We examined whether acculturation and immigrant generation, a marker for assimilation, are associated with diabetes risk in an aging Mexican-origin population.
We analyzed data on 1789 adults aged 60 to 101 years from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. We ascertained type 2 diabetes on the basis of diabetic medication use, self-report of physician diagnosis, or a fasting glucose of 126 milligrams/deciliter or greater. Logistic regression modeled prevalent diabetes.
Adjusting for age and gender, we observed significant but divergent associations between immigrant generation, acculturation, and diabetes risk. Relative to first-generation adults, second-generation adults had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.4) and third-generation adults had an OR of 2.1 (95% CI = 1.4, 3.1) of having diabetes. Greater US acculturation, however, was associated with a slightly decreased diabetes rate. In the full model adjusting for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, the association between generation (but not acculturation) and diabetes remained significant.
Our study lends support to the previously contested notion that assimilation is associated with an increased diabetes risk in Mexican immigrants. Researchers should examine the presence of a causal link between assimilation and health more closely.
Agreement between patients and physicians is an indicator of successful communication. Concordance in domains of communication among patients with heart disease and communication barriers has not been studied.
English, Spanish, or Cantonese-speaking patients seen at a public hospital cardiology clinic were assessed with pre-visit questionnaires. Surveys of patients and their physicians immediately after the visit asked each about: (1) cardiac functional status, (2) barriers to self-management, (3) cardiac diagnoses, and (4) treatment. We assessed patient-physician concordance in these domains.
179 patients and 56 physicians completed the study. Patients had low educational attainment, limited literacy and limited English proficiency. Physicians underestimated patients’ cardiac functioning status (NYHA Classes 2–4), by 1 class or more in 50% of visits. Physicians were frequently unaware of medication (38/57, 67%) and psychosocial (61/88, 69%) barriers. Patients were unable to describe even 1 matching diagnosis (72/170, 42% concordant) among 5 categories. Physicians’ reported medication changes in 106/179 (59%) but patients failed to report these changes in 55% (58/106). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between patient characteristics and concordance.
Patients and physicians often fail to communicate effectively and determinants of concordance in CVD care require further investigation.
Developing strategies to improve communication within the medical encounter are critical to improving ambulatory chronic disease management.
Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1–5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies.
Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately.
Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59–2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29–2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75–3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27–3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13–4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85–5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups.
These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities.
To describe the extent and content of tobacco-related images, advertising and articles published in the largest Argentinean newspapers before and after a voluntary advertising ban implemented in 2001.
Issues from four months of each year of the four main national newspapers were examined from 1995 to 2004. We recorded the number of tobacco images (advertisement or not), tobacco-focused articles, space used, and placement within the newspaper. Regression analyses evaluated time trends.
We identified 1800 images and articles from 4828 different issues. Non-advertisement images were the most frequent (71.2%), followed by articles (20%) and advertisement images (8.8%). Advertisements only appeared in the two best selling newspapers with a majority (57%) in the Sunday magazine and 21% in the sports sections. Non-advertisement images were published in the sports and entertainment sections (55%) and showed a public figure in 88%. Of 336 articles, 39% focused on health topics and 55% emphasized the negative effects of tobacco on health. Regression models showed that prior to 2001 there were significant time-related decreases in ad images and articles and significant increases in non-ad images. The trend of each outcome changed direction beginning in 2001 and the magnitude of the change in trend was significant for ad images and non-ad images. The number of non-ad images dropped significantly in 2001 from a model-predicted value of 178 per year to 103 non-ad images and remained constant thereafter.
Tobacco images exceeded information about tobacco hazards in Argentinean newspapers over this period. Advertisement increased from 2001 to 2005, following the voluntary advertisements ban. Partial advertisement bans are ineffective and a total ban is imperative.
Tobacco advertising; Images; Articles; Argentina; Media and newspapers
Higher acculturation is associated with Asian-American smoking prevalence decreasing in men and increasing in women. Asian immigrants in California are significantly more likely than their counterparts in Asia to have quit smoking. Smoke-free environments may mediate this acculturation effect because such environments are not widespread in Asia.
