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1.  Treatment and outcome of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours--the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience 1979-94. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(2):329-335.
This report reviews 48 patients who from 1979 to 1994 were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for newly diagnosed noncerebral extragonadal malignant germ cell tumour (EGGCT). Based on histology and/or serum tumour markers, 12 patients had a seminoma and 36 a non-seminoma. At diagnosis, 33 and 15 patients were classified as having abdominal and mediastinal EGGCT respectively. At the time of diagnosis 13 patients, all with non-seminomatous tumours, had metastases to bone, liver or brain. One patient with abdominal seminoma was cured by radiotherapy alone, whereas cisplatin-based chemotherapy (with or without surgery) was planned in the 47 remaining patients. Twenty-seven out of 42 patients receiving four or more chemotherapy cycles were rendered tumour free by induction chemotherapy, including 5 of the 13 patients with extralymphatic non-pulmonal disease. An additional tumour-free patient died of septicaemia after only two cycles of chemotherapy. Late relapses (after > 2 years) were observed in three patients, and a testicular primary was diagnosed during follow-up in three cases. Seven patients died of treatment-related complications, five of these because of neutropenic septicaemia. The median age of these patients was 52 years compared with 35 years in the remaining 41 patients (P < 0.05). The 5-year overall survival for all 48 patients was 60% (95% CI 46-74%) [cancer-specific 5-year survival 71% (95% CI 50-92%)]. EGGCT is a potentially curable disease, even in patients with very advanced disease. Special attention should, however, be devoted to patients above the age of 40 years because of an increased risk of treatment-related side-effects. Late relapses and the subsequent development of testicular tumours indicate the need for long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2151244  PMID: 9461006
2.  Salvage treatment in male patients with germ cell tumours. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(3):568-572.
The outcome of salvage treatment was reviewed in 55 patients relapsing during or after their primary chemotherapy for advanced malignant germ cell tumours. Fifty-two patients had been given cisplatin-based chemotherapy as their primary treatment, whereas three patients had received carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The median time to relapse was 2 months (range: 0-96 months) from discontinuation of the primary treatment. Two patients underwent radical surgery only, and one patient had radiotherapy to a brain metastasis as his only curatively intended salvage treatment. Six patients did not receive any treatment for their recurrent malignancy (refusal, terminal condition) except for purely palliative measures. The disease-free survival for the total group was 27% at 5 years. Complete response to primary treatment lasting for > or = 6 months was the only parameter which significantly predicted a favourable outcome (45% 5 year disease-free survival in 12 eligible patients).
PMCID: PMC1968255  PMID: 8382512

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