ± 33216.46/mm3 and at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th month follow up was 137631.58 ± 74364.13/mm3 (P = 0.001), 125578.95 ± 71472.1/mm3 (P = 0.005), 77210.53 ± 56892.28/mm3 (P = 0.684) respectively.
CONCLUSION: Eradication of H. pylori leads to increase in platelet counts in patients with cITP and can be recommended as a complementary treatment with conventional therapy.
Helicobacter pylori; Immune thrombocytopenic purpura; Platelet counts
Homeobox genes are essential for both the development of the blood and lymphatic vascular systems, as well as for their maintenance in the adult. Homeobox genes comprise an important family of transcription factors, which are characterized by a well conserved DNA binding motif; the homeodomain. The specificity of the homeodomain allows the transcription factor to bind to the promoter regions of batteries of target genes and thereby regulates their expression. Target genes identified for homeodomain proteins have been shown to control fundamental cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We and others have reported that homeobox genes are expressed in the placental vasculature, but our knowledge of their downstream target genes is limited. This review highlights the importance of studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which homeobox genes and their downstream targets may regulate important vascular cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and endothelial tube formation, which are essential for placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. A better understanding of the molecular targets of homeobox genes may lead to new therapies for aberrant angiogenesis associated with clinically important pregnancy pathologies, including fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia.
homeobox gene; transcription factors; placenta; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; macrovasculature; microvasculature
With the advent of newer indirect composite resin materials for crown and bridge prosthesis, it has become imperative to evaluate their strength to serve as long term replacements as a substitute to metal ceramic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the flexural bond strength of three composite resin veneering material to metal, cured by different methods. Specimen were fabricated with pattern resin by duplicating it with machined metal die and divided into three groups. Three composite resin materials were used in this study. Group (A) received Adoro, Group (B) received Targis and Group (C) received Tescera. The bond strength of all specimens was tested with Lloyd’s universal testing machine under three point loading. The highest values for fracture resistance were displayed by light, heat and pressure cured composites followed by composites cured using a temperature of 104 °C and composites with curing temperature of 95 °C. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between the three groups, with the Tescera group specimens exhibiting the highest flexural bond strength. Of the other two groups, Adoro group exhibited higher flexural bond strength than Targis group. The results of this study suggest that Tescera group with curing temperature of 130 °C and pressure of 80 Psi, cured with metal halide unit exhibited the highest flexural bond strength when compared to Adoro and Targis groups.
Flexural bond strength; Indirect composites; Crown and bridge
There is no doubt that the success of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has changed the whole treatment of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, especially the approach towards traditional bilateral neck exploration. A single adenoma is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and its removal results in cure. Hence, it is worth the effort to localise and excise the single adenoma using modern technologies such as high-quality sestamibi scans and to confirm complete excision using rapid intra operative parathormone (IOPTH) assays. The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of rapid IOPTH assay in successfully facilitating minimally invasive parathyroid excision. This research involved the retrospective study of seven patients, who underwent MIP at Sagar Hospital in Bengaluru, India, for parathyroid adenoma. All patients with evidence of unifocal disease on sestamibi scanning and cervical ultrasonography, underwent MIP via 2–3 cm lateral incision. Blood samples for measurement of IOPTH were taken at the time of induction of anaesthesia and 10 min after the adenoma excision. Reduction of parathormone (PTH) levels of more than 50 % in the postexcision sample was taken as evidence for complete extirpation of parathyroid adenoma. A solitary adenoma was identified in all the seven patients. After MIP, IOPTH levels fell in six of the seven patients. Following the surgery, all the cases were followed up for a period of 1 month. During this time, except for one patient, six patients remained asymptomatic and blood tests revealed normal serum calcium levels. A histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma in six of the seven patients. After accurate preoperative localisation of the adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, MIP with IOPTH measurement offers a safe and successful outcome.
Hyperparathyroidism; Parathyroidectomy; Minimally invasive; Parathormone; Intraoperative parathormone
Altered renal function is an essential component of the pathophysiological process in pre-eclampsia. Kidneys play an important role in the turnover of low molecular weight substances such as creatinine, uric acid and cystatin C. The present study was undertaken if these serum markers were characteristically altered in Indian pregnant women.
Serum levels were therefore determined in samples from 69 healthy women at term as well as in 27 samples of patients with Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and in 20 patients with pre-eclampsia (PE).
