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2.  Criteria for preserving posterior cruciate ligament depending on intra-operative gap measurement in total knee replacement 
Bone & Joint Research  2014;3(4):95-100.
Objectives
Because posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) resection makes flexion gaps wider in total knee replacement (TKR), preserving or sacrificing a PCL affects the gap equivalence; however, there are no criteria for the PCL resection that consider gap situations of each knee. This study aims to investigate gap characteristics of knees and to consider the criteria for PCL resection.
Methods
The extension and flexion gaps were measured, first with the PCL preserved and subsequently with the PCL removed (in cases in which posterior substitute components were selected). The PCL preservation or sacrifice was solely determined by the gap measurement results, without considering other functions of the PCL such as ‘roll back.’
Results
Wide variations were observed in the extension and flexion gaps. The flexion gaps were significantly larger than the extension gaps. Cases with 18 mm or more flexion gap and with larger flexion than extension gap were implanted with cruciate retaining component. A posterior substitute component was implanted with the other cases.
Conclusions
In order to make adequate gaps, it is important to decide whether to preserve the PCL based on the intra-operative gap measurements made with the PCL intact.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:95–100.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.34.2000228
PMCID: PMC3985198  PMID: 24719296
Knee; Arthroplasty; Posterior cruciate ligament; Gap
3.  Bioinformatic Analysis, Molecular Modeling of Role of Lys65 Residue in Catalytic Triad of D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi  
Acta Naturae  2010;2(2):66-71.
A bioinformatic and phylogenetic study has been performed on a family of penicillin–binding proteins including D–aminopeptidases, D–amino acid amidases, DD–carboxypeptidases, and β –lactamases. Significant homology between D–aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi and other members of the family has been shown and a number of conserved residues identified as S62, K65, Y153, N155, H287, and G289. Three of those (Ser62, Lys65, and Tyr153) form a catalytic triangle – the proton relay system that activates the generalized nucleophile in the course of catalysis. Molecular modeling has indicated the conserved residue Lys65 to have an unusually low pKa value, which has been confirmed experimentally by a study of the pH–profile of D–aminopeptidase catalytic activity. The resulting data have been used to elucidate the role of Lys65 in the catalytic mechanism of D–aminopeptidase as a general base for proton transfer from catalytic Ser62 to Tyr153, and vice versa, during the formation and hydrolysis of the acyl – enzyme intermediate.
PMCID: PMC3347556  PMID: 22649642
D-aminopeptidase; penicillin-binding protein family; bioinformatic analysis; catalytic mechanism
4.  Periodic fluctuation of blood pressure and transient left ventricular apical ballooning in pheochromocytoma 
Heart  2006;92(12):1837.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.088385
PMCID: PMC1861269  PMID: 17105885
5.  Intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography predicts regional and global left ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction: comparison with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography 
Heart  2005;91(12):1578-1583.
Objective: To assess the role of intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in predicting functional recovery and regional or global left ventricular (LV) remodelling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDSE).
Methods: 21 patients with anterior AMI and successful primary angioplasty underwent MCE and LDSE during the subacute stage (2–4 weeks after AMI). Myocardial perfusion and contractile reserve were assessed in each segment (12 segment model) with MCE and LDSE. The 118 dyssynergic segments in the subacute stage were classified as recovered, unchanged, or remodelled according to wall motion at six months’ follow up. Percentage increase in LV end diastolic volume (%ΔEDV) was also calculated.
Results: The presence of perfusion was less accurate than the presence of contractile reserve in predicting regional recovery (55% v 81%, p < 0.0001). However, the absence of perfusion was more accurate than the absence of contractile reserve in predicting regional remodelling (83% v 48%, p < 0.0001). The number of segments without perfusion was an independent predictor of %ΔEDV, whereas the number of segments without contractile reserve was not. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the number of segments without perfusion predicted substantial LV dilatation (%ΔEDV > 20%) more accurately than did the number of segments without contractile reserve (0.88 v 0.72).
Conclusion: In successfully revascularised patients with AMI, myocardial perfusion assessed by MCE is predictive of regional and global LV remodelling rather than of functional recovery, whereas contractile reserve assessed by LDSE is predictive of functional recovery rather than of LV remodelling.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.057521
PMCID: PMC1769245  PMID: 15797931
contrast echocardiography; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial infarction; functional recovery; ventricular remodelling
6.  Relation between reduction in ischaemic mitral regurgitation and improvement in regional left ventricular contractility during low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography 
Heart  2005;91(8):1092-1093.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.042747
PMCID: PMC1769040  PMID: 16020608
coronary disease; mitral regurgitation; dobutamine; echocardiography
7.  Sinus venosus type of atrial septal defect with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return evaluated by multislice CT 
Heart  2004;90(8):901.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.031203
PMCID: PMC1768389  PMID: 15253963
Images in cardiology
8.  Reduction of bleomycin induced lung fibrosis by candesartan cilexetil, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist 
Thorax  2004;59(1):31-38.
Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 0.3 mg/kg BLM intratracheally. Two days earlier they had received 10 mg/kg/day of the AT1 antagonist candesartan cilexetil mixed in the drinking water. AT1 expression in the lungs was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot methods. The effect of the AT1 antagonist on pulmonary fibrosis was studied by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology, and hydroxyproline assay.
Results: Immunohistochemical studies showed overexpression of AT1 in inflammatory immune cells, alveolar type II cells, and fibroblasts. A quantitative assay for AT1 showed that AT1 expression was significantly upregulated in cells from BAL fluid after day 3 and in the lung homogenates after day 21. Candesartan cilexetil significantly inhibited the increase in total protein and albumin, as well as the increase in total cells and neutrophils in BAL fluid. On day 21 candesartan cilexetil also ameliorated morphological changes and an increased amount of hydroxyproline in lung homogenates. In addition, BLM increased the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 in BAL fluid on day 7; this increase was significantly reduced by candesartan cilexetil.
Conclusion: AT1 expression is upregulated in fibrotic lungs. Angiotensin II promotes lung fibrosis via AT1 and, presumably, in part via TGF-ß1.
doi:10.1136/thx.2003.000893
PMCID: PMC1758867  PMID: 14694243
9.  Fluorescence detection of specific sequence of nucleic acids by oxazole yellow-linked oligonucleotides. Homogeneous quantitative monitoring of in vitro transcription. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(24):4992-4997.
We have developed a fluorescent DNA probe, oxazole yellow (YO)-linked oligonucleotide complementary to a target DNA/RNA, which can enhance the fluorescence on hybridizing with a target nucleotide. We demonstrated the applicability of the YO-linked oligonucleotide probe to real-time monitoring of the in vitro transcription process of a plasmid DNA constructed containing the 5'-terminus non-coded region of hepatitis C virus RNA. In the process of in vitro transcription in the presence of YO-linked complementary oligonucleotide, the fluorescence of the reaction mixture showed a time-dependent linear increase corresponding to the generated target RNA product.
PMCID: PMC146341  PMID: 9016671
10.  Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-dopa uptake: difference in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism. 
Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-Dopa uptake were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) in eight non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and eight with atypical Parkinsonism. Patients with atypical Parkinsonism had no specific cause for the Parkinsonian symptoms and were clinically different from Parkinson's disease with lack of resting tremor and a poor response to dopaminergic drugs. Decreased 18F-Dopa uptake in the putamen was observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism compared with normal controls. 18F-Dopa uptake in the head of the caudate was also significantly reduced in both conditions but relatively less in Parkinson's disease. Decreased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the striatum associated with a global cerebral decrease were also observed in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with controls, while they were preserved in patients with Parkinson's disease, indicating affected neurons not only in the striatum but also in the cerebrum in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with patients with Parkinson's disease. The differences in the caudate 18F-Dopa uptake, and blood flow and glucose metabolism in the cerebrum including the striatum between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism assessed by PET may be due to the differences in the pathophysiological mechanism between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism.
Images
PMCID: PMC1014575  PMID: 1744644
12.  Novel DNA photocleaving agents with high DNA sequence specificity related to the antibiotic bleomycin A2. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1995;23(9):1524-1530.
We have designed and synthesized a series of novel DNA photocleaving agents which break DNA with high sequence specificity. These compounds contain the non-diffusible photoactive p-nitrobenzoyl group covalently linked via a dimethylene (or tetramethylene) spacer to thiazole analogues of the DNA binding portion of the antibiotic bleomycin A2. By using a variety of 5' or 3' 32P-end labeled restriction fragments from plasmid pBR322 as substrate, we have shown that photoactive bithiazole compounds bind DNA at the consensus sequence 5'-AAAT-3' and induce DNA cleavage 3' of the site. Analysis of cleavage sites on the complementary DNA strand and inhibition of DNA breakage by distamycin A indicates these bithiazole derivatives bind and attack the minor groove of DNA. A photoactive unithiazole compound was less specific inducing DNA breakage at the degenerate site 5'-(A/T)(AA/TT)TPu(A/T)-3'. DNA sequence recognition of these derivatives appears to be determined by the thiazole moiety rather than the p-nitrobenzoyl group: use of a tetramethylene group in place of a dimethylene spacer shifted the position of DNA breakage by one base pair. Moreover, much less specific DNA photocleavage was observed for a compound in which p-nitrobenzoyl was linked to the intercalator acridine via a sequence-neutral hexamethylene spacer. The 5'-AAAT-3' specificity of photoactive bithiazole derivatives contrasts with that of bleomycin A2 which cleaves DNA most frequently at 5'-GPy-3' sequences. These results suggest that the cleavage specificity exhibited by bleomycin is not simply determined by its bithiazole/sulphonium terminus, and the contributions from other features, e.g. its metal-chelating domain, must be considered. The novel thiazole-based DNA cleavage agents described here should prove useful as reagents for probing DNA structure and for elucidating the molecular basis of DNA recognition by bleomycin and other ligands.
Images
PMCID: PMC306892  PMID: 7540288

Results 1-12 (12)