In 2006, Asian-American current and former smokers were analyzed using the 2003 California Health Interview Survey. A multivariate logistic regression analysis examined how the interaction between having a smoke-free-home rule and immigrating to the U.S. is associated with status as a former smoker and lighter smoking.
For recent Asian immigrants (<10 years in the U.S.) and longer-term residents (born/≥10 years in the U.S.), having a smoke-free-home rule was associated with status as a former smoker (OR 14.19, 95% CI=4.46, 45.12; OR 3.25, 95% CI=1.79, 5.90, respectively). This association was stronger for recent immigrants (p=0.02). Having a smoke-free-home rule was associated with lighter smoking only for longer-term residents (OR 5.37, 95% CI=2.79, 10.31).
For Asian Americans, smoke-free-home rules are associated with status as a former smoker, particularly among recent immigrants, and lighter smoking in long-term residents. Interventions encouraging Asian Americans to adopt smoke-free-home rules should be evaluated.
This study evaluated how well women from diverse race/ethnic groups were able to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format.
Cross-sectional survey was administered in English, Spanish or Chinese, to women aged 50 to 80 (n=1,160), recruited from primary care practices. The survey contained breast, colorectal or cervical cancer questions regarding screening and prevention. Women were told cancer-specific lifetime risk then shown a visual display of risk and asked to indicate the specific lifetime risk. Correct indication of risk was the main outcome.
Correct responses on icon arrays were 46% for breast, 55% for colon, and 44% for cervical; only 25% correctly responded to a magnifying glass graphic. Compared to Whites, African American and Latina women were significantly less likely to use the icon arrays correctly. Higher education and higher numeracy were associated with correct responses. Lower education was associated with lower numeracy.
Race/Ethnic differences were associated with women’s ability to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format.
Systematically considering the complexity of intersecting factors such as race/ethnicity, educational level, poverty, and numeracy in most health communications is needed. (200)
risk communication; cancer screening; cancer prevention; ethnic disparities; numeracy; decision making
Prognosis is critical in individualizing care for older adults with late life disability. Evidence suggests that preferences for prognostic information may be culturally determined. Yet little is known about the preferences of diverse elders for discussing prognosis.
To determine the preferences for discussing prognosis of a diverse sample of older adults with late-life disability
DESIGN & PARTICIPANTS
We interviewed 60 older adults with mean age 78 and mean 2.5 Activities of Daily Living dependencies. Participants were recruited from San Francisco’s On Lok program, the first Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Participants were interviewed in English, Spanish, and Cantonese, and responded to scenarios in which their doctors estimated they had 5 years and 1 year left to live. Open-ended questions explored the reasons for their responses. Results were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory.
Sixty-five percent of participants wanted to discuss the prognosis if their doctor estimated they had <5 years to live and 75% if the estimate was <1 year. Three themes were prominent among patients who wanted to discuss prognosis: to prepare, to make the most of the life they had left, and to make medical or health-related decisions. Those who preferred not to discuss prognosis described emotional difficulty, the uncertainty of prognosis, or that it would not be useful. Nearly all participants said that doctors should not make assumptions based on race or ethnicity, though differences between ethnic groups emerged.
Most patients in this diverse sample of disabled elders were interested in discussing prognosis, while a substantial minority was not. Among those participants who preferred to discuss prognosis, many said that prognostic information would be important as they made difficult medical and personal decisions in late-life. Clinicians should inquire about preferences for discussing prognosis before sharing prognostic estimates.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1933-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
prognosis; elderly; disability; diverse; PACE
Latin America has the highest prevalence of tobacco use by youth. Higher media literacy, defined as the ability to analyze and evaluate media messages, has been associated with lower smoking among youth in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine whether media literacy related to smoking is independently associated with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of mostly indigenous youth in Jujuy, Argentina.
In 2006, a self-administered survey was conducted among 10th grade students sampled from 27 randomly selected urban and rural schools in Jujuy. Survey items measured smoking behavior (ever, never, and current), susceptibility to future smoking among never-smokers (definitely not accept a cigarette from a friend or to smoke in the future), 5 items assessing smoking media literacy (SML), and risk factors for smoking.
