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1.  Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry review 
AIM: To determine if there were any interactions between cardiac devices and small bowel capsules secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI) in patients who have undergone small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE).
METHODS: Authors conducted a chart review of 20 patients with a cardiac pacemaker (CP) or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) who underwent continuous electrocardiographic monitoring during their SBCE from 2003-2008. authors searched for unexplained electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, changes in CP and ICD set parameters, any abnormality in transmitted capsule data, and adverse clinical events.
RESULTS: There were no adverse events or hemodynamically significant arrhythmias reported. CP and ICD set parameters were preserved. The majority of ECG abnormalities were also found in pre- or post- SBCE ECG tracings and the CP behavior during arrhythmias appeared appropriate. Two patients seemed to have episodes of undersensing by the CP. However, similar findings were documented in ECGs taken outside the time frame of the SBCE. One patient was observed to have a low signal encountered from the capsule resulting in lack of localization, but no images were lost.
CONCLUSION: Capsule-induced EMI remains a possibility but is unlikely to be clinically important. CP-induced interference of SBCE is also possible, but is infrequent and does not result in loss of images transmitted by the capsule.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v4.i3.87
PMCID: PMC3309898  PMID: 22442746
Small bowel capsule endoscopy; Cardiac pacemakers; Implantable cardioverter defibrillators; Electromagnetic interference; Telemetry review
2.  The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients 
Aim
To study the effect of strict prolonged fasting on lipid profile, serum leptin, and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with different stable cardiac illnesses and look for associated new cardiac events and any correlation between entire variables.
Methods
A total of 56 patients of different stable cardiac illnesses were followed in our cardiology outpatient for 3 months. Data concerning their ability to fast were collected: New York Heart Association class of congestive cardiac failure, angina class, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, severity of valvular lesion, metallic prosthetic valve, and traditional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, insulin requirement, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit, and obesity). Detailed clinical examination and electrocardiography were performed in all patients in three consecutive visits before, during, and after Ramadan. Echocardiographic and angiographic findings and medication plans were collected from patient records. Lipid profile, serum leptin, and hs-CRP were assessed before, during, and after Ramadan.
Results
All patients fasted during Ramadan: 80.4% were male, 67.9% were aged >50 years, 71.4% had no change in their symptoms during fasting while 28.6% felt better. No patient has deteriorated. 91.1% of the patients were compliant with medicine during Ramadan, 73.2% after. 89.3% were compliant with diet during Ramadan with no significant change in body weight in the follow-up period. No cardiac or noncardiac morbidity or mortality was reported. High- density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly during compared to before fasting (P = 0.012). Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased during compared to before fasting (P = 0.022). No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum leptin, or hs-CRP. Significant correlation was observed between TC and hs-CRP during fasting (P = 0.036), but not with TG, LDL-C, or HDL-C (P > 0.05). Neither of these correlated with serum leptin (P > 0.05), but significant correlation was observed between hs-CRP and serum leptin (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Ramadan fasting in stable cardiac patients has no effect on their clinical status, serum leptin, or hs-CRP, but results in decrease in HDL-C, increase in LDL-C, with significant correlation between TC and hs-CRP during Ramadan, but not with TG, LDL-C, or HDL-C, and with significant correlation between hs-CRP and serum leptin before, during, and after fasting.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S22894
PMCID: PMC3262481  PMID: 22272070
serum leptin; hs-C-reactive protein; lipid profile; cardiac disease; Ramadan fasting
3.  Obesity modulate serum hepcidin and treatment outcome of iron deficiency anemia in children: A case control study 
Background
Recently, hepcidin expression in adipose tissue has been described and shown to be increased in patients with severe obesity. We tried to assess the effect of obesity on hepcidin serum levels and treatment outcome of iron deficiency anemia in children.
Methods
This was a case control study included 70 children with iron deficiency anemia "IDA" (35 obese and 35 non-obese) and 30 healthy non-obese children with comparable age and sex(control group). Parameters of iron status (Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation) and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and after 3 months of oral iron therapy for IDA.
Results
Compared to the control group, serum hepcidin was significantly lower in non-obese children with IDA(p < 0.01) and significantly higher in obese children with IDA (p < 0.01). Hepcidin increased significantly in non-obese children with IDA after 3 months of iron therapy (P < 0.01). On the other hand, obese children showed non-significant change in hepcidin level after iron therapy (p > 0.05). Although hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with Hb, serum iron and transferrin saturation in non-obese children with IDA, it showed significant negative correlations with Hb, serum iron and transferrin saturation in obese children with IDA (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Obesity increased hepcidin levels and was associated with diminished response to oral iron therapy in childhood iron deficiency anemia.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-37-34
PMCID: PMC3154149  PMID: 21771327
Obesity; Hepcidin; Iron deficiency; Children
4.  Use of antenatal care services in Kassala, eastern Sudan 
Background
Antenatal care is named as one of the four pillars initiatives of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. While many of routine antenatal care procedure have little effect on maternal mortality and morbidity, some of these have been ascertained as beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate coverage of antenatal care and identify factors associated with inadequacy of antenatal care in Kassala, eastern Sudan.
Methods
A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out in Kassala, eastern Sudan during September-October 2009. Household surveys were conducted. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from women who had been pregnant within the last year, or pregnant more than 14 weeks.
Results
Out of 900 women investigated for antenatal care coverage, 811(90%) women had at least one visit. Only 11% of the investigated women had ≥ four antenatal visits, while 10.0% had not attended at all. Out of 811 women who attended at least one visit, 483 (59.6%), 303 (37.4%) and 25 (3.1%) women attended antenatal care in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, while maternal age and residence were not associated with inadequacy of antenatal care (<2 visits), high parity (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.5; P = 0.01) and husband education ≤ secondary level (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.3-4.2; P = 0.002) were associated with inadequacy of antenatal care.
Conclusions
Antenatal care showed a low coverage in Kassala, eastern Sudan. This low coverage was associated with high parity and low husband education.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-67
PMCID: PMC2987884  PMID: 20973972

Results 1-4 (4)