Genetic manipulations with mammalian cells often require introduction of two or more genes that have to be in trans-configuration. However, conventional gene delivery vectors have several limitations, including a limited cloning capacity and a risk of insertional mutagenesis. In this paper, we describe a novel gene expression system that consists of two differently marked HAC vectors containing unique gene loading sites. One HAC, 21HAC, is stably propagated during cell divisions, therefore, it is suitable for complementation of a gene deficiency. The other HAC, tet-O HAC, can be eliminated, providing a unique opportunity for transient gene expression, e.g. for cell reprogramming. Efficiency and accuracy of a novel bi-HAC vector system have been evaluated after loading of two different transgenes into these HACs. Based on analysis of transgenes expression and HACs stability in the proof of principle experiments, the combination of two HAC vectors may provide a powerful tool towards gene and cell therapy.
human artificial chromosome vector; gene expression; gene and cell therapy
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a crucial role in cancer development. We previously identified paired-like homeodomain1 (PITX1) as an hTERT suppressor gene. However, the underlying mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of PITX1 remain unknown. Here, we report that the microRNA-19b (miR-19b) regulates hTERT expression and cell proliferation through inhibition of PITX1. Compared with normal melanocyte cells, miR-19b expression was higher in most melanoma cells and was accompanied by downregulation of PITX1. Moreover, overexpression of miR-19b inhibited PITX1 mRNA translation through a miR-19b binding site within the 3′UTR of the PITX1 mRNA. Our combined findings indicate the participation of miR-19b as a novel upstream effector of hTERT transcription via direct targeting of PITX1.
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and cancer predisposition. Mutations in WRN are responsible for the disease and cause telomere dysfunction, resulting in accelerated aging. Recent studies have revealed that cells from WS patients can be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In the present study, we describe the effects of long-term culture on WS iPSCs, which acquired and maintained infinite proliferative potential for self-renewal over 2 years. After long-term cultures, WS iPSCs exhibited stable undifferentiated states and differentiation capacity, and premature upregulation of senescence-associated genes in WS cells was completely suppressed in WS iPSCs despite WRN deficiency. WS iPSCs also showed recapitulation of the phenotypes during differentiation. Furthermore, karyotype analysis indicated that WS iPSCs were stable, and half of the descendant clones had chromosomal profiles that were similar to those of parental cells. These unexpected properties might be achieved by induced expression of endogenous telomerase gene during reprogramming, which trigger telomerase reactivation leading to suppression of both replicative senescence and telomere dysfunction in WS cells. These findings demonstrated that reprogramming suppressed premature senescence phenotypes in WS cells and WS iPSCs could lead to chromosomal stability over the long term. WS iPSCs will provide opportunities to identify affected lineages in WS and to develop a new strategy for the treatment of WS.
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV) into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system) via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.
Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) technology enables a single and intact mammalian chromosome or megabase-sized chromosome fragments to be transferred from donor to recipient cells. The conventional MMCT method is performed immediately after the purification of microcells. The timing of the isolation of microcells and the preparation of recipient cells is very important. Thus, ready-made microcells can improve and simplify the process of MMCT. Here, we established a cryopreservation method to store microcells at −80 °C, and compared these cells with conventionally- (immediately-) prepared cells with respect to the efficiency of MMCT and the stability of a human artificial chromosome (HAC) transferred to human HT1080 cells. The HAC transfer in microcell hybrids was confirmed by FISH analysis. There was no significant difference between the two methods regarding chromosome transfer efficiency and the retention rate of HAC. Thus, cryopreservation of ready-to-use microcells provides an improved and simplified protocol for MMCT.
Chromosome; Human artificial chromosome; Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer; HAC; Cancer; Synthetic biology; Gene delivery
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at a high risk of developing transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). A GATA1 mutation leading to the production of N-terminally truncated GATA1 (GATA1s) in early megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors is linked to the onset of TAM and cooperated with the effect of trisomy 21 (Ts21). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the progression to TAM in DS patients, we generated human pluripotent stem cells harbouring Ts21 and/or GATA1s by combining microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies. In vitro haematopoietic differentiation assays showed that the GATA1s mutation blocked erythropoiesis irrespective of an extra chromosome 21, while Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation independently perturbed megakaryopoiesis and the combination of Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation synergistically contributed to an aberrant accumulation of skewed megakaryocytes. Thus, the DS model cells generated by these two technologies are useful in assessing how GATA1s mutation is involved in the onset of TAM in patients with DS.