Of the 3,470 respondents, 1,170 (34%) reported having smoked in the previous 30 days (current). Of the 1,430 students who had never smoked, 912 (64%) were susceptible to future smoking. High media literacy was present in 38%. Using multiple logistic regression, fully adjusted models showed that high media literacy was significantly associated as a protective factor of being a current smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67–0.97) and of being susceptible to future smoking (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.58–0.92) among those who had never smoked.
Among youth in Jujuy, higher SML was significantly associated with both lower current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Teaching SML may be a valuable component in a prevention intervention in this population.
Among US Latinas and Mexican women, those with higher European ancestry have increased risk of breast cancer. We combined an admixture mapping and genome-wide association mapping approach to search for genomic regions that may explain this observation. Latina women with breast cancer (n= 1497) and Latina controls (n= 1272) were genotyped using Affymetrix and Illumina arrays. We inferred locus-specific genetic ancestry and compared the ancestry between cases and controls. We also performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analyses in regions of interest. Correction for multiple-hypothesis testing was conducted using permutations (Pcorrected). We identified one region where genetic ancestry was significantly associated with breast cancer risk: 6q25 [odds ratio (OR) per Indigenous American chromosome 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–0.85, P= 1.1 × 10−5, Pcorrected= 0.02]. A second region on 11p15 showed a trend towards association (OR per Indigenous American chromosome 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68–0.87, P= 4.3 × 10−5, Pcorrected= 0.08). In both regions, breast cancer risk decreased with higher Indigenous American ancestry in concordance with observations made on global ancestry. The peak of the 6q25 signal includes the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene and 5′ region, a locus previously implicated in breast cancer. Genome-wide association analysis found that a multi-SNP model explained the admixture signal in both regions. Our results confirm that the association between genetic ancestry and breast cancer risk in US Latinas is partly due to genetic differences between populations of European and Indigenous Americans origin. Fine-mapping within the 6q25 and possibly the 11p15 loci will lead to the discovery of the biologically functional variant/s behind this association.
To determine perceived quality of life in a diverse population of elderly adults with late-life disability.
Qualitative cross-sectional study.
Community-dwelling participants were recruited from San Francisco’s On Lok Lifeways program, the first Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly. On Lok enrollees meet Medicaid criteria for nursing home placement.
Sixty-two elderly adults with a mean age of 78 and a mean 2.4 activity of daily living dependencies and 6.6 instrumental activity of daily living dependencies were interviewed. Respondents were 63% female, 24% white, 19% black, 18% Latino, 32% Chinese American, and 6% other race.
Elderly adults who scored higher than 17 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination were interviewed. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. Respondents were asked to rate their overall quality of life on a 5-point scale. Open-ended questions explored positive and negative aspects of participants’ daily experiences. Interviews were analyzed using modified grounded theory and digital coding software.
Eighty-seven percent of respondents rated their quality of life in the middle range of the quality-of-life spectrum (fair to very good). Themes were similar across ethnic groups. Most themes could be grouped into four domains that dependent elderly adults considered important to their quality of life: physical (e.g., pain), psychological (e.g., depression), spiritual or religious (e.g., religious coping), and social (e.g., life-space). Dignity and a sense of control were identified as themes that are the most closely tied to overall quality of life.
Factors that influence quality of life in late-life disability were similar across ethnic groups. As the number of elderly adults from diverse backgrounds with late life disability increases in the United States, interventions should be targeted to maximize daily sense of control and dignity.
ethnicity; quality of life; disability
Effective communication at hospital discharge is necessary for an optimal transition and to avoid adverse events. We investigated the association of a language barrier with patient understanding of discharge instructions.
Spanish, Chinese and English speaking patients admitted to two urban hospitals between 2005-2008, comparing patient understanding of follow-up appointment type, and medication category and purpose between limited English proficient (LEP) and English proficient (EP) patients.
Of the 308 patients, 203 were LEP. Rates of understanding were low overall for follow-up appointment type (56%) and the 3 medication outcomes (category 48%, purpose 55%, both 41%). In unadjusted analysis, LEP were less likely than EP patients to know appointment type (50% vs. 66%; p = .01), medication category (45% vs. 54%; p = .05), and medication category and purpose combined (38% vs. 47%; p = .04), but equally likely to know medication purpose alone. These results persisted in the adjusted models for medication outcomes: LEP patients had lower odds of understanding medication category (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.95); and category/purpose (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.39-0.89).
