Kidney disease is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even in the era of antiretroviral therapy, with kidney function being abnormal in up to 30% of HIV-infected patients. We determined the predictors of impaired renal function in HIV-infected adults initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
This was a retrospective study among HIV-1 infected patients attending the antiretroviral clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), between November 2005 and November 2007. Data were analysed for age, gender, weight, WHO clinical stage, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody status. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info 3.5.1.
Data for 491 (294 females and 197 males) eligible patients were abstracted. The mean age of this population was 38.8±8.87 years. One hundred and seventeen patients (23.8%; 95% CI, 20.2-27.9%) had a reduced eGFR (defined as <60 mL/min), with more females than males (28.6% vs. 16.8%; P=0.02) having reduced eGFR. Age and female sex were found to have significant associations with reduced eGFR. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04, 1.10) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.23, 3.12) for age and female sex, respectively.
Older age and female sex are independently associated with a higher likelihood of having lower eGFRs at initiation of HAART among our study population. We recommend assessment of renal function of HIV-infected patients prior to initiation of HAART to guide the choice and dosing of antiretroviral drugs.