Human adult hepatocytes expressing CYP3A4, a major cytochrome P450 enzyme, are required for cell-based assays to evaluate the potential risk of drug-drug interactions caused by transcriptional induction of P450 enzymes in early-phase drug discovery and development. However, CYP3A7 is preferentially expressed in premature hepatoblasts and major hepatic carcinoma cell lines. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepaRG possesses a high self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into hepatic cells similar to human adult hepatocytes in vitro. Transgenic HepaRG cells, in which the expression of fluorescent reporters is regulated by 35 kb regulatory elements of CYP3A4, have a distinct advantage over human hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion, which are unstable in culture. Thus, we created transgenic HepaRG and HepG2 cells by replacing the protein-coding regions of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed reporters, respectively, in a bacterial artificial chromosome vector that included whole regulatory elements. The intensity of DsRed fluorescence was initially high during the proliferation of transgenic HepaRG cells. However, most EGFP-positive cells were derived from those in which DsRed fluorescence was extinguished. Comparative analyses in these transgenic clones showed that changes in the total fluorescence intensity of EGFP reflected fold changes in the mRNA level of endogenous CYP3A4. Moreover, CYP3A4 induction was monitored by the increase in EGFP fluorescence. Thus, this assay provides a real-time evaluation system for quality assurance of hepatic differentiation into CYP3A4-expressing cells, unfavourable CYP3A4 induction, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-mediated enrichment of CYP3A4-expressing hepatocytes based on the total fluorescence intensities of fluorescent reporters, without the need for many time-consuming steps.
Telomeric and subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes largely consist of highly repetitive and redundant DNA sequences, resulting in a paucity of unique DNA sequences specific to individual telomeres. Accordingly, it is difficult to analyze telomere metabolism on a single-telomere basis. To circumvent this problem, we have exploited a human artificial chromosome (HAC#21) derived from human chromosome 21 (hChr21). HAC#21 was generated through truncation of the long arm of native hChr21 by the targeted telomere seeding technique. The newly established telomere of HAC#21 lacks canonical subtelomere structures but possesses unique sequences derived from the target vector backbone and the internal region of hChr21 used for telomere targeting, which enabled us to molecularly characterize the single HAC telomere. We established HeLa and NIH-3T3 sub-lines containing a single copy of HAC#21, where it was robustly maintained. The seeded telomere is associated with telomeric proteins over a length similar to that reported in native telomeres, and is faithfully replicated in mid-S phase in HeLa cells. We found that the seeded telomere on HAC#21 is transcribed from the newly juxtaposed site. The transcript, HAC-telRNA, shares several features with TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA): it is a short-lived RNA polymerase II transcript, rarely contains a poly(A) tail, and associates with chromatin. Interestingly, HAC-telRNA undergoes splicing. These results suggest that transcription into TERRA is locally influenced by the subtelomeric context. Taken together, we have established human and mouse cell lines that will be useful for analyzing the behavior of a uniquely identifiable, functional telomere.
Paired-like homeodomain 1 (PITX1) genes are essential in human development. In the present study, PITX1 protein expression was evaluated in human normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with the aim of examining the expression patterns of these critical genes during the multi-stage transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia to OSCC. PITX1 and Ki-67 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 26 individuals with normal oral mucosa, 106 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia and 97 OSCC patients. The labeling indices (LIs) of PITX1 and Ki-67 were calculated and their correlation with the incidence of malignancy was evaluated. The PITX1 LI of the dysplasia specimens was significantly lower than that of the normal oral mucosa samples, but significantly higher than that of the OSCC samples. The oral epithelial dysplasia patients that exhibited low PITX1 expression showed a significantly higher incidence of malignant transformation than those exhibiting high PITX1 expression, regardless of the histological grades of their oral epithelial dysplasias. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the Ki-67 LI and the incidence of malignancy. These results suggested that PITX1 suppression is associated with malignant transformation in the oral epithelium and that PITX1 expression may serve as a novel biomarker for predicting prognosis in oral epithelial dysplasia.