The levels of all three components were significantly higher in pre-eclamptic patients when compared to healthy controls with the mean ± SD being 1.47 ± 0.9 vs. 1.06 ± 0.2 for cystatin C, 0.95 ± 0.2 vs. 0.67 ± 0.1 for creatinine and 6.13 ± 1.8 vs. 4.28 ±1.1 for uric acid respectively. In PIH cystatin C was significantly higher, 1.25 ± 0.9 unlike creatinine, 0.67 ± 0.14 and uric acid, 4.30 ± 1.0. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of serum creatinine was superior to serum uric acid and serum cystatin C and serum uric acid was better than serum cystatin C.
The maternal serum cystatin C, creatinine and uric acid were all significantly elevated at the end of pregnancy in pre-eclampsia compared to those of healthy pregnant women. If this rise in the above markers during early pregnancy could predict the onset of PIH/PE, needs to be investigated.
Pregnancy; Pregnancy induced hypertension; Pre-eclampsia; Cystatin C; Creatinine; Uric acid
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm in USA. Escaping apoptosis and cell mutation are the prime hallmarks of cancer. It is apparent that balancing the network between DNA damage and DNA repair is critical in preventing carcinogenesis. One-third of cancers might be prevented by nutritious healthy diet, maintaining healthy weight and physical activity. In this review, an attempt is made to abridge the role of carcinogen in colorectal cancer establishment and prognosis, where special attention has been paid to food-borne mutagens and functional role of beneficial human gut microbiome in evading cancer. Further the significance of tailor-made prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in cancer management by bio-antimutagenic and desmutagenic activity has been elaborated. Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host. Prebiotics are a selectively fermentable non-digestible oligosaccharide or ingredient that brings specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microflora, conferring health benefits. Synbiotics are a combination of probiotic bacteria and the growth promoting prebiotic ingredients that purport “synergism.”
probiotics; prebiotics; synbiotics; colorectal cancer; polyaromatic hydrocarbons; hetercyclic amines; mutagens; antimutagens; cancer
Vertical and anterioposterior maxillary excesses can be treated with a combination of orthopaedic functional appliances, orthodontics and surgery. Treatment varies according to the age, patient reports for treatment. In patients who are treated with either of the above mentioned treatment modalities, if they require prosthetic replacement on a later date, especially of anterior teeth, prosthetic treatment alone does not give an aesthetic outcome. A partially edentulous, elderly patient with underlying skeletal discrepancy (Class II Skeletal deformity) in relation to 12,11,21,22 was treated with a combination of orthognathic surgery and prosthetic rehabilltation. An orthognathic surgery (leforte I osteotomy) was performed to manage vertical maxillary excess, class II skeletal pattern of maxilla and increased lower third facial height. Dental compensations in the mandibular arch were decompensated surgically with lower subapical osteotomy. Prosthetic restorations of missing anterior teeth were done later, such that facial and dental aesthetics. The records showed that the results were stable 12 months after prosthognathic (prosthodontic and orthognathic) treatment. A team approach enabled the female patient in her fifth decade of life, to receive better function, aesthetics and increased quality of life. Doing prosthetic restorations in patients with underlying skeletal discrepancies may become a challenge , which should be achieved without compromising on final outcome, with a calculated risk benefit ratio.
Prosthognathic; Orthognathic surgery; Fixed prosthesis
The present study aims to design hepatic targeted curcumin (CUR) nanoparticles using Gantrez (GZ) as a polymer. Three carbohydrate-based hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) ligands were selected for the study, namely kappa carrageenan (KC), arabinogalactan (AG), and pullulan (P). AG and KC are galactose based while P is a glucose-based polymer. CUR-GZ nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and anchored with the ligands by nonspecific adsorption onto preformed nanoparticles. The change in zeta potential values confirmed adsorption of the ligands. Docking simulation was evaluated as a tool to predict ligand ASGP-R interactions, using grid-based ligand docking with energies (Glide). Monomers and dimers were used as representative units of polymer for docking analysis. The binding of ASGP-R was validated using d-galactose as monomer. The interaction of the ligands with the receptor was evaluated based on Glide scores and Emodel values, both for monomers and dimers. The data of the docking study based on Glide scores and Emodel values suggested higher affinity of AG and P to the ASGP-R, compared to KC. At 1 h, following intravenous administration of the nanoparticles to rats, the in vivo hepatic accumulation in the order CUR-GZAG > CUR-GZKC > CUR-GZP correlated with the docking data based on Glide scores. However, at the end of 6 h, pullulan exhibited maximum hepatic accumulation and arabinogalactan minimum accumulation (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, as predicted by docking analysis, arabinogalactan and pullulan revealed maximum hepatic accumulation. Docking analysis using dimers as representative stereochemical units of polymers provides a good indication of ligand receptor affinity. Docking analysis provides a useful tool for the preliminary screening of ligands for hepatic targeting.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9474-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
arabinogalactan; docking; hepatic targeting; kappa carrageenan; pullulan
Pediatric myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is not a routine investigation in an Indian setting due to under referrals and logistic problems. However, MPI is a frequently performed and established modality of investigation in adults for the identification of myocardial ischemia and viability. We report myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery. Adenosine stress MPI revealed a large infarct involving anterior segment with moderate reversible ischemia of the lateral left ventricular segment. Coronary angiogram later confirmed left main coronary artery ostial occlusion with retrograde collateral supply from dilated right coronary artery.
