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1.  The implications of prostate-specific antigen density to predict clinically significant prostate cancer in men ≤ 50 years 
To investigate the appropriate cut-off level of PSA or other clinical parameters at aged ≤ 50 years. The rate of detection of PCa in young men will continue to rise associated with the advancement of the current and evolving practices of screening and detection. In this study, we determined whether to investigate the appropriate cut-off level of PSA or other clinical parameters at aged ≤ 50 years. The study population included 106 patients aged ≤ 50 years who had prostate biopsy at our institute. The differences of clinical variables including various PSA related parameters between the patients with significant PCa and insignificant PCa were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the corresponding areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were calculated. There were no significant differences between no-PCa and PCa patients regarding PSA value, prostate volume (P vol), PSA density (PSAD), transition zone volume (TZ vol), PSATZ density (PSATZD). When the patients meeting the following criteria, Gleason score was ≤ 6 with less than 2 positive biopsy cores, were classified as having insignificant prostate cancer, PSAD could become a useful predictor of significant PCa in men. The AUC was significantly greater in PSAD (0.801) than for the other parameters. The sensitivity and specificity of a PSAD threshold of 0.32 were 85.7% and 77.8%, respectively. In conclusion, PSAD can be a useful and very effective predictor in a man aged ≤ 50 and we can counsel patients with discretion regarding the likelihood of significant PCa.
PMCID: PMC4297329  PMID: 25606579
Prostate cancer; prostate biopsy; PSA density; insignificant prostate cancer
2.  Complete response to ethnylestradiol prolonged for almost two years in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2014;8(11-12):E921-E923.
An 80-year-old man with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 120 ng/mL) presented to the hospital in February 2011. A prostate needle biopsy was performed, and pathological examination revealed prostatic adenocarcinoma. The Gleason score was 4+5=9. Computed tomography revealed metastases of the pelvic lymph nodes. Combined androgen blockade was started. The PSA concentration decreased to 1.68 ng/mL, but started increasing again in August 2012 to 6.08 ng/mL. Although bicalutamide was discontinued due to antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome, the PSA concentration increased even more. The PSA concentration reached 21.62 ng/mL in September 2012, at which time ethnylestradiol was started. The PSA concentration decreased again and has remained below the limit of sensitivity for almost 2 years. To our knowledge, this is first case report describing a complete response to ethnylestradiol that lasted for almost 2 years in a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.2293
PMCID: PMC4277536  PMID: 25553169
3.  Expression level of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase is associated with clinical outcome in patients with T1G3 bladder cancer treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):646.
Background
Recently, it has been shown that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with a strong dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibitor elicits a significant response in bladder cancer with a high level of DPD. However, only a few studies investigated the association between the level of the enzyme that regulates the metabolism of 5-FU and prognosis in bladder cancer. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there has also been no such report in T1G3 bladder tumors treated with BCG. Therefore, we evaluated enzymes that regulate the metabolism of 5-FU in T1G3 tumors treated with BCG immunotherapy using the Danenberg tumor profile (DTP) method, a highly accurate measurement of RNA from paraffin-embedded specimens.
Methods
This study included 28 patients with T1G3 bladder cancer, each of whom underwent complete transurethral tumor resection and BCG intravesical instillation at our institution. The median follow-up period was 39 months (range, 3 to 159 months). The DTP method was used to analyze the mRNA expression of 3 enzymes related to 5-FU: DPD, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), and thymidylate synthase (TS).
Results
Among the 28 patients, 13 developed recurrences (46.4%) and 5 experienced disease progression (17.9%). An elevated DPD mRNA level was significantly associated with recurrence (p = 0.048) and progression (p = 0.045). However, TS and OPRT mRNA levels were not significantly associated with any other clinical features or outcomes. Furthermore, the high DPD group had a significantly lower recurrence-free survival rate than the low DPD group (p = 0.047). Among patients with low DPD, the 2- and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 88.9% and 74.1%, respectively; while among patients with high DPD, the corresponding rates were 61.3% and 36.8%, respectively. TS and OPRT were not significantly associated with recurrence-free survival rates.