PITX1; oral epithelial dysplasia; immunohistochemistry; biomarker
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) represent a novel promising episomal system for functional genomics, gene therapy and synthetic biology. HACs are engineered from natural and synthetic alphoid DNA arrays upon transfection into human cells. The use of HACs for gene expression studies requires the knowledge of their structural organization. However, none of de novo HACs constructed so far has been physically mapped in detail. Recently we constructed a synthetic alphoidtetO-HAC that was successfully used for expression of full-length genes to correct genetic deficiencies in human cells. The HAC can be easily eliminated from cell populations by inactivation of its conditional kinetochore. This unique feature provides a control for phenotypic changes attributed to expression of HAC-encoded genes. This work describes organization of a megabase-size synthetic alphoid DNA array in the alphoidtetO-HAC that has been formed from a ~50 kb synthetic alphoidtetO-construct. Our analysis showed that this array represents a 1.1 Mb continuous sequence assembled from multiple copies of input DNA, a significant part of which was rearranged before assembling. The tandem and inverted alphoid DNA repeats in the HAC range in size from 25 to 150 kb. In addition, we demonstrated that the structure and functional domains of the HAC remains unchanged after several rounds of its transfer into different host cells. The knowledge of the alphoidtetO-HAC structure provides a tool to control HAC integrity during different manipulations. Our results also shed light on a mechanism for de novo HAC formation in human cells.
human artificial chromosome; HAC; gene delivery; TAR cloning
Monozygotic (identical) twins have been widely used in genetic studies to determine the relative contributions of heredity and the environment in human diseases. Discordance in disease manifestation between affected monozygotic twins has been attributed to either environmental factors or different patterns of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). However, recent studies have identified genetic and epigenetic differences between monozygotic twins, thereby challenging the accepted experimental model for distinguishing the effects of nature and nurture. Here, we report the genomic and epigenomic sequences in skin fibroblasts of a discordant monozygotic twin pair with Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autistic features, epileptic seizures, gait ataxia and stereotypical hand movements. The twins shared the same de novo mutation in exon 4 of the MECP2 gene (G269AfsX288), which was paternal in origin and occurred during spermatogenesis. The XCI patterns in the twins did not differ in lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and hair cells (which originate from ectoderm as does neuronal tissue). No reproducible differences were detected between the twins in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels), or copy number variations. Differences in DNA methylation between the twins were detected in fibroblasts in the upstream regions of genes involved in brain function and skeletal tissues such as Mohawk Homeobox (MKX), Brain-type Creatine Kinase (CKB), and FYN Tyrosine Kinase Protooncogene (FYN). The level of methylation in these upstream regions was inversely correlated with the level of gene expression. Thus, differences in DNA methylation patterns likely underlie the discordance in Rett phenotypes between the twins.
Although the etiology of autism remains largely unknown, cytogenetic and genetic studies have implicated maternal copy number gains of 15q11–q13 in 1–3% of autism cases. In order to understand how maternal 15q duplication leads to dysregulation of gene expression and altered chromatin interactions, we used microcell-mediated chromosome transfer to generate a novel maternal 15q duplication model in a human neuronal cell line. Our 15q duplication neuronal model revealed that by quantitative RT–PCR, transcript levels of NDN, SNRPN, GABRB3 and CHRNA7 were reduced compared with expected levels despite having no detectable alteration in promoter DNA methylation. Since 15q11–q13 alleles have been previously shown to exhibit homologous pairing in mature human neurons, we assessed homologous pairing of 15q11–q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Homologous pairing of 15q11–q13 was significantly disrupted by 15q duplication. To further understand the extent and mechanism of 15q11–q13 homologous pairing, we mapped the minimal region of homologous pairing to a ∼500 kb region at the 3′ end of GABRB3 which contains multiple binding sites for chromatin regulators MeCP2 and CTCF. Both active transcription and the chromatin factors MeCP2 and CTCF are required for the homologous pairing of 15q11–q13 during neuronal maturational differentiation. These data support a model where 15q11–q13 genes are regulated epigenetically at the level of both inter- and intra-chromosomal associations and that chromosome imbalance disrupts the epigenetic regulation of genes in 15q11–q13.