Arterial switch operation; myocardial perfusion imaging; retropulmonary looping of coronaries; transposition of great vessels; Taussig–Bing anomaly
Modafinil is non stimulant drug which is marketed for mainly Narcolepsy and daytime drowsiness. The clinical experience and Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) of the drug also mentions Anorexia as one of the side effects. Anorexia can have a direct impact on the carbohydrate and fat intake, which may, in turn, regulate antipsychotic induced dyslipidemia and Hyperglycaemia.
To compare the effects of Modafinil- ADDON with Placebo add on with olanzapine, Clozapine and Risperidone in drug naive subjects and people who were started on the drugs within 15days of assessment.
Materials and Methods:
Randomized, Double blind, Placebo controlled study, which was conducted at two centres, one at department of Psychiatry, S.V Medical College, Tirupati and the other at Asha hospitals, Hyderabad. Seventy two patient were randomised, sixty three patients have completed the total study period of three months. The dose of Modafinil was 200 mgs constantly as Flexible doses of Olanzapine, Clozapine and Risperidone as per clinical need was given. A baseline, three week and twelve week assessments of Fasting blood Glucose and fasting Serum cholesterol were made and the groups were compared on these parameters.
From baseline to week 3 there was a significant raise in Fasting serum cholesterol followed by a fall from week 3 to week 12 in the Modafinil addon group, though it could not be considered a drug for hypercholesteremia like Statins in controlling hyperlipidaemia. The implications of these findings were discussed.
Atypical anti-psychotic; clozapine; dyslipidemia; glycemic dysregulation; metabolic syndrome; modafinil
Microbial colonization in the gingival sulci of abutment teeth receiving all ceramic retainers with subgingival margins need to be studied to assess the prognosis of periodontal health, which determine the eventual success of fixed partial dentures. This prospective observational study was done to evaluate the quantitative alteration in the microbial flora in the gingival sulci of abutment teeth adjacent to the edentulous space prior and after receiving all ceramic retainers over varying time intervals of 1 week, 1 month and 2 months respectively. Twenty, healthy partially edentulous patients, aged 20–50 years with single missing central incisor were selected for this prospective observational study and their microbial samples were collected from the gingival sulci of abutments adjacent to edentulous space with sterile paper points and cultured and the estimated values for microflora served as controls. The same abutments were prepared to receive all ceramic retainers with subgingival heavy chamfer marginal finish lines. The patients were recalled after 1 week, 1 month, 2 months intervals during which the collected subgingival microbial samples were cultured and the corresponding quantitative microbial alteration in the restored gingival sulci was recorded. The obtained data was statistically analysed using the student t test and repeated analysis of variance test. The results of the study inferred student t test expressed a statistically significant (p < 0.001) progressive increase in gingival sulcular microbial colonisation in the abutment teeth before [M = 2.52 ± SD 1.21(106) CFU/ml] and after receiving all ceramic retainers over varying time intervals of 1 week [M = 3.25 ± SD 1.21(106) CFU/ml], 1 month [M = 4.64 ± SD 1.13(106) CFU/ml] and 2 months [M = 4.75 ± SD 1.16(106) CFU/ml] respectively. The result of repeated analysis of variance test inferred that there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the subgingival microfloral count between the pre operative and post operative samples at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months. Subgingivally placed all-ceramic retainers with heavy chamfer finish lines in the abutment teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in sulcular microbial colonization over varying time intervals of 1 week, 1 month and 2 months respectively and this may affect periodontal health of abutment teeth progressively.
Subgingival microflora; All-ceramic restorations; Subgingival margins
Background & objectives:
Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR) genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer.
Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG) repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques.
A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001) in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001) in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001) at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001) carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short) was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.
Androgen receptor; polymorphism; prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen; SNP
Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain LR231 was isolated from the feces of healthy human subjects. It is observed to be a potential probiotic strain, having a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a wide range of human pathogens and food pathogens. Here, we provide the 2.59-Mb draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus LR231.