Conclusion
DPD is significantly associated with recurrence and progression among T1G3 bladder cancer patients treated with BCG.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-646
PMCID: PMC4169840  PMID: 25218240
Urothelial carcinoma; S-1; 5-fluorouracil; Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase; Thymidylate synthase
4.  Potent increased risk of the initiation of DNA replication in human prostate cancer with the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors 
Recent clinical studies have raised the clinically important question of the relationship between dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. The significance of DHT or 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) in PCa development and progression has not yet been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to determine whether the initiation of DNA replication was influenced by DHT in PCa. Three cell lines were used. LNCaP: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-dependent proliferation, C4-2: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-independent proliferation, and C4-2AT6: a castration resistant prostate cancer cell line. Two 5ARIs, finasteride and dutasteride, were used. We examined the mRNA expression of the components of pre-replication complex (Pre-RC), CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. DHT induced cell proliferation of LNCaP accompanied by significantly increased CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7 expression. In contrast to LNCaP, DHT inhibited cell proliferation in C4-2AT6 cells accompanied by decreased expression of CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. These reverse effects resemble the effects of 5ARIs in Pre-RC. Treatment with finasteride or dutasteride inhibited CDC6 expression in LNCaP, but both 5ARIs induced CDC6 expression in C4-2 and C4-2AT6 cells.These results indicate that DHT showed reversal effects on PCa cell proliferation among prostate cancer cells based on androgen-dependence, accompanied by regulation of the initiation of DNA replication. 5ARIs may modulate the DNA replication system in someaggressive PCa through up-regulation of CDC6 expression.
PMCID: PMC4219299  PMID: 25374915
Castration resistant prostate cancer; DNA replication; pre-replication complex; CDC6; 5α-reductase inhibitors; C4-2AT6
5.  A Case of Bladder-Inverted Papilloma after Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer 
An 82-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of gross hematuria and a history of prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy 6 years previously is described. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder tumors on the right posterior wall. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and a pathological diagnosis of the inverted papilloma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bladder-inverted papilloma after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
doi:10.1159/000365142
PMCID: PMC4107386  PMID: 25076961
Inverted papilloma; Brachytherapy; Prostate cancer
6.  A Case of Bladder Cancer after Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer 
An 86-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of clot retention and had a history of prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy 11 years previously is described. Cystoscopy revealed radiation cystitis in coexistence with bladder cancer. Since bladder cancer may be present in patients with macroscopic hematuria who have a history of radiation therapy, referral to an urologist is recommended.
doi:10.1159/000361013
PMCID: PMC3999451  PMID: 24803918
Bladder cancer; Hematuria; Radiation therapy; Prostate cancer
7.  Renal angiomyolipoma: a radiological classification and update on recent developments in diagnosis and management 
Abdominal Imaging  2014;39(3):588-604.
Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign solid renal neoplasm observed in clinical practice. Once thought to be a hamartoma and almost always diagnosed by the imaged-based detection of fat, angiomyolipomas are now known to consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although all are considered perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, many display different pathology, imaging features, and clinical behavior. The importance of understanding this group of neoplasms is emphasized by the fact that many types of angiomyolipoma contain little to no fat, and despite being benign, sometimes escape a pre-operative diagnosis. These types of angiomyolipomas can all be considered when encountering a renal mass that is both hyperattenuating relative to renal parenchyma on unenhanced CT and T2-hypointense, features that reflect their predominant smooth muscle component. We review recent developments and provide a radiological classification of angiomyolipomas that helps physicians understand the various types and learn how to both diagnose and manage them.
doi:10.1007/s00261-014-0083-3
PMCID: PMC4040184  PMID: 24504542
Angiomyolipoma; Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors; PEComa; Renal cell carcinoma; Fat poor AML; AML with minimal fat
8.  Long term follow-up in patients with initially diagnosed low grade Ta non-muscle invasive bladder tumors: tumor recurrence and worsening progression 
BMC Urology  2014;14:5.