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including episomal transmission and transfer of multiple, large transgenes. Here, we demonstrate the advantages of HAC vectors for reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Two HAC vectors (iHAC1 and iHAC2) were constructed. Both carried four reprogramming factors, and iHAC2 also encoded a p53-knockdown cassette. iHAC1 partially reprogrammed MEFs, and iHAC2 efficiently reprogrammed MEFs. Global gene expression patterns showed that the iHACs, unlike other vectors, generated relatively uniform iPS cells. Under non-selecting conditions, we established iHAC-free iPS cells by isolating cells that spontaneously lost iHAC2. Analyses of pluripotent markers, teratomas and chimeras confirmed that these iHAC-free iPS cells were pluripotent. Moreover, iHAC-free iPS cells with a re-introduced HAC encoding Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase were eliminated by ganciclovir treatment, indicating that the HAC safeguard system functioned in iPS cells. Thus, the HAC vector could generate uniform, integration-free iPS cells with a built-in safeguard system.
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that maintains telomere length, is crucial for cellular immortalization and cancer progression. Telomerase activity is attributed primarily to the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) into the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10, we previously found that human chromosome 5 carries a gene, or genes, that can negatively regulate TERT expression (H. Kugoh, K. Shigenami, K. Funaki, J. Barrett, and M. Oshimura, Genes Chromosome Cancer 36:37–47, 2003). To identify the gene responsible for the regulation of TERT transcription, we performed cDNA microarray analysis using parental B16F10 cells, telomerase-negative B16F10 microcell hybrids with a human chromosome 5 (B16F10MH5), and its revertant clones (MH5R) with reactivated telomerase. Here, we report the identification of PITX1, whose expression leads to the downregulation of mouse tert (mtert) transcription, as a TERT suppressor gene. Additionally, both human TERT (hTERT) and mouse TERT (mtert) promoter activity can be suppressed by PITX1. We show that three and one binding site within the hTERT and mtert promoters, respectively, that express a unique conserved region are responsible for the transcriptional activation of TERT. Furthermore, we showed that PITX1 binds to the TERT promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, PITX1 suppresses TERT transcription through direct binding to the TERT promoter, which ultimately regulates telomerase activity.
A change in chromosome number, known as aneuploidy, is a common characteristic of cancer. Aneuploidy disrupts gene expression in human cancer cells and immortalized human epithelial cells, but not in normal human cells. However, the relationship between aneuploidy and cancer remains unclear. To study the effects of aneuploidy in normal human cells, we generated artificial cells of human primary fibroblast having three chromosome 8 (trisomy 8 cells) by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. In addition to decreased proliferation, the trisomy 8 cells lost contact inhibition and reproliferated after exhibiting senescence-like characteristics that are typical of transformed cells. Furthermore, the trisomy 8 cells exhibited chromosome instability, and the overall gene expression profile based on microarray analyses was significantly different from that of diploid human primary fibroblasts. Our data suggest that aneuploidy, even a single chromosome gain, can be introduced into normal human cells and causes, in some cases, a partial cancer phenotype due to a disruption in overall gene expression.
Type-2 diabetes results from the development of insulin resistance and a concomitant impairment of insulin secretion. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4)-Bmp receptor 1A signaling in β cells has recently been reported to be required for insulin production and secretion. In addition, Bmp4 blocks the differentiation and promotes the expansion of endocrine progenitor cells. Bmp4 therefore regulates the maintenance of homeostasis in the pancreas. In this study, we constructed a reporter plasmid carrying 7-kb enhancer and promoter region of the Bmp4 gene upstream of the firefly luciferase gene. We used this construct to produce transgenic mice by pro-nuclear microinjection, for subsequent in vivo monitoring of Bmp4 expression. The bioluminescent signal was detected mainly in the pancreas in three independent lines of transgenic mice. Furthermore, the bioluminescent signal was enhanced in association with the autophagy response to 24-h fasting. These results suggest that pancreatic expression of Bmp4 is involved in responding to the physiological environment, including through autophagy. These mouse models represent useful tools for toxicological screening, and for investigating the mechanisms responsible for pancreatic Bmp4 functions in vivo, with relevance to improving our understanding of pancreatic diseases.