Understanding of appointment type and medications post-discharge was low, with LEP patients demonstrating worse understanding of medications. System interventions to improve communication at hospital discharge for all patients, and especially those with LEP, are needed.
Interpretation; hospital discharge; patient-doctor communication
Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities.
As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics.
Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas’ median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women’s diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011).
Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas’ successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care system.
Health disparities; Breast cancer screening; Definitive diagnosis; Latinas; Six cities study
Language interpretation ameliorates health disparities among underserved limited English-proficient patients, yet few studies have compared clinician satisfaction with these services. Self-administered clinician post-visit surveys compared the quality of interpretation and communication, visit satisfaction, degree of patient engagement, and cultural competence of visits using untrained people acting as interpreters (ad hoc), in-person professional, or video conferencing professional interpretation for 283 visits. Adjusting for clinician and patient characteristics, the quality of interpretation of in-person and video conferencing modes were rated similarly (OR=1.79; 95% CI 0.74, 4.33). The quality of in-person (OR=5.55; 95% CI 1.50, 20.51) and video conferencing (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.16, 8.31) were rated higher than ad hoc interpretation. Self-assessed cultural competence was better for in-person versus video conferencing interpretation (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.11, 4.86). Video conferencing interpretation increases access without compromising quality, but cultural nuances may be better addressed by in-person interpreters. Professional interpretation is superior to ad hoc (OR=4.15; 95% CI 1.43, 12.09).
Quality of health care; cultural competency; physician-patient communication; medical interpretation; limited English proficiency
Latin America is the world region with the highest rates of youth tobacco use and widest socioeconomic gaps, yet no data are available on smoking among Indigenous people, the largest disadvantaged group in the region. A self-administered survey of 3,131 8th grade youth enrolled in a random sample of 27 urban and rural schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina. Standard questions adapted from global surveys were used. Compared with youth of European background (11.4%; 95% CI 6.7–15.1), Indigenous (23.0%; 95% CI 21.0–25.0), and Mixed ethnicity (23%; 95% CI 18.9–27.1) youth had higher prevalence of current smoking. The odds of current smoking remained significantly elevated for Indigenous (OR 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1–3.3) and Mixed youth (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.4) after controlling for confounders. Other risk factors that were associated with current smoking included: having any friends who smoke, repeating a grade in school, depressive symptoms in previous year, drinking any alcohol in the previous week and thrill seeking orientation. These results underscore the importance of social and cultural diversity aspects of the global tobacco epidemic.
Tobacco use; adolescents; Latin America; ethnicity
Professional interpreter use improves the quality of care for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP), but little is known about interpreter use in the hospital.
Evaluate interpreter use for clinical encounters in the hospital.
Hospitalized Spanish and Chinese-speaking LEP patients.
Patient reported use of interpreters during hospitalization.
Among 234 patients, 57% reported that any kind of interpreter was present with the physician at admission, 60% with physicians during hospitalization, and 37% with nurses since admission. The use of professional interpreters with physicians was infrequent overall (17% at admission and 14% since admission), but even less common for encounters with nurses (4%, p < 0.0001). Use of a family member, friend or other patient as interpreter was more common with physicians (28% at admission, 23% since admission) than with nurses (18%, p = 0.008). Few patients reported that physicians spoke their language well (19% at admission, 12% since admission) and even fewer reported that nurses spoke their language well (6%, p = 0.0001). Patients were more likely to report that they either “got by” without an interpreter or were barely spoken to at all with nurses (38%) than with physicians at admission (14%) or since admission (15%, p < 0.0001).
Interpreter use varied by type of clinical contact, but was overall more common with physicians than with nurses. Professional interpreters were rarely used. With physicians, use of ad hoc interpreters such as family or friends was most common; with nurses, patients often reported, “getting by” without an interpreter or barely speaking at all.
language proficiency; interpreter use; non-English-speaking patients
The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63–68%), 31% Indigenous American (28–33%) and 4% African (3–4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73–79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49–58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21–41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49–59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75–86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58–77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88–94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51–57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population.