Background
We evaluated the clinical outcome of low grade Ta bladder cancer followed-up for a long period using the 2004 WHO grading system.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients with primary, low grade Ta bladder cancer. We defined worsening progression (WP) as confirmed high grade Ta, all T1 or Tis/concomitant CIS of bladder recurrence, upper urinary tract recurrence (UTR), or progression to equal to or more than T2. The associations between clinicopathological factors and tumor recurrence as well as WP pattern were analyzed. We also evaluated the late recurrence of 76 patients who were tumor-free for more than 5 years.
Results
Tumor recurrence and WP occurred in 82 (43.2%) and 21 (11.1%) patients during follow-up (median follow-up: 101.5 months), respectively. WP to high grade Ta, all T1 or Tis/concomitant CIS was seen in 17 patients, and UTR and progression to equal to or more than T2 were seen in 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that multiple tumor (p < 0.001, HR: 2.97) and absence of intravesical instillation (IVI) (p < 0.001, HR: 2.88) were significant risk factors for tumor recurrence while multiple tumor was the only risk factor for WP (p = 0.001, HR: 5.26). After a 5-year tumor-free period, 9 patients experienced late recurrence in years 5 and 10 and were diagnosed at a follow-up cystoscopy, however, only 2 patients recurred beyond 10 years and were found by gross hematuria. There were no significant risk factors of late recurrence.
Conclusions
Multiple tumor was a risk factor for both tumor recurrence and WP while IVI did not affect the occurrence of WP. Our results suggest that routine follow-up of patients with low grade Ta bladder cancer is needed up to 10 years from the initial diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-14-5
PMCID: PMC3913327  PMID: 24400640
Bladder cancer; Intravesical instillation; Recurrence; Progression
9.  Is DHT Production by 5α-Reductase Friend or Foe in Prostate Cancer? 
Frontiers in Oncology  2014;4:247.
The first advance in the history of studies on prostate cancer (PCa) and androgens was the development of treatment with castration and administration of estrogen by Charles B. Huggins, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Since then, and for 70 years, androgen deprivation therapy has been the standard therapy for advanced PCa and the center of studies on PCa. However, recent advances have shed light on the relationship between androgens and the development or the progression of PCa. The use of 5AR inhibitors to prevent progression of PCa continues to be widely discussed. Discussion has been fueled by the findings of two large randomized, placebo-controlled trials: the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with finasteride and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial. Does the development of PCa or progression to castration-resistant PCa depend on dihydrotestosterone (DHT)? Here, we summarize and discuss recent topics of local androgen production of DHT in PCa.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2014.00247
PMCID: PMC4165281  PMID: 25279351
prostate cancer; androgen receptor; steroidogenesis; 5α-reductase inhibitors; C4-2AT6
10.  Therapeutic enhancement of S-1 with CPT-11 through down-regulation of thymidylate synthase in bladder cancer 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(4):488-495.
Abstract
Thymidylate synthase (TS), a target enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is significantly associated with prognosis in various cancers. Recently, it has been reported that S-1, a novel 5-FU-based agent has an effect on bladder cancer. However, in cells with high TS level, S-1 did not have significant effects. Therefore, we examined whether down-regulation of TS enhanced effects of S-1 in them. First, we measured TS level in an aggressive bladder cancer cell line, KU-19-19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and evaluated its sensitivity to 5-FU using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TS. Next, we measured TS mRNA after exposure to various agents. Finally, we evaluated enhancement of cytotoxicity of S-1 by CPT-11 (7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) which down-regulated TS in in vivo study. The median TS and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) level was 53.3 ng/mg and 80.3 ng/mg in KU-19-19 cells, respectively. The 5-FU treatment in KU-19-19 cells transfected with siRNA for TS gene (TYMS) inhibited cell growth more significantly than that for nontargeting control. Down-regulation of TS was observed after exposure to SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) in a dose-dependent manner. The combination treatment of 5-FU and SN-38 significantly inhibited cell growth, as compared to the single treatment. Meanwhile, in cells transfected with siRNA for TYMS, neither an additive nor a synergistic effect was observed. Also, combined S-1 and CPT-11 dramatically inhibited tumor growth, compared to S-1 or CPT-11 alone in in vivo study. In conclusion, CPT-11 down-regulated TS level and enhanced the effect of S-1. Thus, the combination therapy with S-1 and CPT-11 might be a novel modality for bladder cancer, even with high TS level.