The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s) of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector) and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3–96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3–87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs), which carry a fully functional centromere and are maintained as a single-copy episome, are not associated with random mutagenesis and offer greater control over expression of ectopic genes on the HAC. Recently, we generated a HAC with a conditional centromere, which includes the tetracycline operator (tet-O) sequence embedded in the alphoid DNA array. This conditional centromere can be inactivated, loss of the alphoidtet-O (tet-O HAC) by expression of tet-repressor fusion proteins. In this report, we describe adaptation of the tet-O HAC vector for gene delivery and gene expression in human cells. A loxP cassette was inserted into the tet-O HAC by homologous recombination in chicken DT40 cells following a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). The tet-O HAC with the loxP cassette was then transferred into Chinese hamster ovary cells, and EGFP transgene was efficiently and accurately incorporated into the tet-O HAC vector. The EGFP transgene was stably expressed in human cells after transfer via MMCT. Because the transgenes inserted on the tet-O HAC can be eliminated from cells by HAC loss due to centromere inactivation, this HAC vector system provides important novel features and has potential applications for gene expression studies and gene therapy.
human artificial chromosome; conditional centromere; gene delivery
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA. The reactivation of telomerase activity by aberrant upregulation/expression of its catalytic subunit hTERT is a major pathway in human tumorigenesis. However, regulatory mechanisms that control hTERT expression are largely unknown. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that the introduction of human chromosome 3, via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), repressed transcription of the hTERT gene. These results suggested that human chromosome 3 contains a regulatory factor(s) involved in the repression of hTERT. To further localize this putative hTERT repressor(s), we have developed a unique experimental approach by introducing various truncated chromosome 3 regions produced by a novel chromosomal engineering technology into the renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC23 cells). These cells autonomously express ectopic hTERT (exohTERT) promoted by a retroviral LTR promoter in order to permit cellular division after repression of endogenous hTERT. We found a telomerase repressor region located within a 7-Mb interval on chromosome 3p21.3. These results provide important information regarding hTERT regulation and a unique method to identify hTERT repressor elements.
Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is a technique by which a chromosome(s) is moved from donor to recipient cells by microcell fusion. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has conventionally been used as a fusogen, and has been very successful in various genetic studies. However, PEG is not applicable for all types of recipient cells, because of its cell type-dependent toxicity. The cytotoxicity of PEG limits the yield of microcell hybrids to low level (10-6 to 10-5 per recipient cells). To harness the full potential of MMCT, a less toxic and more efficient fusion protocol that can be easily manipulated needs to be developed.
Microcell donor CHO cells carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) were transfected with genes encoding hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of an attenuated Measles Virus (MV) Edmonston strain. Mixed culture of the CHO transfectants and MV infection-competent human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) formed multinucleated syncytia, suggesting the functional expression of the MV-H/F in the CHO cells. Microcells were prepared and applied to HT1080 cells, human immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hiMSC), and primary fibroblasts. Drug-resistant cells appeared after selection in culture with Blasticidin targeted against the tagged selection marker gene on the HAC. The fusion efficiency was determined by counting the total number of stable clones obtained in each experiment. Retention of the HAC in the microcell hybrids was confirmed by FISH analyses. The three recipient cell lines displayed distinct fusion efficiencies that depended on the cell-surface expression level of CD46, which acts as a receptor for MV. In HT1080 and hiMSC, the maximum efficiency observed was 50 and 100 times greater than that using conventional PEG fusion, respectively. However, the low efficiency of PEG-induced fusion with HFL1 was not improved by the MV fusogen.
Ectopic expression of MV envelope proteins provides an efficient recipient cell-oriented MMCT protocol, facilitating extensive applications for studies of gene function and genetic corrections.
Genomic imprinting is widely conserved amongst placental mammals. Imprinted expression of IGF2R, however, differs between mice and humans. In mice, Igf2r imprinted expression is seen in all fetal and adult tissues. In humans, adult tissues lack IGF2R imprinted expression, but it is found in fetal tissues and Wilms' tumors where it is polymorphic and only seen in a small proportion of tested samples. Mouse Igf2r imprinted expression is controlled by the Air (Airn) ncRNA whose promoter lies in an intronic maternally-methylated CpG island. The human IGF2R gene carries a homologous intronic maternally-methylated CpG island of unknown function. Here, we use transfection and transgenic studies to show that the human IGF2R intronic CpG island is a ncRNA promoter. We also identify the same ncRNA at the endogenous human locus in 16–40% of Wilms' tumors. Thus, the human IGF2R gene shows evolutionary conservation of key features that control imprinted expression in the mouse.