Smoking is one of the largest contributors to the global burden of disease. Internet interventions have been shown to reduce smoking rates successfully. However, improved methods of evaluating effectiveness need to be developed for large-scale Internet intervention trials.
To illustrate a method to interpret outcomes of large-scale, fully automated, worldwide Internet intervention trials.
A fully automated, international, Internet-based smoking cessation randomized controlled trial was conducted in Spanish and English, with 16,430 smokers from 165 countries. The randomized controlled trial replicated a published efficacy trial in which, to reduce follow-up attrition, 1000 smokers were followed up by phone if they did not provide online follow-up data.
The 7-day self-reported abstinence rates ranged from 36.18% (2239/6189) at 1 month to 41.34% (1361/3292) at 12 months based on observed data. Given high rates of attrition in this fully automated trial, when participants unreachable at follow-up were presumed to be smoking, the abstinence rates ranged from 13.63% (2239/16.430) at 1 month to 8.28% (1361/16,430) at 12 months. We address the problem of interpreting results with high follow-up attrition rates and propose a solution based on a smaller study with intensive phone follow-up.
Internet-based smoking cessation interventions can help large numbers of smokers quit. Large-scale international outcome studies can be successfully implemented using automated Internet sites. Interpretation of the studies’ results can be aided by extrapolating from results obtained from subsamples that are followed up by phone or similar cohort maintenance methods.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00721786; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00721786 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/63mhoXYPw)
Smoking cessation; tobacco use; Internet intervention; evidence-based intervention; attrition; effectiveness trial
Describe physicians' practices of smoking cessation and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure counseling during prenatal visits.
13 public and private hospitals from three cities in Argentina
Self-administered survey included knowledge and attitudes about tobacco use during pregnancy, frequency, type and duration of smoking cessation counseling, barriers to counseling, communication skills, level of understanding, and personal smoking history.
Main Outcome Measures
Composite outcomes of 4 items, each representative of counseling on smoking cessation and SHS exposure.
235 (78.3%) questionnaires were completed; 54.5% men, mean age 45, 35% current smokers. Only 22% had received training in smoking cessation counseling and 48.5% reported insufficient knowledge to provide smoking cessation advice. Although 88.9% always or almost always advised women to stop smoking, 75% believed it was acceptable for pregnant women to smoke up to 6 cigarettes per day. The risk of SHS exposure was “always or almost always discussed” by only 34.5% of physicians. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lack of training was associated with less counseling about smoking cessation (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.04-0.82) and SHS exposure (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.12-0.59). Current compared to never smokers had lower odds of smoking cessation counseling (OR 0.39; 95%CI 0.05-0.82). Current smokers were less likely than former smokers to counsel about SHS (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.62).
Smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina occurs infrequently, interventions are needed to assist physicians motivate and counsel women to quit smoking and avoid SHS exposure. Physicians taking care of pregnant women also need to quit smoking.
Tobacco use; adolescents; Latin America; ethnicity; pregnancy; smoking; second hand smoke; counselling
To estimate the likelihood of trauma center admission for injured elderly patients with trauma, determine trends in trauma center admissions, and identify factors associated with trauma center use for elderly patients with trauma.
Acute care hospitals in California.
All patients hospitalized for acute traumatic injuries during the period from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2008 (n=430 081). Patients who had scheduled admissions for nonacute or minor trauma were excluded.
Main Outcome Measure
Likelihood of admission to level I or II trauma center was calculated according to age categories after adjusting for patient and system factors.
Of 430 081 patients admitted to California acute care hospitals for trauma-related diagnoses, 27% were older than 65 years. After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and system factors, compared with trauma patients aged 18–25 years, the odds of admission to a trauma center decreased with increasing age; patients aged 26–45 years had lower odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.80) of being admitted to a trauma center for their injuries than did patients 46–65 years of age (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.54–0.60), patients 66–85 years of age (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30–0.41), and patients older than 85 years (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.25–0.36). Similar patterns were found when stratifying the analysis by trauma type and severity. Living more than 50 miles away from a trauma center (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01–0.06) and lack of county trauma center (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.35) were also predictors of not receiving trauma care.