This study confirmed that thymidylate synthase (TS) level in an aggressive human bladder cancer cell line, KU-19-19, was relatively higher than that in other cancer and presented that irinotecan (CPT-11) could down-regulate TS. Finally, the combination therapy with S-1 and CPT-11 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition through down-regulation of TS in KU-19-19. Thus, combined S-1 and CPT-11 might be a novel treatment in bladder cancer, even with high TS.
doi:10.1002/cam4.95
PMCID: PMC3799283  PMID: 24156021
5-Fluorouracil; irinotecan; S-1; thymidylate synthase; urothelial carcinoma
11.  Human castration resistant prostate cancer rather prefer to decreased 5α-reductase activity 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1268.
Physiologically relevant steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) activity that is essential for dihydrotestosterone (DHT) biosynthesis in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not been fully characterized yet. In this study to ascertain the potential SRD5A activity, we cultured two human CRPC cell lines, C4-2 and C4-2AT6, with the steroid precursor: 13C-[2,3,4]-androstenedione (13C-Adione), and analyzed the sequential biosynthesis of 13C-[2,3,4]-testosterone (13C-T) and 13C-[2,3,4]-DHT (13C-DHT) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The 13C-DHT/13C-T concentration ratio detected by LC/MS/MS in C4-2AT6 cells appeared to reflect the SRD5A activity. The ratio in C4-2AT6 was significantly lower than that in C4-2. An increased concentration of DHT did not have a positive effect on cell proliferation, rather it exhibited inhibitory effects. 5α-reductase inhibitors did not have any inhibitory effect at clinically achievable concentrations. These results indicate that CRPC cells may have an unknown regulation system to protect themselves from an androgenic suppressive effect mediated by SRD5A activity.
doi:10.1038/srep01268
PMCID: PMC3572449  PMID: 23429215
12.  Bisebromoamide, an extract from Lyngbya species, induces apoptosis through ERK and mTOR inhibitions in renal cancer cells 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(1):32-39.
Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains an incurable disease, and newer anticancer drugs are needed. Bisebromoamide, a novel cytotoxic peptide, was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya species at our laboratory in 2009. This compound specifically inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK in platelet-derived growth factor-activated normal rat kidney cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and elucidate the potential mechanism of Bisebromoamide actions on human RCC cells. Two renal cancer cell lines, 769-P and 786-O, were used. The effects of Bisebromoamide were analyzed employing assays for water-soluble Tetrazolium-1 salts. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric TUNEL analysis. Cell-cycle distributions were analyzed by flow cytometry using BrdU/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Kinases of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway were analyzed by Western blotting. After Bisebromoamide treatment for 48 and 72 h, cell viability was significantly decreased in both cell lines at 1 and 10 μmol/L. After treatment with 1 μmol/L Bisebromoamide for 72 h, apoptosis and the increased percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase were observed in both cell lines. Bisebromoamide inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in both cell lines tested. Similar effects were demonstrated for phosphorylation of mTOR and p70 S6. Bisebromoamide is a promising potential agent against RCC due to its ability to inhibit both the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.