Genomic imprinting; IGF2R; AIR (AIRN) ncRNA; Wilms' tumor
Human artificial chromosome (HAC) has several advantages as a gene therapy vector, including stable episomal maintenance that avoids insertional mutations and the ability to carry large gene inserts including the regulatory elements. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential for gene therapy, as such cells can be generated from the individual's own tissues, and when reintroduced can contribute to the specialized function of any tissue. As a proof of concept, we show herein the complete correction of a genetic deficiency in iPS cells derived from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) model (mdx) mice and a human DMD patient using a HAC with a complete genomic dystrophin sequence (DYS-HAC). Deletion or mutation of dystrophin in iPS cells was corrected by transferring the DYS-HAC via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). DMD patient- and mdx-specific iPS cells with the DYS-HAC gave rise to differentiation of three germ layers in the teratoma, and human dystrophin expression was detected in muscle-like tissues. Furthermore, chimeric mice from mdx-iPS (DYS-HAC) cells were produced and DYS-HAC was detected in all tissues examined, with tissue-specific expression of dystrophin. Therefore, the combination of patient-specific iPS cells and HAC-containing defective genes represents a powerful tool for gene and cell therapies.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark of mismatch repair deficiency. High levels of MSI at mono- and dinucleotide repeats in colorectal cancer (CRC) are attributed to inactivation of the mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2. CRC with low levels of MSI (MSI-L) exists; however its molecular basis is unclear. There is another type of MSI - “elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats” - (EMAST) where loci containing [AAAG]n or [ATAG]n repeats are unstable. EMAST is frequent in non-colorectal cancers; however the incidence of EMAST and its cause in CRC is not known. Here, we report that MSH3-knock-down or MSH3-deficient cells exhibit the EMAST phenotype and low levels of mutations at dinucleotide repeats. About 60% of 117 sporadic CRC cases exhibit EMAST. All of the cases defined as MSI-H (16 cases) exhibited high levels of EMAST. Among 101 non-MSI-H cases, all 19 cases of MSI-L and 35 of 82 cases of MSS exhibited EMAST. Although non-MSI-H CRC tissues contained MSH3-negative tumor cells ranging from 2-50% of the total tumor cell population, the tissues exhibiting EMAST contained more MSH3-negative cells (average 31.5%) than did the tissues not exhibiting EMAST (8.4%). Taken together, our results support the idea that MSH3-deficiency causes EMAST or EMAST with low levels of MSI at the loci with dinucleotide repeats in CRC.
Microsatellite Instability; MSH3; Colorectal Cancer; DNA Mismatch Repair; Elevated Microsatellite Alterations at Selected Tetranucleotide Repeats (EMAST)
The CTCF paralog BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) is an insulator DNA-binding protein thought to play a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. Under normal physiologic conditions, BORIS is predominantly expressed during embryonic male germ cell development; however, it is also expressed in tumors and tumor cell lines and, as such, has been classified as a cancer-germline or cancer-testis gene. It has been suggested that BORIS may be a pro-proliferative factor, whereas CTCF favors antiproliferation. BORIS and CTCF share similar zinc finger DNA-binding domains and seem to bind to identical target sequences. Thus, one critical question is the mechanism governing the DNA-binding specificity of these two proteins when both are present in tumor cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in HCT116 cells and their hypermethylated variant showed that BORIS binds to methylated DNA sequences, whereas CTCF binds to unmethylated DNA. Electromobility shift assays, using both whole-cell extracts and in vitro translated CTCF and BORIS protein, and methylation-specific ChIP PCR showed that BORIS is a methylation-independent DNA-binding protein. Finally, experiments in murine hybrid cells containing either the maternal or paternal human chromosome 11 showed that BORIS preferentially binds to the methylated paternal H19 differentially methylated region, suggesting a mechanism in which the affinity of CTCF for the unmethylated maternal allele directs the DNA binding of BORIS toward the paternal allele.