Age and likelihood of admission to a trauma center for injured patients were observed to be inversely proportional after controlling for other factors. System-level factors play a major role in determining which injured patients receive trauma care.
The purpose of the study was to identify Andean youth’s beliefs regarding ceremonial tobacco use and to discuss potential applications of findings in tobacco control interventions. The study was conducted in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina among 202 boys and girls, 10 to 20 years of age, living in rural and urban areas. The world of beliefs and meanings became accessible by asking youth to focus on tangible experiences regarding the Pachamama ceremony, a ritual honoring Mother Earth. Concepts like reciprocity, the unity of material and spiritual realms, and the complementary nature of opposite forces were linked to beliefs about ceremonial tobacco use. Three domains for understanding smoking behavior beliefs and norms were identified including mechanisms of production, conceptual tenants and behavioral expressions. These findings suggest that tobacco control interventions based on solidarity, reciprocity, and non-rational ways of learning are more culturally appropriate for native populations in the Andes than the current individual behavior change models and have the potential application with other indigenous populations. The research methods also have the potential for generalized application in cross-cultural studies of health behaviors in understudied populations in middle and low-income countries.
Tobacco use; Indigenous Peoples; Adolescents; Latin America
The incidence of breast cancer is 35% lower in Hispanic women living in the San Francisco Bay Area than in non-Hispanic white women. We have previously described a significant association between genetic ancestry and risk of breast cancer in a sample of US Hispanics/Latinas. We re-tested the association in women residing in Mexico because of the possibility that the original finding may be confounded by US specific unmeasured environmental exposures. We genotyped a set of 106 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in 846 Mexican women with breast cancer and 1,035 unaffected controls and estimated genetic ancestry using a maximum likelihood method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ancestry modeled as a categorical and continuous variable were estimated using logistic regression and adjusted for reproductive and other known risk factors. Greater European ancestry was associated with increased breast cancer risk in this new and independent sample of Mexican women residing in Mexico. Compared to women with 0-25% European ancestry, the risk was increased for women with 51-75% and 76-100% European ancestry (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 0.96-1.91 and 2.44, 95% CI: 0.94-6.35 respectively, p for trend=0.044). For every 25% increase in European ancestry (modeled as a continuous variable) there was a 20% increase in risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 1.03-1.41, p=0.019). These results suggest that non-genetic factors play a crucial role in explaining the difference in breast cancer incidence between Latinas and non-Latina white women and it also points out to the possibility of a genetic component to this difference.
Breast cancer; genetic ancestry; Mexican women
Background and objectives. Rates of dialysis withdrawal are higher among the elderly and lower among Blacks, yet it is unknown whether preferences for withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning also vary by age and race or ethnicity.
Design, setting, participants and methods. We recruited 61 participants from two dialysis clinics to complete questionnaires regarding dialysis withdrawal preferences in five different health states. Engagement in advance care planning (end-of-life discussions), completion of advance directives and ‘do not resuscitate’ or ‘do not intubate’ (DNR/DNI) orders were ascertained by a questionnaire and from dialysis unit records.
Results. The mean age was 62 ± 15 years; 38% were Black, 11% were Latino, 34% were White and 16% of participants were Asian. Blacks were less likely to prefer dialysis withdrawal as compared with Whites (odds ratio 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.88) and other race/ethnicity groups, and this difference was not explained by age, education, comorbidity and other confounders. In contrast, older age was not associated with preferences for withdrawal. Rates of engagement in end-of-life discussions were higher than for documentation of advance care planning for all age and most race/ethnicity groups. Although younger participants and minorities were generally less likely to document treatment preferences as compared with older patients and Whites, they were not less likely to engage in end-of-life discussions.
Conclusions. Preferences for withdrawal vary by race/ ethnicity, whereas the pattern of engagement in advance care planning varies by age and race/ethnicity. Knowledge of these differences may be useful for improving communication about end-of-life preferences and in implementing effective advance care planning strategies among diverse haemodialysis patients.
advance care planning; dialysis withdrawal; elderly; race; treatment preferences
We evaluated the association of risk factors for breast cancer with reported follow-up procedures after abnormal mammography among diverse women.