doi:10.1002/cam4.53
PMCID: PMC3797566  PMID: 24133625
Akt; apoptosis; Bisebromoamide; ERK; mTOR; renal cell carcinoma
13.  Metastatic urothelial carcinoma to pericardia manifested by dyspnea from cardiac tamponade during systemic chemotherapy: Case report and literature review 
A 53-year-old man presented for further evaluation due to microscopic hematuria and left lumbar pain. Computed tomography revealed a large tumour in the left renal pelvis with multiple metastases. Despite effective systemic chemotherapy, he developed dyspnea, and was diagnosed with cardiac tamponade. Pericardial involvement in an advanced malignancy is common, but symptomatic cardiac metastasis from urothelial carcinoma is rare. Of the reports of symptomatic cardiac metastasis from urothelial carcinoma, only 3 cases presented as cardiac tamponade. We report here a rare case of cardiac tamponade caused by a renal pelvic carcinoma with positive cytodiagnosis of pericardial effusion. We also summarize and discuss the symptoms, treatment, and prognosis of the pathological condition, and present a brief review of previously published reports.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11130
PMCID: PMC3478388  PMID: 23093641
14.  Prognostic significance of 5-fluorouracil metabolism-relating enzymes and enhanced chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil by 5-chloro 2,4-dihydroxy-pyridine in urothelial carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:420.
Background
Recently, S-1, a novel 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based agent containing the strong dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibitor, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydropyrimidine (CDHP) has been clinically used to treat various non-urothelial carcinomas (UC). High levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), the target enzyme of 5-FU and DPD which degrades the majority of 5-FU, are associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. However, only a few reports have dealt with this in UC. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of TS and DPD in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and evaluate the role of TS and DPD on the sensitivity of 5-FU in UC cell lines and the anti-tumor effect of S-1 in UC xenograft model.
Methods
Firstly, we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of TS and DPD in 176 patients with UTUC to determine their prognostic significance. Secondly, the levels of TS and DPD in UC cell lines were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. Furthermore, the association between their levels and the sensitivity to 5-FU was examined using the small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for TS and DPD. Thirdly, the anti-tumor effect of S-1 was evaluated in UC xenograft model.
Results
Immunohistochemical evaluation of TS and DPD in UTUC human samples revealed that TS expression was significantly associated with stage, grade, and lymphovascular invasion and DPD expression was significantly associated with grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that high TS expression was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival in them. In in vitro study using UC cell lines, high levels of TS and DPD were associated with low response to 5-FU and these associations were confirmed with siRNA specific for TS and DPD. In in vivo study using UC xenograft model, S-1 treatment dramatically inhibited tumor growth compared to controls, tegafur, or UFT in UC tumor with a high level of DPD.
Conclusions
TS plays an important role in the prognosis of UTUC and S-1 may be a key agent for UC tumor, especially with a high level of DPD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-420
PMCID: PMC3522564  PMID: 22998564
Urothelial carcinoma; S-1; 5-fluorouracil; Thymidylate synthase; Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
15.  Optimal Ratio of Transcription Factors for Somatic Cell Reprogramming* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2012;287(43):36273-36282.
Background: The somatic cell reprogramming factors do not always induce pluripotency.
Results: The optimal ratio of the reprogramming factors is Oct3/4-high, Sox2-low, Klf4-high, and c-Myc-high.
Conclusion: Among the various reprogramming transcription factor combinations, high Oct3/4 and low Sox2 produced the most efficient results.
Significance: The overall gene expression profiles between the high and low efficiency conditions provide novel insights for somatic cell reprogramming.
Somatic cell reprogramming is achieved by four reprogramming transcription factors (RTFs), Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, in addition to the induction of pluripotent cells, these RTFs also generate pseudo-pluripotent cells, which do not show Nanog promoter activity. Therefore, it should be possible to fine-tune the RTFs to produce only fully pluripotent cells. For this study, a tagging system was developed to sort induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells according to the expression levels of each of the four RTFs. Using this system, the most effective ratio (Oct3/4-high, Sox2-low, Klf4-high, c-Myc-high) of the RTFs was 88 times more efficient at producing iPS cells than the worst effective ratio (Oct3/4-low, Sox2-high, Klf4-low, c-Myc-low). Among the various RTF combinations, Oct3/4-high and Sox2-low produced the most efficient results. To investigate the molecular basis, microarray analysis was performed on iPS cells generated under high (Oct3/4-high and Sox2-low) and low (Oct3/4-low and Sox2-high) efficiency reprogramming conditions. Pathway analysis revealed that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway was up-regulated significantly under the high efficiency condition and treatment with the chemokine, C-C motif ligand 2, a member of the GPCR family, enhanced somatic cell reprogramming 12.3 times. Furthermore, data from the analysis of the signature gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic fibroblasts at 2 days after RTF infection revealed that the genetic modifier, Whsc1l1 (variant 1), also improved the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming. Finally, comparison of the overall gene expression profiles between the high and low efficiency conditions will provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying somatic cell reprogramming.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.380683
PMCID: PMC3476294  PMID: 22955270
Epigenetics; G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR); Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell; Microarray; Reprogramming
16.  Predicting pubic arch interference in prostate brachytherapy on transrectal ultrasonography-computed tomography fusion images 
Journal of Radiation Research  2012;53(5):753-759.
We investigated the usefulness of the fusion image created by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and large-bore computed tomography (CT) for predicting pubic arch interference (PAI) during prostate seed brachytherapy. The TRUS volume study was performed in 21 patients, followed by large-bore computed tomography of patients in the lithotomy position. Then, we created TRUS-CT fusion images using a radiation planning treatment system. TRUS images in which the prostate outline was the largest were overlaid on CT images with the narrowest pubic arch. PAI was estimated in the right and left arch separately and classified to three grades: no PAI, PAI positive within 5 mm and PAI of >5 mm. If the estimated PAI was more than 5 mm on at least one side of the arch, we judged there to be a significant PAI. Brachytherapy was performed in 18 patients who were evaluated as not having significant PAI on TRUS. Intra-operative PAI was observed in one case, which was also detected with a fusion image. On the other hand, intra-operative PAI was not observed in one case that had been evaluated as having significant PAI with a fusion image. In the remaining three patients, TRUS suggested the presence of significant PAI, which was also confirmed by a fusion image. Intra-operative PAI could be predicted by TRUS-CT fusion imaging, even when it was undetectable by TRUS. Although improvement of the reproducibility of the patients’ position to avoid false-positive cases is warranted, TRUS-CT fusion imaging has the possibility that the uncertainty of TRUS can be supplemented.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrs020
PMCID: PMC3430429  PMID: 22843359
prostate cancer; brachytherapy; seed implantation; pubic arch interference; fusion image
17.  Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds 
Background
The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds.
Methods
We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration.
Results
A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47%) seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7%) patients. Sixty-nine (0.36%) seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2%) patients. Seven (0.036%) seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2%) patients. Fifteen (0.078%) seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6%) patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration.
Conclusion
We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-6-130
PMCID: PMC3206434  PMID: 21974959
Brachytherapy; 125I; Migration; Prostate cancer; Seed
18.  Transumbilical laparo-endoscopic single site surgery for adrenal cortical adenoma inducing primary aldosteronism: initial experience 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:364.
Background
We have started using laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urologic surgery, although its use has not gained momentum due to its level of difficulty. We here report our initial experience with transumbilical LESS for adrenal cortical adenoma by using a single port with a multichannel cannula (SILS port) and bent laparoscopic instrumentation.