Women ages 40–80 years were recruited from four clinical sites after receiving a screening mammography result that was classified as abnormal but probably benign, suspicious or highly suspicious, or indeterminate using standard criteria. A telephone-administered survey asked about breast cancer risk factors (family history, estrogen use, physical inactivity, age of menarche, age at birth of first child, parity, alcohol use), and self-reported use of diagnostic tests (follow-up mammogram, breast ultrasound, or biopsy).
Nine hundred and seventy women completed the interview, mean age was 56, 42% were White, 19% Latina, 25% African American, and 15% Asian. White women were more likely to have a positive family history (20%), use estrogen (32%), be nulliparous (17%) and drink alcohol (62%). Latinas were more likely to be physically inactive (93%), African Americans to have early onset of menarche (53%) and Asians first child after age 30 (21%). White women were more likely to have suspicious mammograms (40%) and to undergo biopsy (45%). In multivariate models, Latinas were more likely to report breast ultrasound, physical inactive women reported fewer follow-up mammograms, and care outside the academic health center was associated with fewer biopsies. Indeterminate and suspicious mammography interpretations were significantly associated with more biopsy procedures (OR = 8.4; 95% CI = 3.8–18.5 and OR = 59; 95% CI = 35–100, respectively).
Demographic profile and breast cancer risk factors have little effect on self-reported use of diagnostic procedures following an abnormal mammography examination. Level of mammography abnormality determines diagnostic evaluation but variance by site of care was observed.
ethnicity; abnormal mammography; follow-up procedures; breast cancer
There are 1.1 billion smokers worldwide. Traditional smoking cessation methods, such as nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation groups, yield between 14% and 27% abstinence rates at 6 months. Evidence-based Internet interventions with comparable abstinence rates could be a powerful global tool to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.
We report a randomized control trial in which 500 Spanish-speaking and 500 English-speaking adult Internet users, smoking at least 5 cigarettes/day and intending to quit in the next month, were recruited online from 68 countries. Consenting participants who completed baseline measures, logged cigarettes smoked on 3 days within a week, and set a quit date were randomized to four conditions. Each condition added new elements: Condition 1 was the “Guía Para Dejar de Fumar,” a static National Cancer Institute evidence-based stop smoking guide; Condition 2 consisted of Condition 1 plus E-mail reminders to return to the site; Condition 3 consisted of Condition 2 plus mood management lessons; and Condition 4 consisted of Condition 3 plus a “virtual group” (an asynchronous bulletin board). Main outcome measures were 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after initial quit date.
There were no significant differences among the four conditions. The overall 12-month 7-day abstinence rates were 20.2% for Spanish speakers and 21.0% for English speakers when those with missing data were assumed to be smoking.
Internet smoking cessation interventions with such abstinence rates provided globally in additional languages could contribute substantially to tobacco control efforts.
Two decades after the Patient Self Determination Act it is unknown how often physicians have advance care planning (ACP) discussions with hospitalized patients. The objective of this study is to investigate use of ACP discussions in a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual hospitalized population. Cross-sectional communication study of hospitalized patients. The Participants are 369 patients at one urban county hospital and one academic medical center. Interventions are not applicable. Participants were asked at baseline and a post-discharge interview whether hospital physicians had discussed either (a) what type of treatment they would want if they could not make decisions for themselves or (b) whether they would want cardiopulmonary resuscitation if needed. We compared patient characteristics for those who did and did not have an ACP discussion. Only 151 (41%) participants reported an ACP discussion. Rates of ACP were low across ethnic, language, education and age groups. In a multivariate model, scoring higher on a co-morbidity scale was associated with higher odds of reporting having had an ACP discussion during hospitalization; this finding remained after adjusting for time period and site of data collection. Multiethnic, multi-lingual hospitalized patients reported low rates of ACP discussions with their physicians regardless of ethnicity, English proficiency, education level or age.
Care discussion; Diverse populations; Hospital admission; Patient care planning