Findings
A multichannel port (SILS port), bent laparoscopic instrument (Roticulator Endo Mini-Shears) and Opti4 laparoscopic electrodes were used in all cases. The intraperitoneal space was approached through the umbilicus. The SILS port was placed through a 2 cm incision at the inner edge of the umbilicus. A 5 mm flexible laparoscope was introduced to keep the laparoscope outside, and surgical specimens were extracted using an Endocatch bag. In addition, as a case control study, we compared perioperative data of LESS adrenalectomy (LESS-A) with that of conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). We performed transumbilical LESS-A for adrenal cortical adenoma in 12 cases, beginning in December, 2009. All procedures were successfully completed, with only one incision through the umbilicus, and without conversion to a standard laparoscopic approach. Mean operative time for LESS-A was 121.2 ± 7.8 min, which was slightly longer than LA (110.2 ± 7.3 min). For right adrenal tumors, we used a miniport (2 mm port) in addition to a SILS port, and were able to successfully perform adrenalectomy "with no visible scaring". Tumor laterality and patient BMI did not affect surgical morbidity in these procedures. Moreover, there was no significant difference between LESS-A and LA in blood loss, analgesic requirement, hospital stay, and scar satisfaction.
Conclusions
The transumbilical approach in LESS for adrenalectomy is safe and feasible and also improves cosmetic outcome compared with standard laparoscopic procedures. Improvements in surgical devices may aid the further development of this approach.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-364
PMCID: PMC3196717  PMID: 21943322
19.  A Germ Cell-specific Gene, Prmt5, Works in Somatic Cell Reprogramming* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2011;286(12):10641-10648.
Germ cells possess the unique ability to acquire totipotency during development in vivo as well as give rise to pluripotent stem cells under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Recent studies in which somatic cells were experimentally converted into pluripotent stem cells revealed that genes expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs), such as Oct3/4, Sox2, and Lin28, are involved in this reprogramming. These findings suggest that PGCs may be useful for identifying factors that successfully and efficiently reprogram somatic cells into toti- and/or pluripotent stem cells. Here, we show that Blimp-1, Prdm14, and Prmt5, each of which is crucial for PGC development, have the potential to reprogram somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells. Among them, Prmt5 exhibited remarkable reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into which Prmt5, Klf4, and Oct3/4 were introduced. The resulting cells exhibited pluripotent gene expression, teratoma formation, and germline transmission in chimeric mice, all of which were indistinguishable from those induced with embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that some of the factors that play essential roles in germ cell development are also active in somatic cell reprogramming.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.216390
PMCID: PMC3060515  PMID: 21270127
Development; Embryo; Embryonic Stem Cell; Epigenetics; Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell; Primordial Germ Cell
20.  Initial experience of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy in patient with aldosterone-producing adenoma 
BMC Urology  2010;10:19.
Background
Laparoscopic single-site surgery has recently emerged in the field of urology and this minimally-invasive surgery has resulted in a further reduction in morbidity compared with traditional laparoscopy. We present our initial experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy (LESS-PA) to treat aldosterone-producing adenomas.
Case presentation
A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with aldosterone-producing macroadenomas in the left adrenal and aldosterone-producing microadenomas in the right adrenal. A two-step operation was planned. The first step involved transumbilical LESS-PA for the left adrenal tumors. A multichannel port was inserted through the center of the umbilicus and the left adrenal gland was approached using bent instruments according to standard traditional laparoscopic procedures. The tumors were resected using an ultrasonic scalpel, and the resected site was coagulated using a vessel sealing instrument and then sealed with fibrin glue. Operative time was 123 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from hospital within 72 hours. Her right adrenal microadenomas will be treated in the next several months.
Conclusions
Although our experience is limited, LESS-PA appears to be safe and feasible for treating aldosterone-producing adenomas. More cases and comparisons with the multiport technique are needed before drawing any definite conclusions concerning the technique.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-19
PMCID: PMC3000378  PMID: 21092240
21.  Enhanced antitumor effect of combination intravesical mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in an orthotopic bladder cancer model 
Oncology Letters  2010;2(1):13-19.
Intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is currently the most successful adjuvant agent for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, NMIBCs recur in 60–70% of cases and 30% of these recurrent tumors present with a higher grade and more invasive properties. Patients that do not respond to intravesical BCG therapy are considered to be a challenge for urologists. Thus, novel conservative possibilities should be explored. To test the efficacy of a novel therapeutic approach, we examined the antitumor effect of combination therapy by intravesical administration of mitomycin C (MMC) plus BCG, infusing the two drugs simultaneously, in an orthotopic bladder cancer model. Intravesical BCG and MMC administration showed a dose-dependent survival (n=8 per group). The combination of MMC and BCG provided a significant survival advantage compared to the BCG-alone (p=0.035) and MMC-alone groups (p=0.040) (n=8 per group). The group with combined MMC/BCG exhibited a survival period similar to that achieved with an amount eight times higher that of BCG (n=10 per group). Ki-67 labeling index of cancer cells, showing tumor proliferation, was significantly lower in the combined group compared to the BCG-alone (p<0.05), MMC-alone (p<0.01) and control groups (p<0.01). No difference was detected between the combined group and the BCG-alone group with regard to CD3, T-cell infiltration and CD68 macrophage activity. The combined MMC/BCG treatment decreased the tumor appearance rate, improved the survival period and reduced the cellular proliferation rate in tumors compared to the BCG-alone treatment. The results suggest that the combined intravesical MMC/BCG treatment induced an enhanced antitumor effect against bladder tumors. The combined MMC/BCG treatment also showed a survival period similar to that achieved using a dose eight times higher of BCG-alone.
doi:10.3892/ol.2010.217
PMCID: PMC3412510  PMID: 22870122
urinary bladder; bladder neoplasms; mycobacterium bovis; mitomycin C; immunochemotherapy
22.  Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds 
Background
The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds.
Methods
We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45%) of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
Results
Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
Conclusions
The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-5-86
PMCID: PMC2954882  PMID: 20875137
23.  Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study 
BMC Urology  2010;10:12.
Background
There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results.
Methods
We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59) and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234) were evaluated separately.
Results
Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0%) who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1%) who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-12
PMCID: PMC2912875  PMID: 20591189
24.  Lymphovascular Invasion Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Node-Negative Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2008;27(4):612-618.
Purpose
To assess the association of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) with cancer recurrence and survival in a large international series of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
Patients and Methods
Data were collected on 1,453 patients treated with RNU at 13 academic centers and combined into a relational database. Pathologic slides were rereviewed by genitourinary pathologists according to strict criteria. LVI was defined as presence of tumor cells within an endothelium-lined space.
Results
LVI was observed in 349 patients (24%). Proportion of LVI increased with advancing tumor stage, high tumor grade, presence of tumor necrosis, sessile tumor architecture, and presence of lymph node metastasis (all P < .001). LVI was an independent predictor of disease recurrence and survival (P < .001 for both). Addition of LVI to the base model (comprising pathologic stage, grade, and lymph node status) marginally improved its predictive accuracy for both disease recurrence and survival (1.1%, P = .03; and 1.7%, P < .001, respectively). In patients with negative lymph nodes and those in whom a lymphadenectomy was not performed (n = 1,313), addition of LVI to the base model improved the predictive accuracy of the base model for both disease recurrence and survival by 3% (P < .001 for both). In contrast, LVI was not associated with disease recurrence or survival in node-positive patients (n = 140).
Conclusion
LVI was an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in nonmetastatic patients who underwent RNU for UTUC. Assessment of LVI may help identify patients who could benefit from multimodal therapy after RNU. After confirmation, LVI should be included in staging of UTUC.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.17.2361
PMCID: PMC2737380  PMID: 19075275
25.  Primary intratesticular leiomyosarcoma 
This report presents a case of primary intratesticular leiomyosarcoma. A 73-year-old male presented with a 6-year history of left scrotal swelling. A radiological examination revealed a left testicular tumour with multiple metastases in the lung, para-aortic lymph node and other organs. A radical orchiectomy was carried out and the pathology revealed an intratesticular leiomyosarcoma. The patient received additional chemotherapy. Cases of primary intratesticular leiomyosarcoma are rare. This is, to the best of our knowledge, only the tenth case of leiomyisaocoma in an adult reported in the literature, and the first case involving multiple metastases.
PMCID: PMC2792427  PMID: 20019958

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